Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 389

Search results for: wage inequality

389 Industry Openness, Human Capital and Wage Inequality: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms

Authors: Qiong Huang, Satish Chand

Abstract:

This paper uses a primary data from 670 Chinese manufacturing firms, together with the newly introduced regressionbased inequality decomposition method, to study the effect of openness on wage inequality. We find that openness leads to a positive industry wage premium, but its contribution to firm-level wage inequality is relatively small, only 4.69%. The major contributor to wage inequality is human capital, which could explain 14.3% of wage inequality across sample firms.  

Keywords: openness, human capital, wage inequality, decomposition, China

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388 Role of ICT and Wage Inequality in Organization

Authors: Shoji Katagiri

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This study deals with wage inequality in organization and shows the relationship between ICT and wage in organization. To do so, we incorporate ICT’s factors in organization into our model. ICT’s factors are efficiencies of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and NETWORK. The improvement of ICT’s factors decrease the learning cost to solve problem pertaining to the hierarchy in organization. The improvement of NETWORK increases the wage inequality within workers and decreases within managers and entrepreneurs. The improvements of CAD/CAM and ERP increases the wage inequality within all agent, and partially increase it between the agents in hierarchy.

Keywords: endogenous economic growth, ICT, inequality, capital accumulation

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387 The Concept of Equal Pay: Analyzing the Presence of Inequality in the Hospitality Sector with the Perspective of Employees in Gujarat, India

Authors: Vedi Goenka

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Inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on any particular trait. It arises from differences in socially constructed roles. Women are usually characterized as inferior and weak, who are dependent on their male counterparts. Even though it is claimed that both the genders have been given equal rights, inequality has always been prevalent in the Indian society, from personal to the professional front. There are different types of inequality that persist in the corporate world such as age inequality, gender inequality, tenure inequality and so on. Consequently, wage inequality occurs when employees are equally qualified and perform the same task but, one group of employees is paid more than the other. The hospitality sector is one of the emerging sectors in Gujarat which also experiences a lot of organizational dynamics. The proposed paper focuses on the concept of equal pay which states that pay should be based on the kind and quality of work done and not according to any other aspects. An exploratory attempt to understand the existence of inequality in the Hospitality sector on the basis of income is made in this research. The myth that wage discrimination has always favored men over similarly qualified women is analyzed in this research paper. A structured survey of a sample, representative of the employees of the Hospitality sector is being carried out in this study. An attempt to keep the effects of the environmental factors to a minimum level is made.

Keywords: equal pay, human resources, hospitality sector, inequality, perspective, wage structure

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386 The Redistributive Effects of Debtor Protection Laws

Authors: Hamid Boustanifar, Geraldo Cerqueiro, María Fabiana Penas

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We exploit state-level changes in the amount of personal wealth individuals can protect under Chapter 7 to analyze the causal effect of debtor protection on income inequality. We find that an increase in state exemptions significantly increases inequality by reducing income for low-income individuals and by increasing income for high-income individuals. The increase in inequality is four times larger among the self-employed than among wage earners, and it is due mainly to a growing income gap between skilled (i.e., individuals with a college degree) and unskilled entrepreneurs. We also find that the employment rate of skilled entrepreneurs significantly increases, while the employment rate of unskilled wage earners falls. Our results are consistent with a recent literature that shows that higher exemptions redistribute credit from low-wealth to high-wealth entrepreneurs, affecting the performance of their businesses.

Keywords: debtor protection, credit markets, income inequality, debtor protection laws

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385 Jensen's Inequality and M-Convex Functions

Authors: Yamin Sayyari

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In this paper, we generalized the Jensen's inequality for m-convex functions and also we present a correction of Jensen's inequality which is a better than the generalization of this inequality for m-convex functions. Finally, we have found new lower and new upper bounds for Jensen's discrete inequality.

