Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1983

Search results for: tangential force

1983 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar


The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
1982 A Problem on Homogeneous Isotropic Microstretch Thermoelastic Half Space with Mass Diffusion Medium under Different Theories

Authors: Devinder Singh, Rajneesh Kumar, Arvind Kumar


The present investigation deals with generalized model of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermoelastic half space with mass diffusion medium. Theories of generalized thermoelasticity Lord-Shulman (LS) Green-Lindsay (GL) and Coupled Theory (CT) theories are applied to investigate the problem. The stresses in the considered medium have been studied due to normal force and tangential force. The normal mode analysis technique is used to calculate the normal stress, shear stress, couple stresses and microstress. A numerical computation has been performed on the resulting quantity. The computed numerical results are shown graphically.

Keywords: microstretch, thermoelastic, normal mode analysis, normal and tangential force, microstress force

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
1981 Model Based Improvement of Ultrasound Assisted Transport of Cohesive Dry Powders

Authors: Paul Dunst, Ing. Tobias Hemsel, Ing. Habil. Walter Sextro


The use of fine powders with high cohesive and adhesive properties leads to challenges during transport, mixing and dosing in industrial processes, which have not been satisfactorily solved so far. Due to the increased contact forces at the transporting parts (e. g. pipe-wall and transport screws), conventional transport systems and also vibratory conveyors reach their limits. Often, flowability increasing additives that need to be removed again in later process steps are the only option to achieve wanted transport results. A rather new ultrasound-assisted powder transport system showed to overcome some of the issues by manipulating the effective friction between powder and transport pipe. Within this contribution, the transport mechanism will be introduced shortly, together with preliminary transport results. As the tangential force of the transport pipe and the powder is the main influencing factor within the transport process, a test stand for measuring tangential forces of a powder-wall contact in the presence of an ultrasonic vibration orthogonal to the contact plane was built. Measurements for a sample powder show that the effective tangential force can already be significantly reduced at very low ultrasonic amplitude. As a result of the measurements, an empirical model for the relationship of tangential force, contact parameters and ultrasonic excitation is presented. This model was used to adjust the driving parameters of the powder transport system, resulting in better performance.

Keywords: powder transport, ultrasound, friction, friction manipulation, vibratory conveyor

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1980 Checking Planetary Clutch on the Romania Tractor Using Mathematical Equations

Authors: Mohammad Vahedi Torshizi


In this investigation, at first, bending stress, contact stress, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact between sun gear and planet gear tooth was determined using mathematical equations. Also, The amount of Sun Revolution in, Speed carrier, power Transmitted of the sun, sun torque, sun peripheral speed, Enter the tangential force gears, was calculated using mathematical equations. According to the obtained results, maximum of bending stress and contact stress occurred in three plantary and low status of four plantary. Also, maximum of Speed carrier, sun peripheral speed, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact obtained in four plantary and maximum of power Transmitted of the sun, Enter the tangential force gears, bending stress and contact stress was in three pantry and factors And other factors were equal in the two planets.

Keywords: bending stress, contact stress, plantary, mathematical equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1979 The Effect of Adhesion on the Frictional Hysteresis Loops at a Rough Interface

