Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 144

Search results for: openness

144 Industry Openness, Human Capital and Wage Inequality: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms

Authors: Qiong Huang, Satish Chand

Abstract:

This paper uses a primary data from 670 Chinese manufacturing firms, together with the newly introduced regressionbased inequality decomposition method, to study the effect of openness on wage inequality. We find that openness leads to a positive industry wage premium, but its contribution to firm-level wage inequality is relatively small, only 4.69%. The major contributor to wage inequality is human capital, which could explain 14.3% of wage inequality across sample firms.  

Keywords: openness, human capital, wage inequality, decomposition, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
143 Personality Predispositions to Higher Order Motivations of Morality and Frugality for Pro-environmental Behavior

Authors: Sepase K. Ivande

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Morality and frugality are two of the strongest motivations for pro-environmental behavior. However, formulating interventions based on these motivations requires knowledge of who is likely to be motivated by morality and who by frugality. This study investigated which personality traits make someone predisposed to morality motivation and which to frugality motivation for pro-environmental behavior. Results from a series of multiple regression analyses indicated that openness and agreeableness had a positive association with morality motivation, while conscientiousness had a positive association with frugality motivation. The link of agreeableness to morality motivation was stronger when the individuals were also higher on openness. Furthermore, a pair of Wilcoxon signed-rank tests revealed that individuals high on openness and agreeableness but low on conscientiousness scored higher on morality than frugality motivation. On the other hand, individuals low on openness and agreeableness but high on conscientiousness scored higher on frugality than morality motivation. The results of this study could inform the formulation of personalized interventions based on people’s personal predisposition to morality and frugality motivation for pro-environmental behavior, which could be more effective in getting them to be pro-environmental.

Keywords: agreeableness, conscientiousness, frugality, higher order motivations, morality, openness to experience, personality traits, pro-environmental behavior

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142 Trade Policy and Economic Growth of Turkey in Global Economy: New Empirical Evidence

Authors: Pınar Yardımcı

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This paper tries to answer to the questions whether or not trade openness cause economic growth and trade policy changes is good for Turkey as a developing country in global economy before and after 1980. We employ Johansen cointegration and Granger causality tests with error correction modelling based on vector autoregressive. Using WDI data from the pre-1980 and the post-1980, we find that trade openness and economic growth are cointegrated in the second term only. Also the results suggest a lack of long-run causality between our two variables. These findings may imply that trade policy of Turkey should concentrate more on extra complementary economic reforms.

Keywords: globalization, trade policy, economic growth, openness, cointegration, Turkey

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141 The Correlation of Economic Variables on Domestic Investment

Authors: Amirreza Attarzadeh

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This paper aims to investigate the relationship between economic variables, e.g., inflation rate, interest rate, trade openness and the growth rate of GDP, with domestic investment. The present study also draws on conceptual economy related theories to verify the negative effect of interest rates on domestic investment. However, trade openness and growth rate had a positive correlation, and the inflation rate may have a positive or negative impact on domestic investment.

Keywords: inflation rate, growth rate of GDP, interest rate and trade openness, domestic investment

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140 Thoughts on the Degree of Openness for Opening Residential District from the Perspective of Landscape Design

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu, Siyu Bu

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The development of opening residential district is the inevitable trend in China. The landscape resources in opening districts are the main resource for their sharing. However, there is a certain contradiction between the ideal of urban development and the reality of constraints. How to find a balance, to ensure a reasonable open ‘degree’ is particularly important. The opening residential district landscape design should reflect the relative independence of living space, taking into account the basic needs of residents; but also the integration of space, resource sharing, to ensure that the order of daily life on the basis of social interaction and adapt to the dynamic development of the city changes. And ultimately to achieve a reasonable degree of openness to settlements.

Keywords: degree of openness, landscape design, opening residential district, urban design

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139 Modeling Spillover Effects of Pakistan-India Bilateral Trade upon Sustainability of Economic Growth in Pakistan

Authors: Taimoor Hussain Alvi, Syed Toqueer Akhter

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The focus of this research is to identify Pak-India bilateral trade spillover effects upon Pakistan’s Growth rate. Cross-country spillover growth Effects have been linked with openness and access to markets. In this research, we intend to see the short run and long run effects of Pak-India Bilateral Trade Openness upon economic growth in Pakistan. Trade Openness has been measured as the sum of bilateral exports and imports between the two countries. Increased emphasis on the condition and environment of financial markets is laid in light of globalization and trade liberalization. This research paper makes use of the Univariate Autoregressive Distributed Lagged Model to analyze the effects of bilateral trade variables upon the growth pattern of Pakistan in the short run and long run. Key findings of the study empirically support the notion that increased bilateral trade will be beneficial for Pakistan in the short run because of cost advantage and knowledge spillover in terms of increased technical and managerial ability from multinational firms. However, contrary to extensive literature, increased bilateral trade measures will affect Pakistan’s growth rate negatively in the long run because of the industrial size differential and increased integration of Indian economy with the world.