Keywords: Jensen's inequality, m-convex function, Convex function, Inequality

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384 Socio-Cultural and Religious Contributions to Gender Wage Gap: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: R. Alothaim, T. Mishra

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Different researchers have reviewed the gender wage gap since early days between women and men to point out their difference to help bring about equality in production among them. Many fingers have been pointed out towards culture and religion as one of the major factors contributing to the gender wage gap throughout the years passed. Recent research has been done to give out equalization to this gap between men and women. The gender wage gap has raised serious concerns among nations and societies. Additionally, data, methodology and time periods have been affected by the gender wage gap, thus needing special decision making to help in the meta-study in the provision of quantitative review. Quality indicators have played a crucial role towards the education through stressing on enough consideration to help give a solution of equality and worth in the research study. The different research reviewed have given enough evidence and impact to point out that the major causes of this gender wage gap has resulted due to culture. On the other pedestal, religion may play a role to the issues of gender wage gap but with more emphasis on culture playing the bigger part. Furthermore, social status of individual has contributed to the wage gap difference between men and women. Labor market has played a vital role in empowering women, leading to the lower rate of the raw wage difference in the recent years.

Keywords: culture, gender wage gap, social, religion

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383 Gender Inequality in Pakistan: A Study of Economic Inequality Keeping in View the Gender Biased Societal Set up and Patriarchal Mind Set

Authors: Humera Malik

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Gender inequality, as a societal issue, is prevalent in all spheres of life in Pakistan. It is world-wide understood that gender equality is a basic right of every human being as well as the source of development and prosperity for the whole country. In fact, many countries endeavor to ensure equal opportunities for men and women which will, in turn, help to attain sustainable growth in every field. Most of the women in Pakistan live their life under the societal pressure which is exerted by centuries old traditions. This archaic setup restricts women to stay at home because their survival is conditional to their total subjugation to the male member of the family. This patriarchal structure confers men the right to deal women as their property. It is not wrong to say that women endure severe discrimination in their whole life. No doubt, women are confronted with multifaceted discrimination in the field of education, health, politics, social status, etc. The main theme of this research is to ascertain the present condition of gender inequality in the field of economy in Pakistan. Pakistan’s poor ranking in Global Gender Gap Index, 2016 clearly depicts that women are deprived of fundamental rights as well as equal opportunities of development. This very state of affairs depicts the real picture of government’s commitment to women empowerment and gender equality. The nature of this research is descriptive which helps to determine the status of women in Pakistan on the basis of labour force participation, wage gap, estimated incomes, and ratio of high ranking positions secured by women. It is an endeavor to understand the reasons of economic inequality by following qualitative method of research. Moreover, few recommendations will be suggested to get rid of this issue.

Keywords: dismal, discrimination, feudal, patriarchal, wage gap

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382 Social Problems and Gender Wage Gap Faced by Working Women in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Narjis Kahtoon

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The issue of the wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem has been a significant research problem for several decades. Whereas lots of have explored reasons for the persistence of an inequality in the wages of male and female, none has successfully explained away the entire differentiation. The wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem of working women is a global issue. Although inequality in political and economic and social make-up of countries all over the world, the gender wage discrimination, and social constraint is present. The aim of the research is to examine the gender wage discrimination and social constraint from an international perspective and to determine whether any pattern exists among cultural dimensions of a country and the man and women remuneration gap in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan. Population growth rate is significant indicator used to explain the change in population and play a crucial point in the economic development of a country. In Pakistan, readymade garment sector consists of small, medium and large sized firms. With an estimated 30 percent of the workforce in textile- Garment is females’. Readymade garment industry is a labor intensive industry and relies on the skills of individual workers and provides highest value addition in the textile sector. In the Garment sector, female workers are concentrated in poorly paid, labor-intensive down-stream production (readymade garments, linen, towels, etc.), while male workers dominate capital- intensive (ginning, spinning and weaving) processes. Gender wage discrimination and social constraint are reality in Pakistan Labor Market. This research allows us not only to properly detect the size of gender wage discrimination and social constraint but to also fully understand its consequences in readymade garment sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, research will evaluated this measure for the three main clusters like Lahore, Karachi, and Faisalabad. These data contain complete details of male and female workers and supervisors in the readymade garment sector of Pakistan. These sources of information provide a unique opportunity to reanalyze the previous finding in the literature. The regression analysis focused on the standard 'Mincerian' earning equation and estimates it separately by gender, the research will also imply the cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede (2001) to profile a country’s cultural status and compare those cultural dimensions to the wage inequalities. Readymade garment of Pakistan is one of the important sectors since its products have huge demand at home and abroad. These researches will a major influence on the measures undertaken to design a public policy regarding wage discrimination and social constraint in readymade garment sector of Pakistan.

