Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2148

Search results for: line contingency

2148 Contingency Screening Using Risk Factor Considering Transmission Line Outage

Authors: M. Marsadek, A. Mohamed


Power system security analysis is the most time demanding process due to large number of possible contingencies that need to be analyzed.  In a power system, any contingency resulting in security violation such as line overload or low voltage may occur for a number of reasons at any time.  To efficiently rank a contingency, both probability and the extent of security violation must be considered so as not to underestimate the risk associated with the contingency. This paper proposed a contingency ranking method that take into account the probabilistic nature of power system and the severity of contingency by using a newly developed method based on risk factor.  The proposed technique is implemented on IEEE 24-bus system.

Keywords: line overload, low voltage, probability, risk factor, severity

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2147 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar


In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.

Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model

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2146 Contingent Presences in Architecture: Vitruvian Theory as a Beginning

Authors: Zelal Çınar


This paper claims that architecture is a contingent discipline, despite the fact that its contingency has long been denied through a retreat to Vitruvian writing. It is evident that contingency is rejected not only by architecture but also by modernity as a whole. Vitruvius attempted to cover the entire field of architecture in a systematic form in order to bring the whole body of this great discipline to a complete order. The legacy of his theory hitherto lasted not only that it is the only major work on the architecture of Classical Antiquity to have survived, but also that its conformity with the project of modernity. In the scope of the paper, it will be argued that contingency should be taken into account rather than avoided as a potential threat.

Keywords: architecture, contingency, modernity, Vitruvius

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2145 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir


Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

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2144 Working Capital Management and Profitability of Uk Firms: A Contingency Theory Approach

Authors: Ishmael Tingbani


This paper adopts a contingency theory approach to investigate the relationship between working capital management and profitability using data of 225 listed British firms on the London Stock Exchange for the period 2001-2011. The paper employs a panel data analysis on a series of interactive models to estimate this relationship. The findings of the study confirm the relevance of the contingency theory. Evidence from the study suggests that the impact of working capital management on profitability varies and is constrained by organizational contingencies (environment, resources, and management factors) of the firm. These findings have implications for a more balanced and nuanced view of working capital management policy for policy-makers.

Keywords: working capital management, profitability, contingency theory approach, interactive models

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2143 Wavelets Contribution on Textual Data Analysis

Authors: Habiba Ben Abdessalem


The emergence of giant set of textual data was the push that has encouraged researchers to invest in this field. The purpose of textual data analysis methods is to facilitate access to such type of data by providing various graphic visualizations. Applying these methods requires a corpus pretreatment step, whose standards are set according to the objective of the problem studied. This step determines the forms list contained in contingency table by keeping only those information carriers. This step may, however, lead to noisy contingency tables, so the use of wavelet denoising function. The validity of the proposed approach is tested on a text database that offers economic and political events in Tunisia for a well definite period.

Keywords: textual data, wavelet, denoising, contingency table

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2142 Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location

Authors: Marian Dragomir, Alin Dragomir


In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.

Keywords: estimation algorithms, fault location, line parameters, simulation tool

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2141 Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch under Various Contingency Conditions Using Whale Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Khaled Ben Oualid Medani, Samir Sayah


The Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch (ORPD) problem has been solved and analysed usually in the normal conditions. However, network collapses appear in contingency conditions. In this paper, ORPD under several contingencies is presented using the proposed method WOA. To ensure viability of the power system in contingency conditions, several critical cases are simulated in order to prevent and prepare the power system to face such situations. The results obtained are carried out in IEEE 30 bus test system for the solution of ORPD problem in which control of bus voltages, tap position of transformers and reactive power sources are involved. Moreover, another method, namely, Particle Swarm Optimization with Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (PSO-TVAC) has been compared with the proposed technique. Simulation results indicate that the proposed WOA gives remarkable solution in terms of effectiveness in case of outages.