Keywords: bilateral trade openness, spillover, comparative advantage, univariate

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138 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana

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Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

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137 Trade Openness, Productivity Growth And Economic Growth: Nigeria’s Experience

Authors: S. O. Okoro

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Some words become the catch phrase of a particular decade. Globalization, Openness, and Privatization are certainly among the most frequently encapsulation of 1990’s; the market is ‘in’, ‘the state is out’. In the 1970’s, there were many political economists who spoke of autarky as one possible response to global economic forces. Be self-contained, go it alone, put up barriers to trans-nationalities, put in place import-substitution industrialization policy and grow domestic industries. In 1990’s, the emasculation of the state is by no means complete, but there is an acceptance that the state’s power is circumscribed by forces beyond its control and potential leverage. Autarky is no longer as a policy option. Nigeria, since its emergence as an independent nation, has evolved two macroeconomic management regimes of the interventionist and market friendly styles. This paper investigates Nigeria’s growth performance over the periods incorporating these two regimes and finds that there is no structural break in Total Factor Productivity, (TFP) growth and besides, the TFP growth over the entire period of study 1970-2012 is very negligible and hence growth can only be achieved by the unsustainable factor accumulation. Another important finding of this work is that the openness-human capital interaction term has a significant impact on the TFP growth, but the sign of the estimated coefficient does not meet it a theoretical expectation. This is because the negative coefficient on the human capital outweighs the positive openness effect. The poor quality of human capital is considered to have given rise to this. Given these results a massive investment in the education sector is required. The investment should be targeted at reforms that go beyond mere structural reforms to a reform agenda that will improve the quality of human capital in Nigeria.

Keywords: globalization, emasculation, openness and privatization, total factor productivity

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136 Trade Liberalisation and South Africa’s CO2 Emissions

Authors: Marcel Kohler

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The effect of trade liberalization on environmental conditions has yielded a great deal of debate in the current energy economics literature. Although research on the relationship between income growth and CO2 emissions is not new in South Africa, few studies address the role that South Africa’s foreign trade plays in this context. This paper undertakes to investigate empirically the impact of South Africa’s foreign trade reforms over the last four decades on its energy consumption and CO2 emissions by taking into account not only the direct effect of trade on each, but also its indirect effect through income induced growth. Using co integration techniques we attempt to disentangle the long and short-run relationship between trade openness, income per capita and energy consumption and CO2 emissions in South Africa. The preliminary results of this study find support for a positive bi-directional relationship between output and CO2 emissions, as well as between trade openness and CO2. This evidence confirms the expectation that as the South African economy opens up to foreign trade and experiences growth in per capita income, the countries CO2 emissions will increase.

Keywords: trade openness, CO2 emissions, cointegration, South Africa

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135 Analysis of Causality between Economic Growth and Carbon Emissions: The Case of Mexico 1971-2011

Authors: Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez

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This paper analyzes the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis to test the causality relationship between economic activity, trade openness and carbon dioxide emissions in Mexico (1971-2011). The results achieved in this research show that there are three long-run relationships between production, trade openness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The EKC hypothesis was not verified in this research. Indeed, it was found evidence of a short-term unidirectional causality from GDP and GDP squared to carbon dioxide emissions, from GDP, GDP squared and TO to EC, and bidirectional causality between TO and GDP. Finally, it was found evidence of long-term unidirectional causality from all variables to carbon emissions. These results suggest that a reduction in energy consumption, economic activity, or an increase in trade openness would reduce pollution.

Keywords: causality, cointegration, energy consumption, economic growth, environmental Kuznets curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
134 The Reception of Disclosure of Sexual Teens in Media

Authors: Rizky Kertanegara

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Reception studies is one of the cultural studies lately evolved in the realm of communication science. This qualitative study was pioneered by Stuart Hall who initiated the dominant, negotiation, and opposition of audience reading to the text of the media. In its development, this reception studies is developed by Kim Christian Schroder become multidimensional reception studies. In this update, Schroder aware that there has been a bias between readings made by the informant with readings conducted by researchers over the informant. Therefore, he classifies the reception into two dimensions, namely the dimension of reading by informants and implications dimensions conducted by researcher. Using Schroder approach, these studies seek to describe the reception of adolescent girls, as research subjects, to the elements contained sexual openness in the music video Cinta Laura as the object of research. Researcher wanted to see how they interpret the values of Western culture based on the values of their culture as a teenager. Researchers used a descriptive qualitative research method by conducting in-depth interviews to the informants who comes from a religious school. The selection of informants was done by using purposeful sampling. Collaboration with the school, the researchers were able to select informants who could provide rich data related to the topic. The analysis showed that there is permissiveness informants in addressing sexual openness in the music video. In addition, informants from Catholic schools were more open than the informant derived from Islamic schools in accepting the values of sexual openness. This permisiveness is regarded as a form of self-actualization and gender equality.