Authors: M. Bazrafshan, M. B. de Rooij, D. J. Schipper


Frictional hysteresis is the phenomenon in which mechanical contacts are subject to small (compared to contact area) oscillating tangential displacements. In the presence of adhesion at the interface, the contact repulsive force increases leading to a higher static friction force and pre-sliding displacement. This paper proposes a boundary element model (BEM) for the adhesive frictional hysteresis contact at the interface of two contacting bodies of arbitrary geometries. In this model, adhesion is represented by means of a Dugdale approximation of the total work of adhesion at local areas with a very small gap between the two bodies. The frictional contact is divided into sticking and slipping regions in order to take into account the transition from stick to slip (pre-sliding regime). In the pre-sliding regime, the stick and slip regions are defined based on the local values of shear stress and normal pressure. In the studied cases, a fixed normal force is applied to the interface and the friction force varies in such a way to start gross sliding in one direction reciprocally. For the first case, the problem is solved at the smooth interface between a ball and a flat for different values of work of adhesion. It is shown that as the work of adhesion increases, both static friction and pre-sliding distance increase due to the increase in the contact repulsive force. For the second case, the rough interface between a glass ball against a silicon wafer and a DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coating is considered. The work of adhesion is assumed to be identical for both interfaces. As adhesion depends on the interface roughness, the corresponding contact repulsive force is different for these interfaces. For the smoother interface, a larger contact repulsive force and consequently, a larger static friction force and pre-sliding distance are observed.

Keywords: boundary element model, frictional hysteresis, adhesion, roughness, pre-sliding

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1978 Analytical Model for Vacuum Cathode Arcs in an Oblique Magnetic Field

Authors: P. W. Chen, C. T. Chang, Y. Peng, J. Y. Wu, D. J. Jan, Md. Manirul Ali


In the last decade, the nature of cathode spot splitting and the current per spot depended on an oblique magnetic field was investigated. This model for cathode current splitting is developed that we have investigated with relationship the magnetic pressures produced by kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and changed with an external magnetic field. We propose a theoretical model that has been established to an external magnetic field with components normal and tangential to the cathode surface influenced on magnetic pressure strength. We mainly focus on developed to understand the current per spot influenced with the tangential magnetic field strength and normal magnetic field strength.

Keywords: cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, oblique magnetic field, tangential magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1977 Key Technologies and Evolution Strategies for Computing Force Bearer Network

Authors: Zhaojunfeng


Driven by the national policy of "East Data and Western Calculation", the computing first network will attract a new wave of development. As the foundation of the development of the computing first network, the computing force bearer network has become the key direction of technology research and development in the industry. This article will analyze typical computing force application scenarios and bearing requirements and sort out the SLA indicators of computing force applications. On this basis, this article carries out research and discussion on the key technologies of computing force bearer network in a slice packet network, and finally, gives evolution policy for SPN computing force bearer network to support the development of SPN computing force bearer network technology and network deployment.

Keywords: component-computing force bearing, bearing requirements of computing force application, dual-SLA indicators for computing force applications, SRv6, evolution strategies

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1976 Design and Experimental Studies of a Centrifugal SWIRL Atomizer

Authors: Hemabushan K., Manikandan


In a swirl atomizer, fluid undergoes a swirling motion as a result of centrifugal force created by opposed tangential inlets in the swirl chamber. The angular momentum of fluid continually increases as it reaches the exit orifice and forms a hollow sheet. Which disintegrates to form ligaments and droplets respectively as it flows downstream. This type of atomizers used in rocket injectors and oil burner furnaces. In this present investigation a swirl atomizer with two opposed tangential inlets has been designed. Water as working fluid, experiments had been conducted for the fluid injection pressures in regime of 0.033 bar to 0.519 bar. The fluid has been pressured by a 0.5hp pump and regulated by a pressure regulator valve. Injection pressure of fluid has been measured by a U-tube mercury manometer. The spray pattern and the droplets has been captured with a high resolution camera in black background with a high intensity flash highlighting the fluid. The unprocessed images were processed in ImageJ processing software for measuring the droplet diameters and its shape characteristics along the downstream. The parameters such as mean droplet diameter and distribution, wave pattern, rupture distance and spray angle were studied for this atomizer. The above results were compared with theoretical results and also analysed for deviation with design parameters.