Keywords: gender wage differentials, decomposition, garment, cultural

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381 Wage Differentials in Pakistan by Focusing on Wage Differentials in Public and Private Sectors, Formal and Informal Sectors, and Major Occupational Groups

Authors: Asghar Ali, Narjis Khatoon

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This study focuses on the presence of wage differentials in Pakistan and also on the determinants that originate it. Since there are a smaller number of studies that are conducted on this topic in Pakistan, the current study aims to contribute in bridging the existing gap in this particular research genre. Hence, this study not only generates the desired results specific focus but it also contributes to the overall empirical work on the Pakistan economy. The preceding works which have been done to research wage determinants and wage differentials have used numerous different theories and approaches to reach their goals. The current study, in order to analyze the determinants of wage differentials in the developing economy, deals with the study of a number of such theories and approaches that are supposed as being beneficial for the purpose. This study undertakes the explanation of wage differentials in Pakistan by focusing on wage differentials in public and private sectors, formal and informal sectors, and major occupational groups. The study uses 'Wage Theory' to examine wage differentials among male and female employees in public and private sectors on varied levels of working conditions. This study also uses 'Segmented Labor Market Theory' to determine the wage differential in both public and private sectors, formal and informal, and major occupational groups in Pakistan. So the author has used various econometric techniques in order to explain and test these theories and to find out the required results. This study has employed seven different cross-sectional Labour Force Surveys for the time period between 2006-07 to 2012-13. Gender equality is not only a policy reform agenda for developing countries but also an important goal of Millennium Development Goals. This study investigates the nexus between wage inequality and economic growth and detects co-integration between gender wage differential and economic growth using ARDL bound test. It is confirmed from the empirical results that there exists long-run relationship between economic growth and wage differential. Our study indicated that half of the total female employees from fourteen major cities of Pakistan were employed in the public sector. Out of total female employees in private sector, 66 percent are employed in the formal sector, and 33 percent are working in the informal sector. Results also indicated that both men and women were paid more in the public sector compared to the private sector counterparts. Among the total female employees, only 9 percent had received any formal training, 52% were married and average years of schooling were 11 years. Further, our findings regarding wage differential between genders indicate that wage gap is lower in public sector as compared to private sector. In proportion, gender wage ratio was found to be 0.96, 0.62 and 0.66 in public, formal private and informal private sectors respectively. This suggests that in this case, private sector female employees with the same pay structure are compensated at a lower endowments rate as then public sector workers as compared to their counter parts.

Keywords: wage differentials, formal, informal, economic growth

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380 The Impact of a Living Wage on the UK Hotel Sector

Authors: Andreas Walmsley, Shobana Partington, Rebecca Armstrong, Harold Goodwin

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In the UK, more than 1 in 5 workers earn less than a living wage. The hospitality sector is particularly affected where it has been claimed two thirds of workers earn less than the living wage. The UK Government is set to introduce (April 2016) a national living wage (NLW) which is therefore likely to have a significant impact on the hospitality sector. To date limited data exists that focus on how hotels are tackling the issue, what stakeholder perceptions are towards the change in legislation, and how the NLW may affect working patterns in the sector. This study draws on interviews with a range of key stakeholders such as hotel HR and general managers as well as industry representatives to explore these issues within the broader context of responsible tourism. Data collection is still ongoing and is scheduled to be completed by the end of June 2016.