Keywords: cultural studies, multidimensional reception model, sexual openness, youth audience

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
133 Role of Foreign Direct Investment in Economic Growth of Pakistan

Authors: Nayyra Zeb, Fu Qiang, Sundas Rauf

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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is often seen as a significant factor of economic development in developing countries like Pakistan. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of FDI on Pakistan’s economic growth during 1972–2012. Besides FDI, three other variables such as trade openness, political instability and terrorist attacks are also used in this study. The least square method has been applied to check the effect of these variables on GDP of Pakistan. The results show that FDI has a positive significant effect on economic growth of Pakistan.

Keywords: FDI inflows, trade openness, political instability, terrorist attacks

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132 The Sociocultural Adaptation, Openness, and Success of Sojourn of Foreign Students in Tarlac City, Philippines

Authors: Maria Sheila S. Garcia

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A good number of researches indicate that living in another country may create different and unexpected adjustment problems, and foreign students are not exempted from this. To provide an understanding of this process, 30 foreign college students studying English in Tarlac City were asked to answer questionnaires. This is to determine their sociocultural adaptation, openness to the host culture and success of sojourn. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the students experience greater difficulty in the academic area. Moderate difficulty was attributed to everyday life and social interactions. Albeit difficult, what they like best is the school’s methods of teaching English while the areas that need improvement are the libraries and internet connection. The only significant relationship was found between sociocultural adaptation and success of sojourn. Negatively correlated, if students experience greater difficulties in their host country, they are likely to regret their stay and will not recommend it to anyone. Openness to the host culture did not have an effect on the adaptation and success of sojourn. The short period of time that the students have are spent in studying rather than making friends. Nonetheless, this indicates the need to look deeper into the academic, extra-curricular activities and facilities provided by learning institutions.

Keywords: foreign students, sociocultural adaptation, success of sojourn, Tarlac Philippines

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131 A Study of New Window Typology for Palestinian Residential Building for More Sustainable Building

Authors: Nisreen Ardda

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Fenestrations are one of the main building envelope elements that play an important role in home social-ecological l factors. They play a vital role in providing natural lighting and ventilation, visual, thermal, and acoustical comfort, and also provide weather-tightness, privacy, a feeling of openness. In most home buildings, fenestrations are controlled manually by the occupants, which significantly impacts occupants' comfort and energy use. Culture plays a central role in the Palestinians window operation behavior. Improved windows design that provides the desired privacy while maintaining the appropriate function of fenestration (natural lighting, thermal comfort, and visual openness) is becoming a necessity. Therefore, this paper proposes a window typology to achieve the social and environmental factors in residential buildings in the West Bank. The window typology and reference building were designed in Rivet 2021, and natural ventilation was carried out in Design Builder 4.3.0.039. The results showed that the proposed typology provides the desired privacy and the feeling of openness without compromising natural ventilation as the existing window did.

Keywords: window design, passive design, sustainable built environment, building material

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130 The Direct Drivers of Ethnocentric Consumer, Intention and Actual Purchasing Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Nik Kamariah Nikmat, Noor Hasmini Abdghani

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The Malaysian government had consistently revived its campaign for “Buy Malaysian Goods” from time to time. The purpose of the campaign is to remind consumers to be ethnocentric and patriotic when purchasing product and services. This is necessary to ensure high demand for local products and services compared to foreign products. However, the decline of domestic investment in 2012 has triggered concern for the Malaysian economy. Hence, this study attempts to determine the drivers of actual purchasing behavior, intention to purchase domestic products and ethnocentrism. The study employs the cross-sectional primary data, self-administered on household, selected using stratified random sampling in four Malaysian regions. A nine factor driver of actual domestic purchasing behavior (culture openness, conservatism, collectivism, patriotism, control belief, interest in foreign travel, attitude, ethnocentrism and intention) were measured utilizing 60 items, using 7-point Likert-scale. From 1000 questionnaires distributed, a sample of 486 were returned representing 48.6 percent response rate. From the fit generated structural model (SEM analysis), it was found that the drivers of actual purchase behavior are collectivism, cultural openness and patriotism; the drivers of intention to purchase domestic product are attitude, control belief, collectivism and conservativeness; and drivers of ethnocentrism are cultural openness, control belief, foreign travel and patriotism. It also shows that Malaysian consumers scored high in ethnocentrism and patriotism. The findings are discussed in the perspective of its implication to Malaysian National Agenda.