Keywords: optimal reactive power dispatch, power system analysis, real power loss minimization, contingency condition, metaheuristic technique, whale optimization algorithm

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2140 Governance Models of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Zoran Barac, Maja Martinovic


Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are a special kind of organization, with its unique purpose and combination of actors. From the societal point of view, they are central institutions in the society that are involved in the activities of education, research, and innovation. At the same time, their societal function derives complex relationships between involved actors, ranging from students, faculty and administration, business community and corporate partners, government agencies, to the general public. HEIs are also particularly interesting as objects of governance research because of their unique public purpose and combination of stakeholders. Furthermore, they are the special type of institutions from an organizational viewpoint. HEIs are often described as “loosely coupled systems” or “organized anarchies“ that implies the challenging nature of their governance models. Governance models of HEIs describe roles, constellations, and modes of interaction of the involved actors in the process of strategic direction and holistic control of institutions, taking into account each particular context. Many governance models of the HEIs are primarily based on the balance of power among the involved actors. Besides the actors’ power and influence, leadership style and environmental contingency could impact the governance model of an HEI. Analyzing them through the frameworks of institutional and contingency theories, HEI governance models originate as outcomes of their institutional and contingency adaptation. HEIs tend to fit to institutional context comprised of formal and informal institutional rules. By fitting to institutional context, HEIs are converging to each other in terms of their structures, policies, and practices. On the other hand, contingency framework implies that there is no governance model that is suitable for all situations. Consequently, the contingency approach begins with identifying contingency variables that might impact a particular governance model. In order to be effective, the governance model should fit to contingency variables. While the institutional context creates converging forces on HEI governance actors and approaches, contingency variables are the causes of divergence of actors’ behavior and governance models. Finally, an HEI governance model is a balanced adaptation of the HEIs to the institutional context and contingency variables. It also encompasses roles, constellations, and modes of interaction of involved actors influenced by institutional and contingency pressures. Actors’ adaptation to the institutional context brings benefits of legitimacy and resources. On the other hand, the adaptation of the actors’ to the contingency variables brings high performance and effectiveness. HEI governance models outlined and analyzed in this paper are collegial, bureaucratic, entrepreneurial, network, professional, political, anarchical, cybernetic, trustee, stakeholder, and amalgam models.

Keywords: governance, governance models, higher education institutions, institutional context, situational context

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2139 Analysis and Improvement of Efficiency for Food Processing Assembly Lines

Authors: Mehmet Savsar


Several factors affect productivity of Food Processing Assembly Lines (FPAL). Engineers and line managers usually do not recognize some of these factors and underutilize their production/assembly lines. In this paper, a special food processing assembly line is studied in detail, and procedures are presented to illustrate how productivity and efficiency of such lines can be increased. The assembly line considered produces ten different types of freshly prepared salads on the same line, which is called mixed model assembly line. Problems causing delays and inefficiencies on the line are identified. Line balancing and related tools are used to increase line efficiency and minimize balance delays. The procedure and the approach utilized in this paper can be useful for the operation managers and industrial engineers dealing with similar assembly lines in food processing industry.

Keywords: assembly lines, line balancing, production efficiency, bottleneck

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2138 The Change in Management Accounting from an Institutional and Contingency Perspective. A Case Study for a Romanian Company

Authors: Gabriel Jinga, Madalina Dumitru


The objective of this paper is to present the process of change in management accounting in Romania, a former communist country from Eastern Europe. In order to explain this process, we used the contingency and institutional theories. We focused on the following directions: the presentation of the scientific context and motivation of this research and the case study. We presented the state of the art in the process of change in the management accounting from the international and national perspective. We also described the evolution of management accounting in Romania in the context of economic and political changes. An important moment was the fall of communism in 1989. This represents a starting point for a new economic environment and for new management accounting. Accordingly, we developed a case study which presented this evolution. The conclusion of our research was that the changes in the management accounting system of the company analysed occurred in the same time with the institutionalisation of some elements (e.g. degree of competition, training and competencies in management accounting). The management accounting system was modelled by the contingencies specific to this company (e.g. environment, industry, strategy).

Keywords: management accounting, change, Romania, contingency and institutional theory

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2137 An Assembly Line Designing Study for a Refrigeration Industry

Authors: Emin Gundogar, Burak Erkayman, Aysegul Yilmaz, Nusret Sazak


When considering current competition conditions on the world, satisfying customer demands on time has become an important factor that enables the firms take a step further. Therefore, production process must be completed faster to take the competitive advantage. A balanced assembly line is the one of most important factors affecting the speed of production lines. The aim of this study is to build an assembly line to balance the assembly line and to simulate it for different scenarios through a refrigerator factory. The times of the operations is analyzed and grouped by the priorities. First, a Kilbridge & Wester heuristics is put to the model then a simulation approach is implemented to the model and the differences are observed.