Keywords: hospitality, living wage, responsible tourism, tourism employment

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379 Sexual Orientation, Household Labour Division and the Motherhood Wage Penalty

Authors: Julia Hoefer Martí

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While research has consistently found a significant motherhood wage penalty for heterosexual women, where homosexual women are concerned, evidence has appeared to suggest no effect, or possibly even a wage bonus. This paper presents a model of the household with a public good that requires both a monetary expense and a labour investment, and where the household budget is shared between partners. Lower-wage partners will do relatively more of the household labour while higher-wage partners will specialise in market labour, and the arrival of a child exacerbates this split, resulting in the lower-wage partner taking on even more of the household labour in relative terms. Employers take this gender-sexuality dyad as a signal for employees’ commitment to the labour market after having a child, and use the information when setting wages after employees become parents. Given that women empirically earn lower wages than men, in a heterosexual couple the female partner will often do more of the household labour. However, as not every female partner has a lower wage, this results in an over-adjustment of wages that manifests as an unexplained motherhood wage penalty. On the other hand, in homosexual couples wage distributions are ex ante identical, and gender is no longer a useful signal to employers as to whether the partner is likely to specialise in household labour or market labour. This model is then tested using longitudinal data from the EU Standards of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) to investigate the hypothesis that women experience different wage effects of motherhood depending on their sexual orientation. While heterosexual women receive a significant motherhood wage penalty of 8-10%, homosexual mothers do not receive any significant wage bonus or penalty of motherhood, consistent with the hypothesis presented above.

Keywords: discrimination, gender, motherhood, sexual orientation, labor economics

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378 The Aspect of Urban Inequality after Urban Redevelopment Projects

Authors: Sungik Kang, Ja-Hoon Koo

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Globally, urban environments have become unequal, and cities have been segmented by income class. It is predicted that urban inequality has arisen by urban redevelopment and reconstruction projects that improve the urban environment and innovate cities. This study aims to analyze the occurrence and characteristics of urban inequality by using the housing price and sale price and demonstrating the correlation with the urban redevelopment project. This study measures 14 years of urban inequality index for 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and analyzes the correlation between urban inequality with urban redevelopment projects. As a conclusion of this study, first, the urban inequality index of Seoul has been continuously rising since 2015. Trends from 2006 to 2019 have been in U-curved shape in between 2015. In 2019, Seoul's urban inequality index was 0.420, a level similar to that of the 2007 financial crisis. Second, the correlation between urban redevelopment and urban inequality was not statistically significant. Therefore, we judged that urban redevelopment's scale or project structure has nothing with urban inequality. Third, while district designation of urban reconstruction temporarily alleviates urban inequality, the completion of the project increases urban inequality. When designating a district, urban inequality is likely to decrease due to decreased outdated housing transactions. However, the correlation with urban inequality increases as expensive houses has been placed after project completion.

Keywords: urban inequality, urban redevelopment projects, urban reconstruction projects, housing price inequality, panel analysis

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377 Multidimensional Integral and Discrete Opial–Type Inequalities

Authors: Maja Andrić, Josip Pečarić

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Over the last five decades, an enormous amount of work has been done on Opial’s integral inequality, dealing with new proofs, various generalizations, extensions and discrete analogs. The Opial inequality is recognized as a fundamental result in the analysis of qualitative properties of solution of differential equations. We use submultiplicative convex functions, appropriate representations of functions and inequalities involving means to obtain generalizations and extensions of certain known multidimensional integral and discrete Opial-type inequalities.

Keywords: Opial's inequality, Jensen's inequality, integral inequality, discrete inequality

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376 The Wage Differential between Migrant and Native Workers in Australia: Decomposition Approach

Authors: Sabrina Tabassum

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Using Census Data for Housing and Population of Australia 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016, this paper shows the existence of wage differences between natives and immigrants in Australia. Addressing the heterogeneous nature of immigrants, this study group the immigrants in three broad categories- migrants from English speaking countries and migrants from India and China. Migrants from English speaking countries and India earn more than the natives per week, whereas migrants from China earn far less than the natives per week. Oaxaca decomposition suggests that major part of this differential is unexplained. Using the occupational segregation concept and Brown decomposition, this study indicates that migrants from India and China would have been earned more than the natives if they had the same occupation distribution as natives due to their individual characteristics. Within occupation, wage differences are more prominent than inter-occupation wage differences for immigrants from China and India.