Keywords: actual purchase, ethnocentrism, patriotism, culture openness, conservatism

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129 Research on Road Openness in the Old Urban Residential District Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study on Kunming within the First Loop Road

Authors: Haoyang Liang, Dandong Ge

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With the rapid development of Chinese cities, traffic congestion has become more and more serious. At the same time, there are many closed old residential area in Chinese cities, which seriously affect the connectivity of urban roads and reduce the density of urban road networks. After reopening the restricted old residential area, the internal roads in the original residential area were transformed into urban roads, which was of great help to alleviate traffic congestion. This paper uses the spatial syntactic theory to analyze the urban road network and compares the roads with the integration and connectivity degree to evaluate whether the opening of the roads in the residential areas can improve the urban traffic. Based on the road network system within the first loop road in Kunming, the Space Syntax evaluation model is established for status analysis. And comparative analysis method will be used to compare the change of the model before and after the road openness of the old urban residential district within the first-ring road in Kunming. Then it will pick out the areas which indicate a significant difference for the small dimensions model analysis. According to the analyzed results and traffic situation, the evaluation of road openness in the old urban residential district will be proposed to improve the urban residential districts.

Keywords: Space Syntax, Kunming, urban renovation, traffic jam

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128 Economic Development Process: A Compartmental Analysis of a Model with Two Delays

Authors: Amadou Banda Ndione, Charles Awono Onana

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In this paper the compartmental approach is applied to build a macroeconomic model characterized by countries. We consider a total of N countries that are subdivided into three compartments according to their economic status: D(t) denotes the compartment of developing countries at time t, E(t) stands for the compartment of emerging countries at time t while A(t) represents advanced countries at time t. The model describes the process of economic development and includes the notion of openness through collaborations between countries. Two delays appear in this model to describe the average time necessary for collaborations between countries to become efficient for their development process. Our model represents the different stages of development. It further gives the conditions under which a country can change its economic status and demonstrates the short-term positive effect of openness on economic growth. In addition, we investigate bifurcation by considering the delay as a bifurcation parameter and examine the onset and termination of Hopf bifurcations from a positive equilibrium. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate the theoretical part and to support discussion.

Keywords: compartmental systems, delayed dynamical system, economic development, fiscal policy, hopf bifurcation

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127 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)

Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi

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This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base, and trade openness on gross fixed capital formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.

Keywords: ARDL, bounds test, capital formation, co-integration, Libya

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126 Probability Model Accidents of Motorcyclist Based on Driver's Personality

Authors: Margareth E. Bolla, Ludfi Djakfar, Achmad Wicaksono

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The increase in the number of motorcycle users in Indonesia is in line with the increase in accidents involving motorcycles. Several previous studies have shown that humans are the biggest factor causing accidents, and the driver's personality factor will affect his behavior on the road. This study was conducted to see how a person's personality traits will affect the probability of having an accident while driving. The Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire and the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT) simulator were used as measuring tools, while the analysis carried out was logistic regression analysis. The results of the descriptive analysis of the respondent's personality based on the BFI show that the majority of drivers have the dominant character of neuroticism (34%), while the smallest group is the driver with the dominant type of openness character (6%). The percentage of motorists who were not involved in an accident was 54%. The results of the logistic regression analysis form a mathematical model as follows Y = -3.852 - 0.288 X1 + 0.596 X2 + 0.429 X3 - 0.386 X4 - 0.094 X5 + 0.436 X6 + 0.162 X7, where the results of hypothesis testing indicate that the variables openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, history of traffic accidents and age at starting driving did not have a significant effect on the probability of a motorcyclist being involved in an accident.

Keywords: accidents, BFI, probability, simulator

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125 The Effect of "Trait" Variance of Personality on Depression: Application of the Trait-State-Occasion Modeling

