Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1667

Search results for: electrical engineering

1667 A Prediction of Electrical Cost for High-Rise Building Construction

Authors: Picha Sriprachan


The increase in electricity prices affects the cost of high-rise building construction. The objectives of this research are to study the electrical cost, trend of electrical cost and to forecast electrical cost of high-rise building construction. The methods of this research are: 1) to study electrical payment formats, cost data collection methods, and the factors affecting electrical cost of high-rise building construction, 2) to study the quantity and trend of cumulative percentage of the electrical cost, and 3) to forecast the electrical cost for different types of high-rise buildings. The results of this research show that the average proportion between electrical cost and the value of the construction project is 0.87 percent. The proportion of electrical cost for residential, office and commercial, and hotel buildings are closely proportional. If construction project value increases, the proportion of electrical cost and the value of the construction project will decrease. However, there is a relationship between the amount of electrical cost and the value of the construction project. During the structural construction phase, the amount of electrical cost will increase and during structural and architectural construction phase, electrical cost will be maximum. The cumulative percentage of the electrical cost is related to the cumulative percentage of the high-rise building construction cost in the same direction. The amount of service space of the building, number of floors and the duration of the construction affect the electrical cost of construction. The electrical cost of construction forecasted by using linear regression equation is close to the electrical cost forecasted by using the proportion of electrical cost and value of the project.

Keywords: high-rise building construction, electrical cost, construction phase, architectural phase

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1666 Prediction of Index-Mechanical Properties of Pyroclastic Rock Utilizing Electrical Resistivity Method

Authors: İsmail İnce


The aim of this study is to determine index and mechanical properties of pyroclastic rock in a practical way by means of electrical resistivity method. For this purpose, electrical resistivity, uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength, P-wave velocity, density and porosity values of 10 different pyroclastic rocks were measured in the laboratory. A simple regression analysis was made among the index-mechanical properties of the samples compatible with electrical resistivity values. A strong exponentially relation was found between index-mechanical properties and electrical resistivity values. The electrical resistivity method can be used to assess the engineering properties of the rock from which it is difficult to obtain regular shaped samples as a non-destructive method.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, index-mechanical properties, pyroclastic rocks, regression analysis

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1665 Effect of Al Contents on Magnetic Domains of {100} Grains in Electrical Steels

Authors: Hyunseo Choi, Jaewan Hong, Seil Lee, Yang Mo Koo


Non-oriented (NO) electrical steel is one of the most important soft magnetic materials for rotating machines. Si has usually been added to electrical steels to reduce eddy current loss by increasing the electrical resistivity. Si content more than 3.5 wt% causes cracks during cold rolling due to increase of brittleness. Al also increases the electrical resistivity of the materials as much as Si. In addition, cold workability of Fe-Al is better than Fe-Si, so that Al can be added up to 6.0 wt%. However, the effect of Al contents on magnetic properties of electrical steels has not been studied in detail. Magnetic domains of {100} grains in electrical steels, ranging from 1.85 to 6.54 wt% Al, were observed by magneto-optic Kerr microscopy. Furthermore, the correlation of magnetic domains with magnetic properties was investigated. As Al contents increased, the magnetic domain size of {100} grains decreased due to lowered domain wall energy. Reorganization of magnetic domain structure became more complex as domain size decreased. Therefore, the addition of Al to electrical steel caused hysteresis loss to increase. Anomalous loss decreased and saturated after 4.68% Al.

Keywords: electrical steel, magnetic domain structure, Al addition, core loss, rearrangement of domains

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1664 Feasibility Study of Wireless Communication for the Control and Monitoring of Rotating Electrical Machine

Authors: S. Ben Brahim, T. H. Vuong, J. David, R. Bouallegue, M. Pietrzak-David


Electrical machine monitoring is important to protect motor from unexpected problems. Today, using wireless communication for electrical machines is interesting for both real time monitoring and diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we propose a system based on wireless communication IEEE 802.11 to control electrical machine. IEEE 802.11 standard is recommended for this type of applications because it provides a faster connection, better range from the base station, and better security. Therefore, our contribution is to study a new technique to control and monitor the rotating electrical machines (motors, generators) using wireless communication. The reliability of radio channel inside rotating electrical machine is also discussed. Then, the communication protocol, software and hardware design used for the proposed system are presented in detail and the experimental results of our system are illustrated.