Keywords: Australia, labour, migration, wage

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375 Uneven Development: Structural Changes and Income Outcomes across States in Malaysia

Authors: Siti Aiysyah Tumin

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This paper looks at the nature of structural changes—the transition of employment from agriculture, to manufacturing, then to different types of services—in different states in Malaysia and links it to income outcomes for households and workers. Specifically, this paper investigates the conditional association between the concentration of different economic activities and income outcomes (household incomes and employee wages) in almost four decades. Using publicly available state-level employment and income data, we found that significant wage premium was associated with “modern” services (finance, real estate, professional, information and communication), which are urban-based services sectors that employ a larger proportion of skilled and educated workers. However, employment in manufacturing and other services subsectors was significantly associated with a lower income dispersion and inequality, alluding to their importance in welfare improvements.

Keywords: employment, labor market, structural change, wage

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374 The Impact of Gender Inequality on Corruption:Evidence from Politics and Labor Market

Authors: Mahmoud Salari

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Corruption and gender inequality are the main topics of interest for both economists and policymakers. This study develops various static and dynamic estimation models to examine the impact of gender inequality in politics and the labor market on corruption using data of 170 countries from 1998 to 2014. This study uses two most reliable corruption indexes, including Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and Corruption Control (CC), to evaluate corruption levels across countries. The results indicate that gender inequality in politics has a strong impact on corruption level, and those countries that have larger/smaller gender inequality in their parliaments are faced with higher/lower corruption, respectively. Meanwhile, there is no enough evidence that supports the relationship between gender inequality in the labor market and corruption, and the results indicate that gender inequality in the labor market is not directly linked to the corruption level.

Keywords: corruption, female labor force participation, politics, gender inequality

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373 Wage Differentiation Patterns of Households Revisited for Turkey in Same Industry Employment: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

Authors: Yasin Kutuk, Bengi Yanik Ilhan

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Previous studies investigate the wage differentiations among regions in Turkey between couples who work in the same industry and those who work in different industries by using the models that is appropriate for cross sectional data. However, since there is no available panel data for this investigation in Turkey, pseudo panels using repeated cross-section data sets of the Household Labor Force Surveys 2004-2014 are employed in order to open a new way to examine wage differentiation patterns. For this purpose, household heads are separated into groups with respect to their household composition. These groups’ membership is assumed to be fixed over time such as age groups, education, gender, and NUTS1 (12 regions) Level. The average behavior of them can be tracked overtime same as in the panel data. Estimates using the pseudo panel data would be consistent with the estimates using genuine panel data on individuals if samples are representative of the population which has fixed composition, characteristics. With controlling the socioeconomic factors, wage differentiation of household income is affected by social, cultural and economic changes after global economic crisis emerged in US. It is also revealed whether wage differentiation is changing among the birth cohorts.

Keywords: wage income, same industry, pseudo panel, panel data econometrics

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372 Young People, the Internet and Inequality: What are the Causes and Consequences of Exclusion?

Authors: Albin Wallace

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Part of the provision within educational institutions is the design, commissioning and implementation of ICT facilities to improve teaching and learning. Inevitably, these facilities focus largely on Internet Protocol (IP) based provisions including access to the World Wide Web, email, interactive software and hardware tools. Educators should be committed to the use of ICT to improve learning and teaching as well as to issues relating to the Internet and educational disadvantage, especially with respect to access and exclusion concerns. In this paper I examine some recent research into the issue of inequality and use of the Internet during which I discuss the causes and consequences of exclusion in the context of social inequality, digital literacy and digital inequality, also touching on issues of global inequality.