Authors: Pei-Chen Wu

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Both preexisting cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of personality-depression relationship have suffered from one main limitation: they ignored the stability of the construct of interest (e.g., personality and depression) can be expected to influence the estimate of the association between personality and depression. To address this limitation, the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) modeling was adopted to analyze the sources of variance of the focused constructs. A TSO modeling was operated by partitioning a state variance into time-invariant (trait) and time-variant (occasion) components. Within a TSO framework, it is possible to predict change on the part of construct that really changes (i.e., time-variant variance), when controlling the trait variances. 750 high school students were followed for 4 waves over six-month intervals. The baseline data (T1) were collected from the senior high schools (aged 14 to 15 years). Participants were given Beck Depression Inventory and Big Five Inventory at each assessment. TSO modeling revealed that 70~78% of the variance in personality (five constructs) was stable over follow-up period; however, 57~61% of the variance in depression was stable. For personality construct, there were 7.6% to 8.4% of the total variance from the autoregressive occasion factors; for depression construct there were 15.2% to 18.1% of the total variance from the autoregressive occasion factors. Additionally, results showed that when controlling initial symptom severity, the time-invariant components of all five dimensions of personality were predictive of change in depression (Extraversion: B= .32, Openness: B = -.21, Agreeableness: B = -.27, Conscientious: B = -.36, Neuroticism: B = .39). Because five dimensions of personality shared some variance, the models in which all five dimensions of personality were simultaneous to predict change in depression were investigated. The time-invariant components of five dimensions were still significant predictors for change in depression (Extraversion: B = .30, Openness: B = -.24, Agreeableness: B = -.28, Conscientious: B = -.35, Neuroticism: B = .42). In sum, the majority of the variability of personality was stable over 2 years. Individuals with the greater tendency of Extraversion and Neuroticism have higher degrees of depression; individuals with the greater tendency of Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientious have lower degrees of depression.

Keywords: assessment, depression, personality, trait-state-occasion model

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124 A Possible Determinant of Musical Preference in Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Peter S. Kim

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The increasing availability of music facilitated by new technology and open sourcing has eliminated many traditional limiting factors in musical taste, creating a culture of choice. This study tested 191 international subjects, mostly young adults more decisively shaped by emerging technologies like Facebook, the platform for the study. Using an aggregated Big Five personality test, subjects were asked to self-report on questions related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Subsequently, subjects listened to five pairs of musical works reflecting opposite extremes of one of five musical qualities: tempo (fast/slow), complexity (simple/complex), degree of dissonance (tonal/atonal), familiarity (familiar/unfamiliar), and extra-musical significance (significant/not significant). Subjects were then asked to record listening times and preferences among the selections. Strikingly, this study shows a relatively high positive correlation between agreeableness and musical preferences (predicting preferences for simple, familiar, and fast music), as compared to extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Thus, this research suggests that the not yet well-understood relationship between personality traits and musical qualities merits further study.

Keywords: music perception, psychology, cognition, musical preference

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123 Determinant Factor Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Asean-6 Countries Period 2004-2012

Authors: Eleonora Sofilda, Ria Amalia, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah

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Foreign direct investment is one of the sources of financing or capital that important for a country, especially for developing countries. This investment also provides a great contribution to development through the transfer of assets, management improving, and transfer of technology in enhancing the economy of a country. In the other side currently in ASEAN countries emerge the interesting phenomenon where some big producers are re-locate their basic production among those countries. This research is aimed to analyze the factors that affect capital inflows of foreign direct investment into the 6 ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam) in period 2004-2012. This study uses panel data analysis to determine the factors that affect of foreign direct investment in 6 ASEAN. The factors that affect of foreign direct investment (FDI) are the gross domestic product (GDP), global competitiveness (GCI), interest rate, exchange rate and trade openness (TO). Result of panel data analysis show that three independent variables (GCI, GDP, and TO) have a significant effect to the FDI in 6 ASEAN Countries.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, the gross domestic product, global competitiveness, interest rate, exchange rate, trade openness, panel data analysis

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122 Prospects of Iraq’s Maritime Openness and Their Effect on Its Economy

Authors: Mohanad Hammad

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Port institutions serve as a link connecting the land areas that receive the goods and the areas from where ships sail. These areas hold great significance for the conversion of goods into commodities of economic value, capable of meeting the needs of the society. Development of ports constitutes a fundamental component of the comprehensive economic development process. Recognizing this fact, developing countries have always resorted to this infrastructural element to resolve the numerous problems they face, taking into account its contribution to the reformation of their economic conditions. Iraqi ports have played a major role in boosting the commercial movement in Iraq, as they are the starting point of its oil exports and a key constituent in fulfilling the consumer and production needs of the various economic sectors of Iraq. With the Gulf wars and the economic blockade, Iraqi ports have continued to deteriorate and become unable to perform their functions as first-generation ports, prompting Iraq to use the ports of neighboring countries such as Jordan's Aqaba commercial port. Meanwhile, Iraqi ports face strong competition from the ports of neighboring countries, which have achieved progress and advancement as opposed to the declining performance and efficiency of Iraqi ports. The great developments in the economic conditions of Iraq lay a too great burden on the Iraqi maritime transport and ports, which require development in order to be able to meet the challenges arising from the fierce international and regional competition in the markets. Therefore, it is necessary to find appropriate solutions in support of the role that can be played by Iraqi ports in serving Iraq's foreign trade transported by sea and in keeping up with the development of foreign trade. Thus, this research aims at tackling the current situation of the Iraqi ports and their commercial activity and studying the problems and obstacles they face. The research also studies the future prospects of these ports, the potentials of maritime openness to Iraq under the fierce competition of neighboring ports, and the possibility of enhancing Iraqi ports’ competitiveness. Among the results produced by this research is the future scenario it proposes for Iraqi ports, mainly represented in the establishment of Al-Faw Port, which will contribute to a greater openness of maritime transport in Iraq, and the rehabilitation and expansion of existing ports. This research seeks to develop solutions to Iraq ports so that they can be repositioned as a vital means of promoting economic development.