Keywords: control, DFIM machine, electromagnetic field, EMC, IEEE 802.11, monitoring, rotating electrical machines, wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
1663 The Analysis of Own Signals of PM Electrical Machines – Example of Eccentricity

Authors: Marcin Baranski


This article presents a vibration diagnostic method designed for permanent magnets (PM) traction motors. Those machines are commonly used in traction drives of electrical vehicles. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. This work presents: field-circuit model, results of static tests, results of calculations and simulations.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, permanent magnet, traction drive, vibrations, electrical machine, eccentricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 532
1662 Effect of Hot Rolling Conditions on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3%Si Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Yusuf Yamanturk, Gokay Bas


Non-grain oriented electrical steels are high silicon containing steels in which the direction of magnetism is intended the same in any direction of the material. Major applications of non-grain-oriented electrical steels are electrical motors, generators, etc. where low magnetic losses are required. Selection of proper hot rolling process parameters is an important factor in order to produce a material that has desired magnetic properties. In this study, the effect of finishing and coiling temperatures on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Si non-grain oriented electrical steels will be investigated. Additionally, the effect of slab reheating temperature at same entry finishing temperature will be investigated by means of reduction in roughing mill pass number from 1-5 to 1-3.

Keywords: electrical steels, hot rolling, magnetic properties, roughing mill

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1661 A Study of Environmental Test Sequences for Electrical Units

Authors: Jung Ho Yang, Yong Soo Kim


Electrical units are operated by electrical and electronic components. An environmental test sequence is useful for testing electrical units to reduce reliability issues. This study introduces test sequence guidelines based on relevant principles and considerations for electronic testing according to international standard IEC-60068-1 and the United States military standard MIL-STD-810G. Then, test sequences were proposed based on the descriptions for each test. Finally, General Motors (GM) specification GMW3172 was interpreted and compared to IEC-60068-1 and MIL-STD-810G.

Keywords: reliability, environmental test sequence, electrical units, IEC 60068-1, MIL-STD-810G

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
1660 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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1659 Electrical Effects during the Wetting-Drying Cycle of Porous Brickwork: Electrical Aspects of Rising Damp

Authors: Sandor Levai, Valentin Juhasz, Miklos Gasz


Rising damp is an extremely complex phenomenon that is of great practical interest to the field of building conservation due to the irreversible damages it can make to old and historic structures. The electrical effects occurring in damp masonry have been scarcely researched and are a largely unknown aspect of rising damp. Present paper describes the typical electrical patterns occurring in porous brickwork during a wetting and drying cycle. It has been found that in contrast with dry masonry, where electrical phenomena are virtually non-existent, damp masonry exhibits a wide array of electrical effects. Long-term real-time measurements performed in the lab on small-scale brick structures, using an array of embedded micro-sensors, revealed significant voltage, current, capacitance and resistance variations which can be linked to the movement of moisture inside porous materials. The same measurements performed on actual old buildings revealed a similar behaviour, the electrical effects being more significant in areas of the brickwork affected by rising damp. Understanding these electrical phenomena contributes to a better understanding of the driving mechanisms of rising damp, potentially opening new avenues of dealing with it in a less invasive manner.

Keywords: brick masonry, electrical phenomena in damp brickwork, porous building materials, rising damp, spontaneous electrical potential, wetting-drying cycle

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1658 Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of a Non-Symmetrical NiO-SDC/SDC Anode through a Microwave-Assisted Route

Authors: Mohadeseh Seyednezhad, Armin Rajabi, Andanastui Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu


This work investigates the electrical properties of NiO-SDC/SDC anode sintered at about 1200 ○C for 1h through a relatively new approach, namely the microwave method. Nano powders Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) and NiO were mixed by using a high-energy ball-mill and subsequent co-pressed at three different compaction pressures 200, 300 and 400 MPa. The novelty of this study consists in the effect of compaction pressure on the electrochemical performance of Ni-SDC/SDC anode, with no binder used between layers. The electrical behavior of the prepared anode has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) in controlled atmospheres, operating at high temperatures (600-800 °C).

Keywords: sintering, fuel cell, electrical conductivity, nanostructures, impedance spectroscopy, ceramics

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1657 Constructing a Two-Tier Test about Source Current to Diagnose Pre-Service Elementary School Teacher’ Misconceptions

Authors: Abdeljalil Metioui


The purpose of this article is to present the results of two-stage qualitative research. The first involved the identification of the alternative conceptions of 80 elementary pre-service teachers from Quebec in Canada about the operation of simple electrical circuits. To do this, they completed a two-choice questionnaire (true or false) with justification. Data analysis identifies many conceptual difficulties. For example, for their majority, whatever the electrical device that composes an electrical circuit, the current source (power supply), and the generated electrical power is constant. The second step was to develop a double multiple-choice questionnaire based on the identified designs. It allows teachers to quickly diagnose their students' conceptions and take them into account in their teaching.