Keywords: inequality, internet, education, design

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371 Employment Mobility and the Effects of Wage Level and Tenure

Authors: Idit Kalisher, Israel Luski

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One result of the growing dynamicity of labor markets in recent decades is a wider scope of employment mobility – i.e., transitions between employers, either within or between careers. Employment mobility decisions are primarily affected by the current employment status of the worker, which is reflected in wage and tenure. Using 34,328 observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLS79), which were derived from the USA population between 1990 and 2012, this paper aims to investigate the effects of wage and tenure over employment mobility choices, and additionally to examine the effects of other personal characteristics, individual labor market characteristics and macroeconomic factors. The estimation strategy was designed to address two challenges that arise from the combination of the model and the data: (a) endogeneity of the wage and the tenure in the choice equation; and (b) unobserved heterogeneity, as the data of this research is longitudinal. To address (a), estimation was performed using two-stage limited dependent variable procedure (2SLDV); and to address (b), the second stage was estimated using femlogit – an implementation of the multinomial logit model with fixed effects. Among workers who have experienced at least one turnover, the wage was found to have a main effect on career turnover likelihood of all workers, whereas the wage effect on job turnover likelihood was found to be dependent on individual characteristics. The wage was found to negatively affect the turnover likelihood and the effect was found to vary across wage level: high-wage workers were more affected compared to low-wage workers. Tenure was found to have a main positive effect on both turnover types’ likelihoods, though the effect was moderated by the wage. The findings also reveal that as their wage increases, women are more likely to turnover than men, and academically educated workers are more likely to turnover within careers. Minorities were found to be as likely as Caucasians to turnover post wage-increase, but less likely to turnover with each additional tenure year. The wage and the tenure effects were found to vary also between careers. The difference in attitude towards money, labor market opportunities and risk aversion could explain these findings. Additionally, the likelihood of a turnover was found to be affected by previous unemployment spells, age, and other labor market and personal characteristics. The results of this research could assist policymakers as well as business owners and employers. The former may be able to encourage women and older workers’ employment by considering the effects of gender and age on the probability of a turnover, and the latter may be able to assess their employees’ likelihood of a turnover by considering the effects of their personal characteristics.

Keywords: employment mobility, endogeneity, femlogit, turnover

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370 The Role of ICT for Income Inequality: The Model and the Simulations

Authors: Shoji Katagiri

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This paper is to clarify the relationship between ICT and income inequality. To do so, we develop the general equilibrium model with ICT investment, obtain the equilibrium solutions, and then simulate the model with these solutions for some OECD countries. As a result, generally, during the corresponding periods we confirm that the relationship between ICT investment and income inequality is positive. In this mode, the increment of the ratio of ICT investment to the aggregated investment in stock enhances the capital’s share of income, and finally leads to income inequality such as the increase of the share of the top decile income. Although we confirm the positive relationship between ICT investment and income inequality, the upward trend for that relationship depends on the values of parameters for the making use of the simulations and these parameters are not deterministic in the magnitudes on the calculated results for the simulations.

Keywords: ICT, inequality, capital accumulation, technology

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369 Inequality for Doubly Warped Product Manifolds

Authors: Morteza Faghfouri

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In this paper we establish a general inequality involving the Laplacian of the warping functions and the squared mean curvature of any doubly warped product isometrically immersed in a Riemannian manifold.

Keywords: integral submanifolds, S-space forms, doubly warped product, inequality

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368 Theorizing Income Inequality in the Face of Financial Globalization

Authors: Li Sheng

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Based on an extended post-Keynesian model, we find that the association between the savings rate and income inequality is negative if savers’ funds are borrowed by spending households for consumption but positive if savings are channeled to investing firms for production. A negative association, such as the one that exists in the U.S., hinges on an income illusion created by an asset bubble and cheap credit. Thus, financial globalization leads consumption and income inequality to diverge, and the divergence is more extreme if lower-income groups have higher debt ratios. A positive association, such as the one that exists in China, relates to liquidity constraints faced by consumers such that consumption inequality closely follows income inequality. Our results imply that income inequality must be reduced in both types of countries to increase savings in deficit economies with negative associations and to reduce savings in surplus economies with positive associations.