Keywords: swirl atomizer, injector, spray, SWIRL

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
1975 Hardware Implementation for the Contact Force Reconstruction in Tactile Sensor Arrays

Authors: María-Luisa Pinto-Salamanca, Wilson-Javier Pérez-Holguín


Reconstruction of contact forces is a fundamental technique for analyzing the properties of a touched object and is essential for regulating the grip force in slip control loops. This is based on the processing of the distribution, intensity, and direction of the forces during the capture of the sensors. Currently, efficient hardware alternatives have been used more frequently in different fields of application, allowing the implementation of computationally complex algorithms, as is the case with tactile signal processing. The use of hardware for smart tactile sensing systems is a research area that promises to improve the processing time and portability requirements of applications such as artificial skin and robotics, among others. The literature review shows that hardware implementations are present today in almost all stages of smart tactile detection systems except in the force reconstruction process, a stage in which they have been less applied. This work presents a hardware implementation of a model-driven reported in the literature for the contact force reconstruction of flat and rigid tactile sensor arrays from normal stress data. From the analysis of a software implementation of such a model, this implementation proposes the parallelization of tasks that facilitate the execution of matrix operations and a two-dimensional optimization function to obtain a vector force by each taxel in the array. This work seeks to take advantage of the parallel hardware characteristics of Field Programmable Gate Arrays, FPGAs, and the possibility of applying appropriate techniques for algorithms parallelization using as a guide the rules of generalization, efficiency, and scalability in the tactile decoding process and considering the low latency, low power consumption, and real-time execution as the main parameters of design. The results show a maximum estimation error of 32% in the tangential forces and 22% in the normal forces with respect to the simulation by the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) technique of Hertzian and non-Hertzian contact events, over sensor arrays of 10×10 taxels of different sizes. The hardware implementation was carried out on an MPSoC XCZU9EG-2FFVB1156 platform of Xilinx® that allows the reconstruction of force vectors following a scalable approach, from the information captured by means of tactile sensor arrays composed of up to 48 × 48 taxels that use various transduction technologies. The proposed implementation demonstrates a reduction in estimation time of x / 180 compared to software implementations. Despite the relatively high values of the estimation errors, the information provided by this implementation on the tangential and normal tractions and the triaxial reconstruction of forces allows to adequately reconstruct the tactile properties of the touched object, which are similar to those obtained in the software implementation and in the two FEM simulations taken as reference. Although errors could be reduced, the proposed implementation is useful for decoding contact forces for portable tactile sensing systems, thus helping to expand electronic skin applications in robotic and biomedical contexts.

Keywords: contact forces reconstruction, forces estimation, tactile sensor array, hardware implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
1974 Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Jooyoung Park, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park


The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, magnetization energy loss, PSC girder

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1973 A Method to Determine Cutting Force Coefficients in Turning Using Mechanistic Approach

Authors: T. C. Bera, A. Bansal, D. Nema


During performing turning operation, cutting force plays a significant role in metal cutting process affecting tool-work piece deflection, vibration and eventually part quality. The present research work aims to develop a mechanistic cutting force model and to study the mechanistic constants used in the force model in case of turning operation. The proposed model can be used for the reliable and accurate estimation of the cutting forces establishing relationship of various force components (cutting force and feed force) with uncut chip thickness. The accurate estimation of cutting force is required to improve thin-walled part accuracy by controlling the tool-work piece deflection induced surface errors and tool-work piece vibration.

Keywords: turning, cutting forces, cutting constants, uncut chip thickness

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1972 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh


This paper contains two main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three type of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part, we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode Length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, electroadhesive grippers

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1971 The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum

Authors: Dunwen Zuo, Yongfang Deng, Bo Song


An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.