Keywords: development, electrical circuits, two-tier diagnostic test, secondary and high school

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1656 PM Electrical Machines Diagnostic: Methods Selected

Authors: M. Barański


This paper presents a several diagnostic methods designed to electrical machines especially for permanent magnets (PM) machines. Those machines are commonly used in small wind and water systems and vehicles drives. Those methods are preferred by the author in periodic diagnostic of electrical machines. The special attention should be paid to diagnostic method of turn-to-turn insulation and vibrations. Both of those methods were created in Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines Komel. The vibration diagnostic method is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation. This is method of determination the technical condition of PM electrical machine basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical machines with permanent magnets and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, generator, main insulation, permanent magnet, thermography, turn-to-traction drive, turn insulation, vibrations

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1655 An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites

Authors: K. Sever, Y. Seki, Z. Yenier, İ. Şen, M. Sarikanat


It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.

Keywords: chitosan, graphene, viscoelastic properties, electrical conductivity

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1654 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath


Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators, and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between the mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics, etc. This paper indicates the need of developing the electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of the microcantilever, the equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using a force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to a powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits. Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantilevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors

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1653 Improve of Power Quality in Electrical Network Using STATCOM

Authors: A. R. Alesaadi


Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices have an important rule on expended electrical transmission networks. These devices can provide control of one or more AC transmission system parameters to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability. In this paper the effect of these devices on reliability of electrical networks is studied and it is shown that using of FACTS devices can improve the reliability of power networks and power quality in electrical networks, significantly.

Keywords: FACTS devices, power networks, power quality, STATCOM

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1652 Correlations Between Electrical Resistivity and Some Properties of Clayey Soils

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. M. Abu-Heleika, M. A. Hassan, A. E. Sidhom


Application of electrical measurements to evaluate engineering properties of soils has gained a wide, promising field of research in recent years. So, understanding of the relation between in-situ electrical resistivity of clay soil, and their mechanical and physical properties consider a promising field of research. This would assist in introducing a new technique for the determination of soil properties based on electrical resistivity. In this work soil physical and mechanical properties of clayey soil have been determined by experimental tests and correlated with the in-situ electrical resistivity. The research program was conducted through measuring fifteen vertical electrical sounding stations along with fifteen selected boreholes. These samples were analyzed and subjected to experimental tests such as physical tests namely bulk density, water content, specific gravity, and grain size distribution, and Attereberg limits tests. Mechanical test was also conducted such as direct shear test. The electrical resistivity data were interpreted and correlated with each one of the measured experimental parameters. Based on this study mathematical relations were extracted and discussed. These results exhibit an excellent match with the results reported in the literature. This study demonstrates the utility of the developed methodology for determining the mechanical properties of soils easily and rapidly depending on their electrical resistivity measurements.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, clayey soil, physical properties, shear properties

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1651 Electrical Characterization of Hg/n-bulk GaN Schottky Diode

Authors: B. Nabil, O. Zahir, R. Abdelaziz


We present the results of electrical characterizations current-voltage and capacity-voltage implementation of a method of making a Schottky diode on bulk gallium nitride doped n. We made temporary Schottky contact of Mercury (Hg) and an ohmic contact of silver (Ag), the electrical characterizations current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) allows us to determine the difference parameters of our structure (Hg /n-GaN) as the barrier height (ΦB), the ideality factor (n), the series resistor (Rs), the voltage distribution (Vd), the doping of the substrate (Nd) and density of interface states (Nss).

Keywords: Bulk Gallium nitride, electrical characterization, Schottky diode, series resistance, substrate doping

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1650 Remote Training with Self-Assessment in Electrical Engineering

Authors: Zoja Raud, Valery Vodovozov


The paper focuses on the distance laboratory organisation for training the electrical engineering staff and students in the fields of electrical drive and power electronics. To support online knowledge acquisition and professional enhancement, new challenges in remote education based on an active learning approach with self-assessment have been emerged by the authors. Following the literature review and explanation of the improved assessment methodology, the concept and technological basis of the labs arrangement are presented. To decrease the gap between the distance study of the up-to-date equipment and other educational activities in electrical engineering, the improvements in the following-up the learners’ progress and feedback composition are introduced. An authoring methodology that helps to personalise knowledge acquisition and enlarge Web-based possibilities is described. Educational management based on self-assessment is discussed.