Keywords: savings rate, income inequality, financial globalization, global imbalances

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367 Social Comparison at the Workplace: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kolkata, India

Authors: Pooja Balasubramanian, Ghida Karbala

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Unfair treatment at the workplace encourages workers to adjust their behavior in order to restore fairness and align monetary returns to costs. This adjustment of behavior, however, may differ depending on the reference group considered to evaluate equity. In this aspect two main questions are to be considered: How do workers respond to unfair treatment at the workplace? And how does this response change depending on the identity of the reference group? To answer the above research questions, this paper utilizes data from a randomized field experiment conducted in Kolkata, India where student assistants were hired to help in a data entry task. Recruited workers were working in a team of two and were offered a fixed wage per hour. Workers were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: A control group not subjected (1) to wage cuts (2) A general wage cut (3) A unilateral wage cut in reference to colleagues with similar social identity (4) A unilateral wage cut in reference to colleagues with a different social identity, where social identity is defined in terms of gender. Results show a significant decrease in the quantity and quality of work following a general wage cut. A more severe drop in productivity was presented by men in the case of unilateral wage cut, while women experiencing unilateral wage cuts didn’t exhibit a similar behavior regardless of the gender of the team member. To the contrary, women matched with a male colleague and experiencing unilateral wage cut show a slight increase in productivity, a result that contributes to the discussion regarding the paradox of the 'content female worker'. These findings highlight the necessity of a better understanding of the social comparison processes prevailing at the workplace, given the major role they play in determining the level of productivity supplied.

Keywords: effort supply, fairness, reference groups, social comparison

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366 The Inequality Effects of Natural Disasters: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Annop Jaewisorn

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This study explores the relationship between natural disasters and inequalities -both income and expenditure inequality- at a micro-level of Thailand as the first study of this nature for this country. The analysis uses a unique panel and remote-sensing dataset constructed for the purpose of this research. It contains provincial inequality measures and other economic and social indicators based on the Thailand Household Survey during the period between 1992 and 2019. Meanwhile, the data on natural disasters, which are remote-sensing data, are received from several official geophysical or meteorological databases. Employing a panel fixed effects, the results show that natural disasters significantly reduce household income and expenditure inequality as measured by the Gini index, implying that rich people in Thailand bear a higher cost of natural disasters when compared to poor people. The effect on income inequality is mainly driven by droughts, while the effect on expenditure inequality is mainly driven by flood events. The results are robust across heterogeneity of the samples, lagged effects, outliers, and an alternative inequality measure.

Keywords: inequality, natural disasters, remote-sensing data, Thailand

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365 Interdependencies Of Culture, Economy, And Resource Availability ’ As 'Determinants Of Spatial Inequality In Cities

Authors: Shahna KC, Ar. Belay Menon, Ar. Taniya Joshua

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As globalization in the era progresses, spatial inequality is turned to be one of the major concerns; the main intent of the Study is to focus on if there is any interdependencies of culture economy and resource availability on creating spatial inequality in cities. The paper tries to establish the relationship between spatial inequality – the quality of life – the DETERMINANT TRIAD (culture, economy, resource availability). Slum area of Dharavi is taken to evaluate the influence of these determinants on the quality of life as spatial inequality is evident there. Interdependencies of the determinants on creating spatial inequality is evaluated. For this, It is understood that these three parameters, i.e., culture, economy, resource availability, are determinants of urban design, each from the social, economic, environmental domains of sustainability, respectively. And there are studies individually on each of these aspects, how they determine the urban spaces, and how influential on the whole process of urbanization. Now extending the study towards the interdependencies of these three so as to find out how these trilogy shapes the urban form and space.