Keywords: FSJ, force factor, AA2024 aluminum, friction stir joining

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1970 Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors: Based Force Sensor Array for Occlusal Force Measurement

Authors: Sheng-Che Chen, Keng-Ren Lin, Che-Hsin Lin, Hao-Yuan Tseng, Chih-Han Chang


Teeth play an important role in providing the essential nutrients. The force loading of chewing on the crow is important condition to evaluate long-term success of many dental treatments. However, the quantification of the force regarding forces are distributed over the dental crow is still not well recognized. This study presents an industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) force sensor for measuring the distribution of the force distribute over the first molar. The developed sensor array is based on a flexible polyimide electrode and barium titanate-based MLCCs. MLCCs are commonly used in the electronic industry and it is a typical electric component composed of BaTiO₃, which is used as a capacitive material. The most important is that it also can be used as a force-sensing component by its piezoelectric property. In this study, to increase the sensitivity as well as to reduce the variation of different MLCCs, a treatment process is utilized. The MLCC force sensors are able to measure large forces (above 500 N), making them suitable for measuring the bite forces on the tooth crown. Moreover, the sensors also show good force response and good repeatability.

Keywords: force sensor array, multilayer ceramic capacitors, occlusal force, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1969 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang


According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
1968 Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Efficiency on Different Slopes

Authors: A. Boonpratatong, J. Pantong, S. Kiattisaksophon, W. Senavongse


In this study, an integrated sensing and modeling system for manual wheelchair propulsion measurement and propulsion efficiency calculation was used to indicate the level of overuse. Seven subjects participated in the measurement. On the level surface, the propulsion efficiencies were not different significantly as the riding speed increased. By contrast, the propulsion efficiencies on the 15-degree incline were restricted to around 0.5. The results are supported by previously reported wheeling resistance and propulsion torque relationships implying margin of the overuse. Upper limb musculoskeletal injuries and syndromes in manual wheelchair riders are common, chronic, and may be caused at different levels by the overuse i.e. repetitive riding on steep incline. The qualitative analysis such as the mechanical effectiveness on manual wheeling to establish the relationship between the riding difficulties, mechanical efforts and propulsion outputs is scarce, possibly due to the challenge of simultaneous measurement of those factors in conventional manual wheelchairs and everyday environments. In this study, the integrated sensing and modeling system were used to measure manual wheelchair propulsion efficiency in conventional manual wheelchairs and everyday environments. The sensing unit is comprised of the contact pressure and inertia sensors which are portable and universal. Four healthy male and three healthy female subjects participated in the measurement on level and 15-degree incline surface. Subjects were asked to perform manual wheelchair ridings with three different self-selected speeds on level surface and only preferred speed on the 15-degree incline. Five trials were performed in each condition. The kinematic data of the subject’s dominant hand and a spoke and the trunk of the wheelchair were collected through the inertia sensors. The compression force applied from the thumb of the dominant hand to the push rim was collected through the contact pressure sensors. The signals from all sensors were recorded synchronously. The subject-selected speeds for slow, preferred and fast riding on level surface and subject-preferred speed on 15-degree incline were recorded. The propulsion efficiency as a ratio between the pushing force in tangential direction to the push rim and the net force as a result of the three-dimensional riding motion were derived by inverse dynamic problem solving in the modeling unit. The intra-subject variability of the riding speed was not different significantly as the self-selected speed increased on the level surface. Since the riding speed on the 15-degree incline was difficult to regulate, the intra-subject variability was not applied. On the level surface, the propulsion efficiencies were not different significantly as the riding speed increased. However, the propulsion efficiencies on the 15-degree incline were restricted to around 0.5 for all subjects on their preferred speed. The results are supported by the previously reported relationship between the wheeling resistance and propulsion torque in which the wheelchair axle torque increased but the muscle activities were not increased when the resistance is high. This implies the margin of dynamic efforts on the relatively high resistance being similar to the margin of the overuse indicated by the restricted propulsion efficiency on the 15-degree incline.