Keywords: assembly line design, assembly line balancing, simulation modelling, refrigeration industry

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2136 Framework Study on Single Assembly Line to Improve Productivity with Six Sigma and Line Balancing Approach

Authors: Inaki Maulida Hakim, T. Yuri M. Zagloel, Astari Wulandari


Six sigma is a framework that is used to identify inefficiency so that the cause of inefficiency will be known and right improvement to overcome cause of inefficiency can be conducted. This paper presents result of implementing six sigma to improve piston assembly line in Manufacturing Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia. Six sigma framework will be used to analyze the significant factor of inefficiency that needs to be improved which causes bottleneck in assembly line. After analysis based on six sigma framework conducted, line balancing method was chosen for improvement to overcome causative factor of inefficiency which is differences time between workstation that causes bottleneck in assembly line. Then after line balancing conducted in piston assembly line, the result is increase in efficiency. Efficiency is shown in the decreasing of Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO) from 900,000 to 700,000, the increasing of level of labor productivity from 0.0041 to 0.00742, the decreasing of idle time from 121.3 seconds to 12.1 seconds, and the increasing of output, which is from 1 piston in 5 minutes become 3 pistons in 5 minutes.

Keywords: assembly line, line balancing, productivity, six sigma

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2135 Analysis of Exponential Nonuniform Transmission Line Parameters

Authors: Mounir Belattar


In this paper the Analysis of voltage waves that propagate along a lossless exponential nonuniform line is presented. For this analysis the parameters of this line are assumed to be varying function of the distance x along the line from the source end. The approach is based on the tow-port networks cascading presentation to derive the ABDC parameters of transmission using Picard-Carson Method which is a powerful method in getting a power series solution for distributed network because it is easy to calculate poles and zeros and solves differential equations such as telegrapher equations by an iterative sequence. So the impedance, admittance voltage and current along the line are expanded as a Taylor series in x/l where l is the total length of the line to obtain at the end, the main transmission line parameters such as voltage response and transmission and reflexion coefficients represented by scattering parameters in frequency domain.

Keywords: ABCD parameters, characteristic impedance exponential nonuniform transmission line, Picard-Carson's method, S parameters, Taylor's series

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2134 Enhancement of the Performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV Transmission Line Using STATCOM: A Case Study

Authors: Ali Hamad, Ibrahim Al-Drous, Saleh Al-Jufout


This paper presents a case study of using STATCOM to enhance the performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV transmission line. The location of the STATCOM was identified maintaining minimum voltage drops at the 110 load nodes. The transmission line and the 110 load nodes have been modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. The suggested STATCOM and its location will increase the transmission capability of this transmission line and overcome the overload expected in the year 2020. The annual percentage loading rise has been considered as 14%. A graphical representation of the line voltages and the voltage drops at different load nodes has been illustrated.

Keywords: FACTS, MATLAB, STATCOM, transmission line, voltage drop

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2133 Principal Component Analysis Applied to the Electric Power Systems – Practical Guide; Practical Guide for Algorithms

Authors: John Morales, Eduardo Orduña


Currently the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) theory has been used to develop algorithms regarding to Electric Power Systems (EPS). In this context, this paper presents a practical tutorial of this technique detailed their concept, on-line and off-line mathematical foundations, which are necessary and desirables in EPS algorithms. Thus, features of their eigenvectors which are very useful to real-time process are explained, showing how it is possible to select these parameters through a direct optimization. On the other hand, in this work in order to show the application of PCA to off-line and on-line signals, an example step to step using Matlab commands is presented. Finally, a list of different approaches using PCA is presented, and some works which could be analyzed using this tutorial are presented.

Keywords: practical guide; on-line; off-line, algorithms, faults

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2132 Transmission Line Inspection Using Drones

Authors: Jae Kyung Lee, Joon Young Park


Maintenance on power transmission lines requires a lot of works. Sometimes they should be maintained on live-line environment with high altitude. Therefore, there always exist risks of falling from height and electric shock. To decline those risks, drones are recently applying on the electric power industry. This paper presents new operational technology while inspecting power transmission line. This paper also describes a technique for creating a flight path of a drone for transmission line inspection and a technique for controlling the drones of different types. Its technical and economical feasibilities have confirmed through experiments.