Keywords: spatial inequality, culture, economy, resource availability, quality of life

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364 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

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In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

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363 Inequality of Opportunities in the Health of the Adult Population of Russia

Authors: Marina Kartseva, Polina Kuznetsova

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In our work, we estimate the contribution of inequality of opportunity to inequality in the health of the Russian population aged 25 to 74 years. The empirical basis of the study is the nationally representative data of the RLMS for 2018. Individual health is measured using a self-reported status on five-point scale. The startconditions are characterized by parental education and place of birth (country, type of settlement). Personal efforts to maintain health include the level of education, smoking status, and physical activity. To understand how start opportunities affect an individual's health, we use the methodology proposed in (Trannoy et al., 2010), which takes into account both direct and indirect (through the influence on efforts) effects. Regression analysis shows that all other things being equal, the starting capabilities of individuals have a significant impact on their health. In particular, parental education has a positive effect on self-reported health. Birth in another country, in another settlement, and in an urban area, on the contrary, reduceself-reported health. This allows to conclude that there exists an unfair inequality in health, namely inequality caused by factors that are independent of a person's own efforts. We estimate the contribution of inequality of opportunity to inequality in health using a nonparametric approach (Checchi, Peragine, 2010; Lazar, 2013). According to the obtained results, the contribution of unfair inequality as 72-74% for the population as a whole, being slightly higher for women (62-74% and 60-69% for men and women, respectively) and for older age (59- 62% and 67-75% for groups 25-44 years old and 45-74 years old, respectively). The obtained estimates are comparable with the results for other countries and indicate the importance of the problem of inequality of opportunities in health in Russia.

Keywords: inequality of opportunity, inequality in health, self-reported health, efforts, health-related lifestyle, Russia, RLMS

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362 Converse to the Sherman Inequality with Applications in Information Theory

Authors: Ana Barbir, S. Ivelic Bradanovic, D. Pecaric, J. Pecaric

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We proved a converse to Sherman's inequality. Using the concept of f-divergence we obtained some inequalities for the well-known entropies, such as Shannon entropies that have many applications in many applied sciences, for example, in information theory, biology and economics Zipf-Mandelbrot law gave improvement in account for the low-rankwords in corpus. Applications of Zipf-Mandelbrot law can be found in linguistics, information sciences and also mostly applicable in ecological eld studies. We also introduced an entropy by applying the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and derived some related inequalities.

Keywords: f-divergence, majorization inequality, Sherman inequality, Zipf-Mandelbrot entropy

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361 The Effect of Absolute and Relative Deprivation on Homicides in Brazil

Authors: Temidayo James Aransiola, Vania Ceccato, Marcelo Justus

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This paper investigates the effect of absolute deprivation (proxy unemployment) and relative deprivation (proxy income inequality) on homicide levels in Brazil. A database from the Brazilian Information System about Mortality and Census of the year 2000 and 2010 was used to estimate negative binomial models of homicide levels controlling for socioeconomic, demographic and geographic factors. Findings show that unemployment and income inequality affect homicides levels and that the effect of the former is more pronounced compared to the latter. Moreover, the combination of income inequality and unemployment exacerbates the overall effect of deprivation on homicide levels.

Keywords: deprivation, inequality, interaction, unemployment, violence

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360 Impact of Financial Inclusion on Gender Inequality: An Empirical Examination

Authors: Sumanta Kumar Saha, Jie Qin

Abstract:

This study analyzes the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality in 126 countries belonging to different income groups during the 2005–2019 period. Due to its positive influence on poverty alleviation, economic growth, women empowerment, and income inequality reduction, financial inclusion may help reduce gender equality. This study constructs a novel composite financial inclusion index and applies both fixed-effect panel estimation and instrumental variable approach to examine the impact of financial inclusion on gender inequality. The results indicate that financial inclusion can reduce gender inequality in developing and low- and lower-middle-income countries, but not in higher-income countries. The impact is not always immediate. Past financial inclusion initiatives have a significant influence on future gender inequality. Financial inclusion is also significant if the poverty level is high and women's access to financial services is low compared to men. When the poverty level is low, or women have equal access to financial services, financial inclusion does not significantly affect gender inequality. The study finds that compulsory education and improvement in institutional quality promote gender equality in developing countries apart from financial inclusion. The study proposes that lower-income countries use financial inclusion initiatives to improve gender equality. Other countries need to focus on other aspects such as promoting educational support and institutional quality improvements to achieve gender equality.

Keywords: financial inclusion, gender inequality, institutional quality, women empowerment

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