Keywords: contact pressure sensor, inertia sensor, integrating sensing and modeling system, manual wheelchair propulsion efficiency, manual wheelchair propulsion measurement, tangential force, resultant force, three-dimensional riding motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1967 Effect of Geomagnetic Field on Motion of Conductor

Authors: Bharti Gupta, Alaukik Sharma


The first aim is to determine the effect of the Earth's magnetic field on the motion of a conductor to evaluate the variations of the orbital elements of the conductor due to these effects. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on the motion of conductors have been studied at different heights, longitudes and latitudes. When the conductor cut the geomagnetic line of force, then an electro-motive force (EMF) is induced across to the conductor. Due to this induced EMF, an induced current will flow through the conductor. Resulting, a Lorentz force will be applied on the conductor who opposes the motion of the conductor. So our second aim is to determine the accurate value of Induced EMF and induced Lorentz Force at different heights, longitudes and latitudes.

Keywords: induced EMF, Lorentz force, geomagnetic lines of force, moving conductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1966 Simulation and Experimental Study on Tensile Force Measurement of PS Tendons Using an Embedded EM Sensor

Authors: ByoungJoon Yu, Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park


The tensile force estimation PS tendons is in great demand on monitoring the structural health condition of PSC girder bridges. Measuring the tensile force of the PS tendons inside the PSC girder using conventional methods is hard due to its location. In this paper, an embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation of PS tendon was carried out by measuring the permeability of the PS tendons in PSC girder. The permeability is changed due to the induced tensile force by the magneto-elastic effect and the effect then lead to the gradient change of the B-H curve. An experiment was performed to obtain the signals from the EM sensor using three down-scaled PSC girder models. The permeability of PS tendons was proportionally decreased according to the increase of the tensile forces. To verify the experiment results, a simulation of tensile force estimation will be conducted in further study. Consequently, it is expected that both the experiment results and the simulation results increase the accuracy of the tensile force estimation, and then it could be one of the solutions for evaluating the performance of PSC girder.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, PSC girder, EM sensor simulation, cross section loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1965 Research on Robot Adaptive Polishing Control Technology

Authors: Yi Ming Zhang, Zhan Xi Wang, Hang Chen, Gang Wang


Manual polishing has problems such as high labor intensity, low production efficiency and difficulty in guaranteeing the consistency of polishing quality. It is more and more necessary to replace manual polishing with robot polishing. Polishing force directly affects the quality of polishing, so accurate tracking and control of polishing force is one of the most important conditions for improving the accuracy of robot polishing. The traditional force control strategy is difficult to adapt to the strong coupling of force control and position control during the robot polishing process. Therefore, based on the analysis of force-based impedance control and position-based impedance control, this paper proposed a new type of adaptive controller. Based on force feedback control of active compliance control, the controller can adaptively estimate the stiffness and position of the external environment and eliminate the steady-state force error produced by traditional impedance control. The simulation results of the model shows that the adaptive controller has good adaptability to changing environmental positions and environmental stiffness, and can accurately track and control polishing force.

Keywords: robot polishing, force feedback, impedance control, adaptive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
1964 Effect of Anisotropy on Steady Creep in a Whisker Reinforced Functionally Graded Composite Disc

Authors: V. K. Gupta, Tejeet Singh


In many whisker reinforced composites, anisotropy may result due to material flow during processing operations such as forging, extrusion etc. The consequence of anisotropy, introduced during processing of disc material, has been investigated on the steady state creep deformations of the rotating disc. The disc material is assumed to undergo plastic deformations according to Hill’s anisotropic criterion. Steady state creep has been analyzed in a constant thickness rotating disc made of functionally graded 6061Al-SiCw (where the subscript ‘w’ stands for whisker) using Hill’s The content of reinforcement (SiCw) in the disc is assumed to decrease linearly from the inner to outer radius. The stresses and strain rates in the disc are estimated by solving the force equilibrium equation along with the constitutive equations describing multi-axial creep. The results obtained for anisotropic FGM disc have been compared with those estimated for isotropic FGM disc having the same average whisker content. The anisotropic constants, appearing in Hill’s yield criterion, have been obtained from the available experimental results. The results show that the presence of anisotropy reduces the tangential stress in the middle of the disc but near the inner and outer radii the tangential stress is higher when compared to isotropic disc. On the other hand, the steady state creep rates in the anisotropic disc are reduced significantly over the entire disc radius, with the maximum reduction observed at the inner radius. Further, in the presence of anisotropy the distribution of strain rate becomes relatively uniform over the entire disc, which may be responsible for reducing the extent of distortion in the disc.