Keywords: maritime transport, port, future prospects, regional integration

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121 Evaluating the Effect of Spatial Qualities, Openness and Complexity, on Human Cognitive Performance within Virtual Reality

Authors: Pierre F. Gerard, Frederic F. Leymarie, William Latham

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Architects have developed a series of objective evaluations, using spatial analysis tools such as Isovist, that show how certain spatial qualities are beneficial to specific human activities hosted in the built environments. In return, they can build more adapted environments by tuning those spatial qualities in their design. In parallel, virtual reality technologies have been developed by engineers with the dream of creating a system that immerses users in a new form of spatial experiences. They already have demonstrated a useful range of benefits not only in simulating critical events to assist people in acquiring new skills, but also to enhance memory retention, to name just a few. This paper investigates the effects of two spatial qualities, openness, and complexity, on cognitive performance within immersive virtual environments. Isovist measure is used to design a series of room settings with different levels of each spatial qualities. In an empirical study, each room was then used by every participant to solve a navigational puzzle game and give a rating of their spatial experience. They were then asked to fill in a questionnaire before solving the visual-spatial memory quiz, which addressed how well they remembered the different rooms. Findings suggest that those spatial qualities have an effect on some of the measures, including navigation performance and memory retention. In particular, there is an order effect for the navigation puzzle game. Participants tended to spend a longer time in the complex room settings. Moreover, there is an interaction effect while with more open settings, participants tended to perform better when in a simple setting; however, with more closed settings, participants tended to perform better in a more complex setting. For the visual-spatial memory quiz, participants performed significantly better within the more open rooms. We believe this is a first step in using virtual environments to enhance participant cognitive performances through better use of specific spatial qualities.

Keywords: architecture, navigation, spatial cognition, virtual reality

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120 Slave Museums and a Site of Democratic Pedagogy: Engagement, Healing and Tolerance

Authors: Elaine Stavro

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In our present world where acts of incivility, intolerance and anger towards minority communities is on the rise, the ways museum practices cultivate ethical generosity is of interest. Democratic theorists differ as to how they believe respect can be generated through active participation. Allowing minority communities a role in determining what artifacts will be displayed and how they will be displayed has been an important step in generating respect. In addition, the rise of indigenous museums, slave museums and curators who represent these communities, contribute to the communication of their history of oppression. These institutional practices have been supplemented by the handling of objects, recognition stories and multisensory exhibitions. Psychoanalysis, object relations theorists believe that the handling of objects: amenable objects and responsive listeners will trigger the expression of anomie, alienation and traumatizing experiences. Not only memorializing but engaging with one’s lose in a very personal way can facilitate the process of mourning. Manchester Museum (UK) gathered together Somalian refugees, who in the process of handling their own objects and those offered at the museum, began to tell their stories. Democratic theorists (especially affect theorists or vital materialists or Actor Network theorists) believe that things can be social actants- material objects have agentic capacities that humans should align with. In doing so, they challenge social constructivism that attributes power to interpreted things, but like them they assume an openness or responsiveness to Otherness can be cultivated. Rich sensory experiences, corporeal engagement (devices that involve bodily movement or objects that involve handling) auditory experiences (songs) all contribute to improve one’s responsiveness and openness to Others. This paper will focus specifically on slave museums/ and exhibits in the U.K, the USA., South Africa to explore and evaluate their democratic strategies in cultivating tolerant practices via the various democratic avenues outlined above.

Keywords: democratic pedagogy, slave exhibitions, affect/emotion, object handling

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119 Globalisation, Growth and Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Ourvashi Bissoon