Keywords: drones, transmission line, inspection, control system

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2131 Tracing the Developmental Repertoire of the Progressive: Evidence from L2 Construction Learning

Authors: Tianqi Wu, Min Wang


Research investigating language acquisition from a constructionist perspective has demonstrated that language is learned as constructions at various linguistic levels, which is related to factors of frequency, semantic prototypicality, and form-meaning contingency. However, previous research on construction learning tended to focus on clause-level constructions such as verb argument constructions but few attempts were made to study morpheme-level constructions such as the progressive construction, which is regarded as a source of acquisition problems for English learners from diverse L1 backgrounds, especially for those whose L1 do not have an equivalent construction such as German and Chinese. To trace the developmental trajectory of Chinese EFL learners’ use of the progressive with respect to verb frequency, verb-progressive contingency, and verbal prototypicality and generality, a learner corpus consisting of three sub-corpora representing three different English proficiency levels was extracted from the Chinese Learners of English Corpora (CLEC). As the reference point, a native speakers’ corpus extracted from the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays was also established. All the texts were annotated with C7 tagset by part-of-speech tagging software. After annotation all valid progressive hits were retrieved with AntConc 3.4.3 followed by a manual check. Frequency-related data showed that from the lowest to the highest proficiency level, (1) the type token ratio increased steadily from 23.5% to 35.6%, getting closer to 36.4% in the native speakers’ corpus, indicating a wider use of verbs in the progressive; (2) the normalized entropy value rose from 0.776 to 0.876, working towards the target score of 0.886 in native speakers’ corpus, revealing that upper-intermediate learners exhibited a more even distribution and more productive use of verbs in the progressive; (3) activity verbs (i.e., verbs with prototypical progressive meanings like running and singing) dropped from 59% to 34% but non-prototypical verbs such as state verbs (e.g., being and living) and achievement verbs (e.g., dying and finishing) were increasingly used in the progressive. Apart from raw frequency analyses, collostructional analyses were conducted to quantify verb-progressive contingency and to determine what verbs were distinctively associated with the progressive construction. Results were in line with raw frequency findings, which showed that contingency between the progressive and non-prototypical verbs represented by light verbs (e.g., going, doing, making, and coming) increased as English proficiency proceeded. These findings altogether suggested that beginning Chinese EFL learners were less productive in using the progressive construction: they were constrained by a small set of verbs which had concrete and typical progressive meanings (e.g., the activity verbs). But with English proficiency increasing, their use of the progressive began to spread to marginal members such as the light verbs.

Keywords: Construction learning, Corpus-based, Progressives, Prototype

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2130 Flexible Mixed Model Assembly Line Design: A Strategy to Respond for Demand Uncertainty at Automotive Part Manufacturer in Indonesia

Authors: T. Yuri, M. Zagloel, Inaki M. Hakim, Tegu Bintang Nugraha


In an era of customer centricity, automotive parts manufacturer in Indonesia must be able to keep up with the uncertainty and fluctuation of consumer demand. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a strategy to react to predicted and unpredicted changes of demand in automotive industry. This research is about flexible mixed model assembly line design through Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Line Balancing in mixed model assembly line prior to simulation. It uses value stream mapping to identify and reduce waste while finding the best position to add or reduce manpower. Line balancing is conducted to minimize or maximize production rate while increasing assembly line productivity and efficiency. Results of this research is a recommendation of standard work combination for specifics demand scenario which can enhance assembly line efficiency and productivity.

Keywords: automotive industry, demand uncertainty, flexible assembly system, line balancing, value stream mapping

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2129 A New OvS Approach in Assembly Line Balancing Problem

Authors: P. Azimi, B. Behtoiy, A. A. Najafi, H. R. Charmchi


According to the previous studies, one of the most famous techniques which affect the efficiency of a production line is the assembly line balancing (ALB) technique. This paper examines the balancing effect of a whole production line of a real auto glass manufacturer in three steps. In the first step, processing time of each activity in the workstations is generated according to a practical approach. In the second step, the whole production process is simulated and the bottleneck stations have been identified, and finally in the third step, several improvement scenarios are generated to optimize the system throughput, and the best one is proposed. The main contribution of the current research is the proposed framework which combines two famous approaches including Assembly Line Balancing and Optimization via Simulation technique (OvS). The results show that the proposed framework could be applied in practical environments, easily.