Keywords: anisotropy, creep, functionally graded composite, rotating disc

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1963 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain


A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1962 Force Signal and Superficial Electromyographic Signals Associated With Hand Movements: A General Mixed Effects Model

Authors: C. L. Sandoval Rodríguez, O. Lengerke, A. D. Rincon-Quintero


This work evaluates eight healthy subjects at two different forces and six types of hand movements (pronation, supination, ulnar deviation, radial deviation, flexion, and extension -96 records of SEMG -Force). The objective was to obtain a general mixed effects model that would allow the relation of the force signal with the tone of the forearm SEMG signals. Fixed effects were associated with the force signal and random effects with the type of movement. The work results show models at the determination coefficient R2 - median 0.7 and random effects with low incidence. The SEMG signal would explain the variation in force signal applied in each type of hand move.

Keywords: forearm SEMG, hand movements, force signal, general mixed effects model

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1961 Bidirectional Pendulum Vibration Absorbers with Homogeneous Variable Tangential Friction: Modelling and Design

Authors: Emiliano Matta


Passive resonant vibration absorbers are among the most widely used dynamic control systems in civil engineering. They typically consist in a single-degree-of-freedom mechanical appendage of the main structure, tuned to one structural target mode through frequency and damping optimization. One classical scheme is the pendulum absorber, whose mass is constrained to move along a curved trajectory and is damped by viscous dashpots. Even though the principle is well known, the search for improved arrangements is still under way. In recent years this investigation inspired a type of bidirectional pendulum absorber (BPA), consisting of a mass constrained to move along an optimal three-dimensional (3D) concave surface. For such a BPA, the surface principal curvatures are designed to ensure a bidirectional tuning of the absorber to both principal modes of the main structure, while damping is produced either by horizontal viscous dashpots or by vertical friction dashpots, connecting the BPA to the main structure. In this paper, a variant of BPA is proposed, where damping originates from the variable tangential friction force which develops between the pendulum mass and the 3D surface as a result of a spatially-varying friction coefficient pattern. Namely, a friction coefficient is proposed that varies along the pendulum surface in proportion to the modulus of the 3D surface gradient. With such an assumption, the dissipative model of the absorber can be proven to be nonlinear homogeneous in the small displacement domain. The resulting homogeneous BPA (HBPA) has a fundamental advantage over conventional friction-type absorbers, because its equivalent damping ratio results independent on the amplitude of oscillations, and therefore its optimal performance does not depend on the excitation level. On the other hand, the HBPA is more compact than viscously damped BPAs because it does not need the installation of dampers. This paper presents the analytical model of the HBPA and an optimal methodology for its design. Numerical simulations of single- and multi-story building structures under wind and earthquake loads are presented to compare the HBPA with classical viscously damped BPAs. It is shown that the HBPA is a promising alternative to existing BPA types and that homogeneous tangential friction is an effective means to realize systems provided with amplitude-independent damping.

Keywords: amplitude-independent damping, homogeneous friction, pendulum nonlinear dynamics, structural control, vibration resonant absorbers

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1960 An Experimental Study of Automotive Drum Brake Vibrations

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly


The present paper investigates experimentally the effect coefficient of friction at different operation conditions on the variation of the brake temperature, brake force, and brake vibration with the braking time. All the experimental tests were carried out using brake dynamometer which designed and constructed in Vehicle Dynamic Laboratory. The results indicate that the brake temperature increases with the increase of the normal force and sliding speed especially with the increase of the braking time. The normal force has the effect on increasing the brake force. On the contrary, the vehicle speed has the effect on decreasing the brake force. Both the normal force and sliding speed affect the brake vibration according to the friction behavior.