Keywords: advanced training, active learning, distance learning, electrical engineering, remote laboratory, self-assessment

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1649 Developing a Regulator for Improving the Operation Modes of the Electrical Drive Motor

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka


The operation modes of the synchronous motors used in the production processes are greatly conditioned by the accidentally changing technological and power indices.  As a result, the electrical drive synchronous motor may appear in irregular operation regimes. Although there are numerous works devoted to the development of the regulator for the synchronous motor operation modes, their application for the motors working in the irregular modes is not expedient. In this work, to estimate the issues concerning the stability of the synchronous electrical drive system, the transfer functions of the electrical drive synchronous motors operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained.  For that purpose, a model for investigating the frequency characteristics has been developed in the LabView environment. Frequency characteristics for assessing the transient process of the electrical drive system, operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained, and based on their assessment, a regulator for improving the operation modes of the motor has been proposed. The proposed regulator can be successfully used to prevent the irregular modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor, as well as to estimate the operation state of the drive motor of the mechanism with a changing load.

Keywords: electrical drive system, synchronous motor, regulator, stability, transition process

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1648 Electrical Investigations of Polyaniline/Graphitic Carbon Nitride Composites Using Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

Authors: M. A. Moussa, M. H. Abdel Rehim, G.M. Turky


Polyaniline composites with carbon nitride, to overcome compatibility restriction with graphene, were prepared with the solution method. FTIR and Uv-vis spectra were used for structural conformation. While XRD and XPS confirmed the structures in addition to estimation of nitrogen atom surroundings, the pore sizes and the active surface area were determined from BET adsorption isotherm. The electrical and dielectric parameters were measured and calculated with BDS .

Keywords: carbon nitride, dynamic relaxation, electrical conductivity, polyaniline

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1647 Determining a Suitable Time and Temperature Combination for Electricial Conductivity Test in Sorghum

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı


This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h) of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soak water were measured using EC meter at 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factors factorial (7 × 3 × 4) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars having the lowest germination percentage gave the highest electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and higher period than 12 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, seed vigor, cultivar, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1646 Electrical Performance Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar (a-Si:H) Modules Using IV Tracer (PVPM)

Authors: Gilbert Omorodion Osayemwenre, Edson Meyer, R. T. Taziwa


The electrical analysis of single junction amorphous silicon solar modules is carried out using outdoor monitoring technique. Like crystalline silicon PV modules, the electrical characterisation and performance of single junction amorphous silicon modules are best described by its current-voltage (IV) characteristic. However, IV curve has a direct dependence on the type of PV technology and material properties used. The analysis reveals discrepancies in the modules performance parameter even though they are of similar technology. The aim of this work is to compare the electrical performance output of each module, using electrical parameters with the aid of PVPM 100040C IV tracer. These results demonstrated the relevance of standardising the performance parameter for effective degradation analysis of a-Si:H.

Keywords: PVPM 100040C IV tracer, SolarWatt part, single junction amorphous silicon module (a-Si:H), Staebler-Wronski (S-W) degradation effect

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1645 Mapping of Electrical Energy Consumption Yogyakarta Province in 2014-2025

Authors: Alfi Al Fahreizy


Yogyakarta is one of the provinces in Indonesia that often get a power outage because of high load electrical consumption. The authors mapped the electrical energy consumption [GWh] for the province of Yogyakarta in 2014-2025 using LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system) software. This paper use BAU (Business As Usual) scenario. BAU scenario in which the projection is based on the assumption that growth in electricity consumption will run as normally as before. The goal is to be able to see the electrical energy consumption in the household sector, industry , business, social, government office building, and street lighting. The data is the data projected statistical population and consumption data electricity [GWh] 2010, 2011, 2012 in Yogyakarta province.

Keywords: LEAP, energy consumption, Yogyakarta, BAU

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1644 Determination of Steel Cleanliness of Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Zafer Cetin


Electrical steels are widely used as a magnetic core materials in many electrical applications such as transformers, electric motors, and generators. Core loss property of these magnetic materials refers to dissipation of electrical energy during magnetization in service conditions. Therefore, in order to minimize the magnetic core loss, certain precautions are taken from steel producers; “Steel Cleanliness” is one of the major points among them. For obtaining lower core loss values, increasing proper elements in chemical composition such as silicon is a must. Therefore, impurities of these alloys are a key value for producing a cleaner steel. In this study, effects of impurity levels of different FeSi alloying materials to the steel cleanliness will be investigated. One of the important element content in FeSi alloy materials is Calcium. A SEM investigation will be done in order to present if Ca content in FeSi alloy is enough for proper inclusion modification or an additional Ca-treatment is required.