Keywords: assembly line balancing problem, optimization via simulation, production planning

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2128 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq


Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, Metric dimension, Honeycomb network, Line graph

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2127 Product Line Design with Customization in the Presence of Demand Uncertainty

Authors: Parisa Bagheri Tookanlou


In this paper, we analyze a product line design problem faced by a manufacturing firm where the product line consists of a customized product in addition to a standard product and is offered in a market in which customers are heterogeneous on aesthetic attributes of the product. The customization level of a product is defined by the fraction of aesthetic attributes of the product that the manufacturer chooses to customize. In contrast to the existing literature on product line design that predominantly assumes deterministic demand, we consider the presence of demand uncertainty and frame the product line design problem in a single period (news vendor) setting. We examine the effect of demand uncertainty on product line decisions. Furthermore, we also examine how product line decisions are influenced by channel structure. While we use the centralized channel as a benchmark, we consider the decentralized dual channel where the customized product is sold through an online channel owned by the manufacturer and the standard product is sold through a retailer. We introduce a supply contract between the manufacturer and the retailer for improving channel efficiency and coordinate the distribution channel.

Keywords: product line design, demand uncertainty, customization level, distribution channel

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2126 Transforming Butterworth Low Pass Filter into Microstrip Line Form at LC-Band Applications

Authors: Liew Hui Fang, Syed Idris Syed Hassan, Mohd Fareq Abd. Malek, Yufridin Wahab, Norshafinash Saudin


The paper implementation new approach method applied into transforming lumped element circuit into microstrip line form for Butterworth low pass filter which is operating at LC band. The filter’s lumped element circuits and microstrip line form were first designed and simulated using Advanced Design Software (ADS) to obtain the best filter characteristic based on S-parameter and implemented on FR4 substrate for order N=3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9. The importance of a new approach of transforming method as a correction factor has been considered into designed microstrip line. From ADS simulation results proved that the response of microstrip line circuit of Butterworth low pass filter with fringing correction factor has an excellent agreement with its lumped circuit. This shows that the new approach of transforming lumped element circuit into microstrip line is able to solve the conventional design of complexity size of circuit of Butterworth low pass filter (LPF) into microstrip line.

Keywords: Butterworth low pass filter, number of order, microstrip line, microwave filter, maximally flat

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2125 Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers

Authors: Ibraheem K. Ibraheem


The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

Keywords: color sensing, H-bridge, line following, mobile robot, PIC microcontroller, obstacle avoidance, phototransistor

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2124 Electron Microscopical Analysis of Arterial Line Filters During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim


Introduction: The clinical value of arterial line filters is still a controversial issue. Proponents of arterial line filtration argue that filters remove particulate matter and undissolved gas from circulation, while opponents argue the absence of conclusive clinical data. We conducted scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of arterial line filters used clinically in the CPB circuits during adult cardiac surgery and analyzed the types and characteristics of materials entrapped in the arterial line filters. Material and Methods: Twelve arterial line filters were obtained during routine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in 12 adult cardiac patients. The arterial line filter was a screen type with a pore size of 40 ㎛ (Baxter Health care corporation Bentley division, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.). After opening the housing, the woven polyester strands were examined with SEM. Results and Conclusion: All segments examined(120 segments, each 2.5 X 2.5 cm in size) contained no embolic particles larger in their cross-sectional area than the pore size of the filter(40 ㎛). The origins of embolic particulates were mostly from environmental foreign bodies. This may suggest a possible need for more aggressive filtration of smaller particulates than is generally carried out at the present time.