Keywords: brake dynamometer, coefficient of friction, drum brake vibrations, friction behavior

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1959 Slope Stability of an Earthen Levee Strengthened by HPTRM under Turbulent Overtopping Conditions

Authors: Fashad Amini, Lin Li


High performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is one of the most advanced flexible armoring technologies for severe erosion challenges. The effect of turbulence on the slope stability of an earthen levee strengthened by high performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is investigated in this study for combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. The results show that turbulence has strong influence on the slope stability during the combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. Among the surge height, peak wave force and turbulent force. The turbulent force has the ability to stabilize the earthen levee at the large wave force the turbulent force has strongest effect on the FS. The surge storm acts as an independent force on the slope stability of the earthen levee. It just adds to the effects of the turbulent force and wave force on the slope stability of HPTRM strengthened levee.

Keywords: slope stability, strength reduction method, HPTRM, levee, overtopping

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1958 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

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1957 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer


This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, turbulent flow

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1956 Non-Linear Control in Positioning of PMLSM by Estimates of the Load Force by MRAS Method

Authors: Maamar Yahiaoui, Abdelrrahmene Kechich, Ismail Elkhallile Bousserhene


This article presents a study in simulation by means of MATLAB/Simulink software of the nonlinear control in positioning of a linear synchronous machine with the esteemed force of load, to have effective control in the estimator in all tests the wished trajectory follows and the disturbance of load start. The results of simulation prove clearly that the control proposed can detect the reference of positioning the value estimates of load force equal to the actual value.

Keywords: mathematical model, Matlab, PMLSM, control, linearization, estimator, force, load, current

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1955 Development of a Force-Sensing Toothbrush for Gum Recession Measurement Using Programmable Automation Controller

Authors: Sorayya Kazemi, Hamed Kharrati, Mehdi Abedinpour Fallah


This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel electric pressure-sensitive toothbrush, capable of measuring the forces applied to the head of the brush. The developed device is used for gum recession measurement. In particular, the percentage of gum recession is measured by a Programmable Automation controller (PAC). Moreover, the brushing forces are measured by a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) sensor. These forces are analog inputs of PAC. According to the applied forces during patient’s brushing and the patient’s percentage of gum recession, dentist sets the standard force range. The instrument alarms when the patient applies a force over the set range.

Keywords: gum recession, force sensing resistor, controller, toothbrush

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1954 Optimization of Tangential Flow Filtration Process for Purifying DNA Vaccine

Authors: Piyakajornkul T., Noppiboon S., Hochareon L., Kitsubun P.


Nowadays, DNA vaccines become an interesting subject in the third vaccine generation. The platform of DNA vaccines production has been developed and its downstream process becomes challenging due to the quality of the products in terms of purity and percentage of supercoiled DNA. To overcome these challenges, tangential flow filtration (TFF), which is involved in the purification process, could be used since it provides effective separation of impurity prior to performing further purification steps. However, operating conditions of TFF is varied based on several factors such as sizes of target particle and impurities, a concentration of solution as well as a concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In this study, pVAX1/lacZ was used as a model of TFF optimization in order to prevent a concentration polarization that can lead to the membrane fouling and also minimize a diafiltration volume while maintaining the maximum permeate flux resulting in proper operating times and buffer volume. By using trans membrane pressure (TMP) excursion method, feed flow rates and TMP were varied. The results showed a correlation of permeate flux with TMP where the maximum volume concentration factor reached 2.5 times of the initial volume when feed flow rate and TMP were 7 liters/m²/min and 1 bar, respectively. It was optimal operating conditions before TFF system undergone pressure independent regime. In addition, the diafiltration volume was 14 times of the concentrated volume prior to performing a further anion chromatography process.

Keywords: concentration polarization, DNA vaccines, optimization, permeate flux, pressure dependent, tangential flow filtration (TFF), trans membrane pressure (TMP)

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