Keywords: electrical steels, FeSi alloy, impurities, steel cleanliness

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1643 Investigation of Textile Laminates Structure and Electrical Resistance

Authors: A. Gulbiniene, V. Jankauskaite


Textile laminates with breathable membranes are used extensively in protective footwear. Such polymeric membranes act as a barrier to liquid water and soil entry from the environment, but are sufficiently permeable to water vapour to allow significant amounts of sweat to evaporate and affect the comfort of the wearer. In this paper the influence of absorbed humidity amount on the electrical properties of textiles lining laminates with and without polymeric membrane is presented. It was shown that textile laminate structure and its layers have a great influence on the water vapour absorption. Laminates with polyurethane foam layers show lower ability to absorb water vapour. Semi-permeable membrane increases absorbed humidity amount. The increase of water vapour absorption ability decreases textile laminates' electrical resistance. However, the intensity of the decrease in electrical resistance depends on the textile laminate layers' nature. Laminates with polyamide layers show significantly lower electrical resistance values.

Keywords: electrical resistance, humid atmosphere, textiles laminate, water vapour absorption

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1642 Solving the Nonlinear Heat Conduction in a Spherical Coordinate with Electrical Simulation

Authors: A. M. Gheitaghy, H. Saffari, G. Q. Zhang


Numerical approach based on the electrical simulation method is proposed to solve a nonlinear transient heat conduction problem with nonlinear boundary for a spherical body. This problem represents a strong nonlinearity in both the governing equation for temperature dependent thermal property and the boundary condition for combined convective and radiative cooling. By analysing the equivalent electrical model using the electrical circuit simulation program HSPICE, transient temperature and heat flux distributions at sphere can be obtained easily and fast. The solutions clearly illustrate the effect of the radiation-conduction parameter Nrc, the Biot number and the linear coefficient of temperature dependent conductivity and heat capacity. On comparing the results with corresponding numerical solutions, the accuracy and efficiency of this computational method are found to be good.

Keywords: convective and radiative boundary, electrical simulation method, nonlinear heat conduction, spherical coordinate

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1641 Highly Conductive Polycrystalline Metallic Ring in a Magnetic Field

Authors: Isao Tomita


Electrical conduction in a quasi-one-dimensional polycrystalline metallic ring with a long electron phase coherence length realized at low temperature is investigated. In this situation, the wave nature of electrons is important in the ring, where the electrical current I can be induced by a vector potential that arises from a static magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the ring’s area. It is shown that if the average grain size of the polycrystalline ring becomes large (or comparable to the Fermi wavelength), the electrical current I increases to ~I0, where I0 is a current in a disorder-free ring. The cause of this increasing effect is examined, and this takes place if the electron localization length in the polycrystalline potential increases with increasing grain size, which gives rise to coherent connection of tails of a localized electron wave function in the ring and thus provides highly coherent electrical conduction.

Keywords: electrical conduction, electron phase coherence, polycrystalline metal, magnetic field

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1640 Effect of Lead Content on Physical Properties of the Al–Si Eutectic Alloys

Authors: Hasan Kaya


Effect of lead content on the microstructure, mechanical (microhardness, ultimate tensile strength) and electrical resistivity properties of Al–Si eutectic alloys has been investigated. Al–12.6 Si–xSn (x=1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. %) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in the vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under constant temperature gradient (5.50 K/mm) and growth rate (8.25 μm/s) by using a Bridgman–type directional solidification furnace. Eutectic spacing, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were expressed as functions of the composition by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of the eutectic spacing, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity on the composition (Sn content) were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the solidified samples increase with increasing the Sn content, but decrease eutectic spacing. Variation of electrical resistivity with the temperature in the range of 300-500 K for studied alloys was also measured by using a standard d.c. four-point probe technique.

Keywords: content elements, solidification, microhardness, strength

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1639 Development of Kenaf Cellulose CNT Paper for Electrical Conductive Paper

Authors: A. W. Fareezal, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan


Kenaf cellulose CNT paper production was for lightweight, high strength and excellent flexibility electrical purposes. Aqueous dispersions of kenaf cellulose and varied weight percentage of CNT were combined with the assistance of PEI solution by using ultrasonic probe. The solution was dried using vacuum filter continued with air drying in condition room for 2 days. Circle shape conductive paper was characterized with Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and therma gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: cellulose, CNT paper, PEI solution, electrical conductive paper

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1638 Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot

Authors: Shayan Rezvanigilkolaei, Shayesteh Vefaghnematollahi


Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.

Keywords: electrical impedance tomography, EIT, surgeon robot, image processing of electrical impedance tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 192