Keywords: arterial line filter, tubing wear, scanning electron microscopy, SEM

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2123 Multi Objective Optimization for Two-Sided Assembly Line Balancing

Authors: Srushti Bhatt, M. B. Kiran


Two-sided assembly line balancing problem is yet to be addressed simply to compete for the global market for manufacturers. The task assigned in an ordered sequence to get optimum performance of the system is known as assembly line balancing problem mainly classified as single and two sided. It is very challenging in manufacturing industries to balance two-sided assembly line, wherein the set of sequential workstations the task operations are performed in two sides of the line. The conflicting major objective in two-sided assembly line balancing problem is either to maximize /minimize the performance parameters. The present study emphases on combining different evolutionary algorithm; ant colony, Tabu search and petri net method; and compares their results of an algorithm for solving two-sided assembly line balancing problem. The concept of multi objective optimization of performance parameters is now a day adopted to make a decision involving more than one objective function to be simultaneously optimized. The optimum result can be expected among the selected methods using multi-objective optimization. The performance parameters considered in the present study are a number of workstation, slickness and smoothness index. The simulation of the assembly line balancing problem provides optimal results of classical and practical problems.

Keywords: Ant colony, petri net, tabu search, two sided ALBP

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2122 Carrier Communication through Power Lines

Authors: Pavuluri Gopikrishna, B. Neelima


Power line carrier communication means audio power transmission via power line and reception of the amplified audio power at the receiver as in the form of speaker output signal using power line as the channel medium. The main objective of this suggested work is to transmit our message signal after frequency modulation by the help of FM modulator IC LM565 which gives output proportional to the input voltage of the input message signal. And this audio power is received from the power line by the help of isolation circuit and demodulated from IC LM565 which uses the concept of the PLL and produces FM demodulated signal to the listener. Message signal will be transmitted over the carrier signal that will be generated from the FM modulator IC LM565. Using this message signal will not damage because of no direct contact of message signal from the power line, but noise can disturb our information.

Keywords: amplification, fm demodulator ic 565, fm modulator ic 565, phase locked loop, power isolation

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2121 The Expression of Toll-Like Receptors Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Betong (KU Line) Chicken

Authors: Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Anutian Suklek, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn, Autchara Kayan


Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved microbial sensing receptors located on cell surface that are able to detect different pathogens. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of TLR gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of Betong (KU line) chicken. Blood samples were collected from healthy 12 Betong (KU line) chicken. PBMCs were isolated and maintained in RPMI1640 with 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. The expression of TLRs gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results showed that PBMCs viability from Betong (KU line) chicken was 95.38 ± 1.06%. From the study of TLRs gene expression, results indicated that there are expressions of TLR1.1 TLR1.2 TLR2.1 TLR2.2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR 7 TLR15 and TLR21 in PBMCs of Betong (KU line) chicken. In conclusion, PBMCs isolated from blood of Betong (KU line) chicken had a high cell viability ( > 95%). The expression of TLRs in chicken was all found in PBMCs, which indicated that PBMC isolated from the blood of Betong (KU line) chicken can be used as an in vitro immune responses study.

Keywords: toll-like receptor, Betong (KU line) chicken, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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2120 Design and Simulation of Coupled-Line Coupler with Different Values of Coupling Efficiency

Authors: Suleiman Babani, Jazuli Sanusi Kazaure


In this paper, two coupled-line couplers are designed and simulated using stripline technology. The coupled-line couplers (A and B) are designed with different values of coupling coefficient 6dB and 10dB respectively. Both of circuits have a coupled output port, a through output port and an isolated output port. Moreover, both circuits are tuned to function around 2.45 GHz. The design results are presented by simulation results obtained using ADS 2012.08 (Advanced Design System) software.

Keywords: ADS, coupled-line coupler, directional coupler, stripline

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2119 Line Manager’s Role Involvement towards Creating a Coaching Culture in Nursing Area

Authors: N. S. A. Rahim, N. N. Abu Mansor, M. I. Saidi, N. R. A. Rahim, K. F. Adrutdin


The use of coaching as one of organizational culture with the contribution of the involvement of line manager roles is an important to update employees’ knowledge and skills continuously. In healthcare sector, it is dynamic that nurse must update their knowledge and skills to keep pace with change. This paper attempts to discuss the involvement of line manager roles towards creating a coaching culture who give their support and innovation towards motivate nurses to give their best performance either in public or private hospitals.

Keywords: nursing, line managers’ roles, coaching, coaching culture

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