Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1435

Search results for: Niranjan Kumar

1435 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti

Abstract:

Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

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1434 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1433 Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Feline Panleukopaenia Virus from Wild Felids in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha

Authors: Arun Kharate, Sarata Kumar Sahu, Susen Kumar Panda, Niranjan Sahoo, H. K. Panda

Abstract:

In the present study, an attempt has been made for isolation and identification of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) from wild felids of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, along with prevalence study of FPLV. Fecal samples collected from wild felids (26 tigers, 22 lions, 5 leopards, 3 hyenas, 1 jaguar, 2 foxes and 1 wild cat) were subjected to hemagglutinnation test and fluorescent antibody test. In hemagglutinnation test 13 (50%) samples from tiger, 14 (63.63%) samples from lions, 1 (20%) sample from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) samples from hyenas and 1 (100%) sample from wild cat were positive. On fluorescent antibody test (FAT), 15 (57.69%) samples from tiger, 18 (81.81%) from lions, 2 (40%) from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) from hyenas and 1 (100%) from wild cat were positive. FPLV was isolated using MDBK cell line and preliminary characterization was done on the basis of characteristic cytopathic effect. The virus samples were quantified through titration in MDBK cells. Serological confirmation of FPLV isolates was carried out by HI test, micro-SNT and indirect-ELISA. Physico-chemical characters like pH and temperature resistance along molecular identification using specific FPLV primers was carried out. Seroprevalence study of 36 serum samples employing HI test, micro SNT and indirect-ELISA revealed prevalence of 38.8, 44.4 and 72.2% respectively. During study period an adult tigress and a tiger cub died suspected of feline panleukopenia. The necropsy findings in both animals showed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The cytological examination revealed presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal epithelial cells. Spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestine were positive for feline panleukopenia by FAT. The investigation revealed that feline panleukopenia was prevalent in wild felines of Nandankanan zoo.

Keywords: Feline panleukopenia, fluorescent antibody test, hemagglutination test, indirect-ELISA, Nandankanan zoo

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1432 3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications

Authors: R. Kanmaniraja, R. Freshipali, J. Abdullah, K. Niranjan, K. Balasubramani, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.

Keywords: supersonic nozzle, Chevron, acoustic level, shape optimization of Chevron nozzles, jet noise suppression

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1431 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1430 Third Party Logistics (3PL) Selection Criteria for an Indian Heavy Industry Using SEM

Authors: Nadama Kumar, P. Parthiban, T. Niranjan

Abstract:

In the present paper, we propose an incorporated approach for 3PL supplier choice that suits the distinctive strategic needs of the outsourcing organization in southern part of India. Four fundamental criteria have been used in particular Performance, IT, Service and Intangible. These are additionally subdivided into fifteen sub-criteria. The proposed strategy coordinates Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Non-additive Fuzzy Integral strategies. The presentation of fluffiness manages the unclearness of human judgments. The SEM approach has been used to approve the determination criteria for the proposed show though the Non-additive Fuzzy Integral approach uses the SEM display contribution to assess a supplier choice score. The case organization has a exclusive vertically integrated assembly that comprises of several companies focusing on a slight array of the value chain. To confirm manufacturing and logistics proficiency, it significantly relies on 3PL suppliers to attain supply chain superiority. However, 3PL supplier selection is an intricate decision-making procedure relating multiple selection criteria. The goal of this work is to recognize the crucial 3PL selection criteria by using the non-additive fuzzy integral approach. Unlike the outmoded multi criterion decision-making (MCDM) methods which frequently undertake independence among criteria and additive importance weights, the nonadditive fuzzy integral is an effective method to resolve the dependency among criteria, vague information, and vital fuzziness of human judgment. In this work, we validate an empirical case that engages the nonadditive fuzzy integral to assess the importance weight of selection criteria and indicate the most suitable 3PL supplier.

Keywords: 3PL, non-additive fuzzy integral approach, SEM, fuzzy

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1429 Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Options among Rural Rice Farmers in Nepal

Authors: Niranjan Devkota , Ram Kumar Phuya, Durga Lal Shreshta

Abstract:

This paper estimates cost and benefit of adoption of climate change adaptation options available to the rural rice farmers of Nepal. Adoption of adaptation strategies, intensity of use of adaptation options, identification of labor and non-labor cost and finally per unit cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation were made. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to source respondents for the study and used structured questionnaire techniques to collect data from 773 households from seven districts; 3 from Terai and 4 from Hilly region of Nepal. The result revealed that there are 13 major adaptation options rice farmers practice in order to protect themselves from climatic risk. Among the given adaptation options, the first three popular adaptation options practiced by rice farmers are (i) increasing use of chemical fertilizer (60.93%) (ii) use of climate smart verities (49.29%) and (iii) change in nursery date (32.08%). Adaptation cost is obvious, based on that, the first three costly adaptation options are the alternative irrigation practice which incurred average cost of US $69.95 (US$ 1 = 102.84 Nepalese Rupees) followed by a denser plantation of local seeds ($ 20.69) and using climate smart varieties ($ 18.06). 88% farmers practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme climatic conditions. Total cost and revenue revealed that per unit total cost ranges from $28.34 to $32.79 whereas per unit total revenue ranges $33.4 to $49.02. Surprisingly, it is observed that farmers who do not adopt any adaptation options are able to receive highest income from per unit production. As Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) is greater than one for every adaptation options that indicates the available adaptation options are profitable to the rice farmers.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation options, cost benefit analysis, rural rice farmers, Nepal

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1428 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

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1427 Census and Mapping of Oil Palms Over Satellite Dataset Using Deep Learning Model

Authors: Gholba Niranjan Dilip, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Conduct of accurate reliable mapping of oil palm plantations and census of individual palm trees is a huge challenge. This study addresses this challenge and developed an optimized solution implemented deep learning techniques on remote sensing data. The oil palm is a very important tropical crop. To improve its productivity and land management, it is imperative to have accurate census over large areas. Since, manual census is costly and prone to approximations, a methodology for automated census using panchromatic images from Cartosat-2, SkySat and World View-3 satellites is demonstrated. It is selected two different study sites in Indonesia. The customized set of training data and ground-truth data are created for this study from Cartosat-2 images. The pre-trained model of Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) Lite MobileNet V2 Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) from the TensorFlow Object Detection API is subjected to transfer learning on this customized dataset. The SSD model is able to generate the bounding boxes for each oil palm and also do the counting of palms with good accuracy on the panchromatic images. The detection yielded an F-Score of 83.16 % on seven different images. The detections are buffered and dissolved to generate polygons demarcating the boundaries of the oil palm plantations. This provided the area under the plantations and also gave maps of their location, thereby completing the automated census, with a fairly high accuracy (≈100%). The trained CNN was found competent enough to detect oil palm crowns from images obtained from multiple satellite sensors and of varying temporal vintage. It helped to estimate the increase in oil palm plantations from 2014 to 2021 in the study area. The study proved that high-resolution panchromatic satellite image can successfully be used to undertake census of oil palm plantations using CNNs.

Keywords: object detection, oil palm tree census, panchromatic images, single shot multibox detector

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1426 Theoretical Investigation of Electronic, Structural and Thermoelectric Properties of Mg₂SiSn (110) Surface

Authors: M. Ramesh, Manish K. Niranjan

Abstract:

The electronic, structural and thermoelectric properties of Mg₂SiSn (110) surface are investigated within the framework of first principle density functional theory and semi classical Boltzmann approach. In particular, directional dependent thermoelectric properties such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and figure of merit are explored. The (110)-oriented Mg₂SiSn surface exhibits narrow indirect band gap of ~0.17 eV. The thermoelectric properties are found to be significant along the y-axis at 300 K and along x-axis at 500 K. The figure of merit (ZT) for hole carrier concentration is found to be significantly large having magnitude 0.83 (along x-axis) at 500 K and 0.26 (y-axis) at 300 K. Our results suggest that Mg₂SiSn (110) surface is promising for various thermoelectric applications due to its overall good thermoelectric properties.

Keywords: thermoelectric, surface science, semiconducting silicide, first principles calculations

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1425 Investigation of Delivery of Triple Play Service in GE-PON Fiber to the Home Network

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rahul Malhotra, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.

Keywords: BER, PON, TDMPON, GPON, CWDM, OLT, ONT

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1424 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

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1423 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar

Abstract:

m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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1422 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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1421 An Overview of Heating and Cooling Techniques Used in Green Buildings

Authors: Umesh Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Soni, S. R. Awasthi

Abstract:

Worldwide biggest difficulties are climate change, future availability of fossil fuels, and economical feasibility of renewable energy. They force us to use to a greater extent renewable energy and develop suitable hybrid renewable systems. Building heating/cooling consumes significant amount of energy. It can be conserved by use of proper heating/cooling techniques. This paper reviews and critically analyzes various active, passive and hybrid heating/cooling techniques used in green buildings.