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Sub-Saharan Africa in addition to being resource rich is increasingly being seen as having a huge growth potential and as a result, is increasingly attracting MNEs on its soil. To empirically assess the effectiveness of GDP in tracking sustainable resource use and the role played by MNEs in Sub-Saharan Africa, a panel data analysis has been undertaken for 32 countries over thirty-five years. The time horizon spans the period 1980-2014 to reflect the evolution from before the publication of the pioneering Brundtland report on sustainable development to date. Multinationals’ presence is proxied by the level of FDI stocks. The empirical investigation first focuses on the impact of trade openness and MNE presence on the traditional measure of economic growth namely the GDP growth rate, and then on the genuine savings (GS) rate, a measure of weak sustainability developed by the World Bank, which assumes the substitutability between different forms of capital and finally, the impact on the adjusted Net National Income (aNNI), a measure of green growth which caters for the depletion of natural resources is examined. For countries with significant exhaustible natural resources and important foreign investor presence, the adjusted net national income (aNNI) can be a better indicator of economic performance than GDP growth (World Bank, 2010). The issue of potential endogeneity and reverse causality is also addressed in addition to robustness tests. The findings indicate that FDI and openness contribute significantly and positively to the GDP growth of the countries in the sample; however there is a threshold level of institutional quality below which FDI has a negative impact on growth. When the GDP growth rate is substituted for the GS rate, a natural resource curse becomes evident. The rents being generated from the exploitation of natural resources are not being re-invested into other forms of capital namely human and physical capital. FDI and trade patterns may be setting the economies in the sample on a unsustainable path of resource depletion. The resource curse is confirmed when utilising the aNNI as well, thus implying that GDP growth measure may not be a reliable to capture sustainable development.

Keywords: FDI, sustainable development, genuine savings, sub-Saharan Africa

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118 Similarities and Differences in Values of Young Women and Their Parents: The Effect of Value Transmission and Value Change

Authors: J. Fryt, K. Pietras, T. Smolen

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Intergenerational similarities in values may be effect of value transmission within families or socio-cultural trends prevailing at a specific point in time. According to salience hypothesis, salient family values may be transmitted more frequently. On the other hand, many value studies reveal that generational shift from social values (conservation and self-transcendence) to more individualistic values (openness to change and self-enhancement) suggest that value transmission and value change are two different processes. The first aim of our study was to describe similarities and differences in values of young women and their parents. The second aim was to determine which value similarities may be due to transmission within families. Ninety seven Polish women aged 19-25 and both their mothers and fathers filled in the Portrait Value Questionaire. Intergenerational similarities in values between women were found in strong preference for benevolence, universalism and self-direction as well as low preference for power. Similarities between younger women and older men were found in strong preference for universalism and hedonism as well as lower preference for security and tradition. Young women differed from older generation in strong preference for stimulation and achievement as well as low preference for conformity. To identify the origin of intergenerational similarities (whether they are the effect of value transmission within families or not), we used the comparison between correlations of values in family dyads (mother-daughter, father-daughter) and distribution of correlations in random intergenerational dyads (random mother-daughter, random father-daughter) as well as peer dyads (random daughter-daughter). Values representing conservation (security, tradition and conformity) as well as benevolence and power were transmitted in families between women. Achievement, power and security were transmitted between fathers and daughters. Similarities in openness to change (self-direction, stimulation and hedonism) and universalism were not stronger within families than in random intergenerational and peer dyads. Taken together, our findings suggest that despite noticeable generation shift from social to more individualistic values, we can observe transmission of parents’ salient values such as security, tradition, benevolence and achievement.

Keywords: value transmission, value change, intergenerational similarities, differences in values

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117 Understanding Ambivalent Behaviors of Social Media Users toward the 'Like' Function: A Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Jung Lee, L. G. Pee

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The 'Like' function in social media platforms represents the immediate responses of social media users to postings and other users. A large number of 'likes' is often attributed to fame, agreement, and support from others that many users are proud of and happy with. However, what 'like' implies exactly in social media context is still in discussion. Some argue that it is an accurate parameter of the preferences of social media users, whereas others refute that it is merely an instant reaction that is volatile and vague. To address this gap, this study investigates how social media users perceive the 'like' function and behave differently based on their perceptions. This study posits the following arguments. First, 'like' is interpreted as a quantified form of social capital that resides in social media platforms. This incarnated social capital rationalizes the attraction of people to social media and belief that social media platforms bring benefits to their relationships with others. This social capital is then conceptualized into cognitive and emotive dimensions, where social capital in the cognitive dimension represents the awareness of the 'likes' quantitatively, whereas social capital in the emotive dimension represents the receptions of the 'likes' qualitatively. Finally, the ambivalent perspective of the social media users on 'like' (i.e., social capital) is applied. This view rationalizes why social media users appreciate the reception of 'likes' from others but are aware that those 'likes' can distort the actual responses of other users by sending erroneous signals. The rationale on this ambivalence is based on whether users perceive social media as private or public spheres. When social media is more publicized, the ambivalence is more strongly observed. By combining the ambivalence and dimensionalities of the social capital, four types of social media users with different mechanisms on liking behaviors are identified. To validate this work, a survey with 300 social media users is conducted. The analysis results support most of the hypotheses and confirm that people have ambivalent perceptions on 'like' as a social capital and that perceptions influence behavioral patterns. The implication of the study is clear. First, this study explains why social media users exhibit different behaviors toward 'likes' in social media. Although most of the people believe that the number of 'likes' is the simplest and most frank measure of supports from other social media users, this study introduces the users who do not trust the 'likes' as a stable and reliable parameter of social media. In addition, this study links the concept of social media openness to explain the different behaviors of social media users. Social media openness has theoretical significance because it defines the psychological boundaries of social media from the perspective of users.

Keywords: ambivalent attitude, like function, social capital, social media

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116 Study of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Life-Orientation in Convicts and Under-Trials

Authors: Sneh Laller, Kamini C. Tanwar

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Human beings are social animals. The scenario is changing and people become angry towards petty things and this may lead to committing a crime. Objective: The aim of the present research is: 1. To find out the difference between convicts and under-trials on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 2. To find out the difference between male and female jail inmates on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 3. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in convicts and under-trials; 4. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in male and female jail inmates. Method: The study was conducted on 100 participants (consisting of 50 convicts- 25 males and 25 females, and 50 under-trials- 25 males and 25 females); age range was 20-60 years. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 by McCrae, Costa (2010), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale- II by Leary (1983) and Life Orientation Test-R by Scheier et al. (1994) was used and purposive sampling technique was done for data collection. The t-test was applied to find out the comparison and Pearson correlation was applied to determine the relationship between personality, FNE and life-orientation in both the groups. Results: There is a significant difference in the dimension of personality that is neuroticism and life-orientation in convicts and under-trials and also, in the dimensions of personality such as neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness, and FNE in male and female jail inmates. In convicts the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with life-orientation (r = 0.430**) whereas, in under-trials the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.315*) and another dimension of personality, extraversion shows significant negative correlation with life-orientation (r = -0.409**). In male jail inmates, the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.474**) whereas in female jail inmates, the dimension of personality, openness to experience shows significant negative correlation with FNE (r = -0.356*) and significant positive correlation of neuroticism with life-orientation (r = 0.292*). Conclusion: It was found that under-trials are neurotic and life-oriented than convicts, and female jail inmates are also neurotic and exhibit fear of negative evaluation whereas male jail inmates are extravert and agreeable.

Keywords: convicts, fear of negative evaluation, life-orientation, personality, under-trials

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115 A Survey of Mental and Personality Profiles of Malingerer Clients of an Iranian Forensic Medicine Center Based on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Questionnaires

Authors: Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Arya Mahdavi Baramchi, Mercedeh Enshaei, Ghazaleh Keshavarzi Baramchi

Abstract:

Introduction: Malingering is one of the most challenging issues in the forensic psychology and imposes a heavy financial burden on health care and legal systems. It seems that some mental and personality abnormalities might have a crucial role in developing this condition. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess 100 malingering clients of Gilan province general office of forensic medicine, all filled the related questionnaires. The data about some psychometric characteristics were collected through the 71-items version- short form- of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire and the personality traits were assessed by NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) - including 240 items- as a reliable and accurate measure of the five domains of personality. Results: The 100 malingering clients (55 males and 45 females) ranged from 23 to 45 (32+/- 5.6) years old. Regarding marital status, 36% were single, 57% were married and 7% were divorced. Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%) were unemployed, 21% were self-employed and the rest of them were employed. The data of MMPI clinical scales revealed that the mean (SD) T score of Hypochondrias (Hs) was 67(9.2), Depression (D) was 87(7.9), Hysteria (Hy) was 74(5.8), Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) was 62(8.5), Masculinity-Feminity (MF) was 76(8.4), Paranoia (Pa) was 62(4.5), Psychasthenia (Pt) was 80(7.9), Schizophrenia (Sc) was 69(6.8), Hypomania (Ma) was 64(5.9)and Social Introversion (Si) was 58(4.3). NEO PI-R test showed five domains of personality. The mean (SD) T score of Neuroticism was 65(9.2), Extraversion was 51(7.9), Openness was 43(5.8), Agreeableness was 35(3.4) and Conscientiousness was 42(4.9). Conclusion: According to MMPI test in our malingering clients, Hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D), Hysteria (Hy), Muscularity-Feminity (MF), Psychasthenia (Pt) and Schizophrenia (Sc) had high scores (T >= 65) which means pathological range and psychological significance. Based on NEO PI-R test Neuroticism was in high range, on the other hand, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were in low range. Extroversion was in average range. So it seems that malingerers require basic evaluations of different psychological fields. Additional research in this area is needed to provide stronger evidence of the possible positive effects of the mentioned factors on malingering.

Keywords: malingerers, mental profile, MMPI, NEO PI-R, personality profile

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