Keywords: natural ventilation, energy conservation, hybrid ventilation techniques, climate change

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1420 Anisotropic Approach for Discontinuity Preserving in Optical Flow Estimation

Authors: Pushpendra Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, R. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Estimation of optical flow from a sequence of images using variational methods is one of the most successful approach. Discontinuity between different motions is one of the challenging problem in flow estimation. In this paper, we design a new anisotropic diffusion operator, which is able to provide smooth flow over a region and efficiently preserve discontinuity in optical flow. This operator is designed on the basis of intensity differences of the pixels and isotropic operator using exponential function. The combination of these are used to control the propagation of flow. Experimental results on the different datasets verify the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm and also validate the effect of anisotropic operator in the discontinuity preserving.

Keywords: optical flow, variational methods, computer vision, anisotropic operator

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1419 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.

Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model

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1418 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

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1417 Challenges in Multi-Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The demand for cloud storage is increasing because users want continuous access their data. Cloud Storage revolutionized the way how users access their data. A lot of cloud storage service providers are available as DropBox, G Drive, and providing limited free storage and for extra storage; users have to pay money, which will act as a burden on users. To avoid the issue of limited free storage, the concept of Multi Cloud Storage introduced. In this paper, we will discuss the limitations of existing Multi Cloud Storage systems for mobile devices.

Keywords: cloud storage, data privacy, data security, multi cloud storage, mobile devices

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1416 Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction Effect on Multiphoton Optical Transitions in a Quantum Dot for Bioimaging

Authors: Pradip Kumar Jha, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

We demonstrate in this work the effect of Rashba spin orbit interaction on multiphoton optical transitions of a quantum dot in the presence of THz laser field and external static magnetic field. This combination is solved by accurate non-perturbative Floquet theory. Investigations are made for the optical response of intraband transition between the various states of the conduction band with spin flipping. Enhancement and power broadening observed for excited states probabilities with increase of external fields are directly linked to the emission spectra of QD and will be useful for making future bioimaging devices.

Keywords: bioimaging, multiphoton processes, spin orbit interaction, quantum dot

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1415 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan

Abstract:

Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

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1414 Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Elderly Population

Authors: Ajit Kumar Sah, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Phoolgen Sah, Dev Kumar Shah

Abstract:

Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM) prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department. Beers’ criteria are the most widely used tools to assess PIM to elderly patients. Prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD) of a hospital of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2011 to October 2012 to 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) in elderly patients was analyzed using Beers Criteria updated to 2013. In the 869 patients included the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%), amlodipine (23.16%), paracetamol (17.6%), salbutamol (15.72%) and vitamin B complex (13.26%). The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with a number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health-related outcomes in these elderly.

Keywords: Beers criteria, elderly, polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medicines

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1413 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

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1412 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

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1411 To Individualisation of Subject, Donar, by Determination of Serological Markers from Obtain Biological Fluid at Crime Scene

Authors: Arun Kumar, Ravindra Pal Verma, Harsh Sharma, Shani Kumar

Abstract:

For the present study samples was collected from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva by using biological fluid. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Urine stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine. ABH blood group substance is low in urine in comparison with other body fluids.

Keywords: ABH blood group, crime scene, serological markers, body fluids and urine

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1410 Biosorption of Phenol onto Water Hyacinth Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Isotherm Study

Authors: Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of phenol from its aqueous solution using water hyancith activated carbon (WHAC) as an adsorbent. The sorption kinetics were analysed using pseudo-first order kinetics and pseudo-second order model, and it was observed that the sorption data tend to fit very well in pseudo-second order model for the entire sorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Freundlich model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 31.45 mg/g estimated using Langmuir model. The adsorption intensity 3.7975 represents a favorable adsorption condition.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm, kinetics, phenol

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1409 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

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1408 Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.

Keywords: distribution ratio, ionic liquid, ligand, organic solvent, stripping

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1407 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.

Keywords: EHL, Carreau, shear-thinning, surface roughness, amplitude, wavelength

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1406 Effect of Radiation on MHD Mixed Convection Stagnation Point Flow towards a Vertical Plate in a Porous Medium with Convective Boundary Condition

Authors: H. Niranjan, S. Sivasankaran, Zailan Siri

Abstract:

This study investigates mixed convection heat transfer about a thin vertical plate in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and heat transfer effects in the porous medium. The fluid is assumed to be steady, laminar, incompressible and in two-dimensional flow. The nonlinear coupled parabolic partial differential equations governing the flow are transformed into the non-similar boundary layer equations, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. The effects of the conjugate heat transfer parameter, the porous medium parameter, the permeability parameter, the mixed convection parameter, the magnetic parameter, and the thermal radiation on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as on the local skin friction and local heat transfer are presented and analyzed. The validity of the methodology and analysis is checked by comparing the results obtained for some specific cases with those available in the literature. The various parameters on local skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates are presented in tabular form.

Keywords: MHD, porous medium, soret/dufour, stagnation-point

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