Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Prasun Chakraborti

4 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti

Abstract:

Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

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3 Effect of Grain Size and Stress Parameters on Ratcheting Behaviour of Two Different Single Phase FCC Metals

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Mahato, Partha Sarathi De, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti

Abstract:

Ratcheting is one of the most important phenomena to be considered for design and safety assessment of structural components subjected to stress controlled asymmetric cyclic loading in the elasto-plastic domain. In the present study uniaxial ratcheting behavior of commercially pure annealed OFHC copper and aluminium with two different grain sizes has been investigated. Stress-controlled tests have been conducted at various combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. These stresses were selected in such a way that the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) of the selected materials remains constant. It is found that irrespective of grain size the ratcheting fatigue lives decrease with the increase of both stress amplitude and mean stress following power relationships. However, the effect of stress amplitude on ratcheting lives is observed higher as compared to mean stress for both the FCC metals. It is also found that for both FCC metals ratcheting fatigue lives at a constant ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σ ₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) are more in case fine grain size. So far ratcheting strain rate is concerned, it decreases rapidly within first few cycles and then a steady state is reached. Finally, the ratcheting strain rate increases up to the complete failure of the specimens due to a very large increase of true stress for a substantial reduction in cross-sectional area. The steady state ratcheting strain rate increases with the increase in both stress amplitude and mean stress. Interestingly, a unique perfectly power relationship between steady state ratcheting strain rate and cycles to failure has been found irrespective of stress combination for both FCC metals. Similar to ratcheting strain rate, the strain energy density decreases rapidly within first few cycles followed by steady state and then increases up to a failure of the specimens irrespective of stress combinations for both FCC metals; but strain energy density at steady state decreases with increase in mean stress and increases with the increase of stress amplitude. From the fractography study, it is found that the void density increases with the increase of maximum stress, but the void size and void density are almost same for any combination of stress parameters considering constant maximum stress.

Keywords: ratcheting phenomena, grain size, stress parameter, ratcheting lives, ratcheting strain rate

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2 Preventable Stress and Trauma, and Menstrual Health Management: Experiences of Adolescent Girls from India

Authors: Daisy Dutta, Chhanda Chakraborti

Abstract:

Background and significance of the study: Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) is poor in many Lower and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) such as India. Poor and inadequate menstrual hygiene has an adverse effect on the health and social life of adolescent girls and women. There are many well-known barriers to adequate Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM); e.g., lack of awareness, lack of WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) facilities, lack of affordable menstrual absorbents, etc. But, there is a unique barrier which is very much avoidable; i.e., lack of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation. Menstruation is associated with various social and cultural restrictions and taboos and being a taboo topic; often there is no discussion in the society on this topic. Thus, many adolescent girls encounter the menarche with a lot of unnecessary and avoidable trauma, stress and awkwardness. This trauma, stress, and anxiety are even more prevalent among adolescent girls residing in rural areas. This study argues that this unnecessary stress and anxiety of the adolescent girls can be alleviated by reinforcing social support and adequate information and guidance about MHM and eliminating the futile socio-cultural restrictions during menstruation. Methodology: A qualitative study was conducted in a North-eastern State of India where 45 adolescent girls were interviewed both from rural and urban areas. The adolescent girls were asked about their experiences of stress and anxiety on their first menstruation, their preparedness for menarche, their source of information and guidance, their hygiene-practices, and the various restrictions they follow. Findings: Maximum number of girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. Most of them reported that they were terrified about their first menstruation as they were unprepared. Among those who were aware before menarche, reported that they did not receive proper guidance to manage their menstruation in a hygienic manner. Hygiene-related practices are also influenced by their knowledge about MHM. In maximum cases, girls are bound to follow certain cultural and religious restrictions even if they don’t want to follow which created additional stress in managing their menstruation with dignity. Conclusion: Lack of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation and MHM along with an array of socio-cultural restrictions can enhance a negative attitude in adolescent girls towards menstruation due to which they have to go through an extra and unnecessary burden of stress and trauma. This stress and trauma is preventable by improving the provisions of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation in a supportive environment.

Keywords: adolescent girls, menstrual hygiene management, socio-cultural restrictions, stress, trauma

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1 Influence of Strain on the Corrosion Behavior of Dual Phase 590 Steel

Authors: Amit Sarkar, Jayanta K. Mahato, Tushar Bhattacharya, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti

Abstract:

With increasing the demand for safety and fuel efficiency of automobiles, automotive manufacturers are looking for light weight, high strength steel with excellent formability and corrosion resistance. Dual-phase steel is finding applications in automotive sectors, because of its high strength, good formability, and high corrosion resistance. During service automotive components suffer from environmental attack and thereby gradual degradation of the components occurs reducing the service life of the components. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the effect of deformation on corrosion behaviour of DP590 grade dual phase steel which is used in automotive industries. The material was received from TATA Steel Jamshedpur, India in the form of 1 mm thick sheet. Tensile properties of the steel at strain rate of 10-3 sec-1: 0.2 % Yield Stress is 382 MPa, Ultimate Tensile Strength is 629 MPa, Uniform Strain is 16.30% and Ductility is 29%. Rectangular strips of 100x10x1 mm were machined keeping the long axis of the strips parallel to rolling direction of the sheet. These strips were longitudinally deformed at a strain rate at 10-3 sec-1 to a different percentage of strain, e.g. 2.5, 5, 7.5,10 and 12.5%, and then slowly unloaded. Small specimens were extracted from the mid region of the unclamped portion of these deformed strips. These small specimens were metallographic polished, and corrosion behaviour has been studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectra, and cyclic polarization and potentiostatic tests. Present results show that among three different environments, the 3.5 pct NaCl solution is most aggressive in case of DP 590 dual-phase steel. It is observed that with the increase in the amount of deformation, corrosion rate increases. With deformation, the stored energy increases and leads to enhanced corrosion rate. Cyclic polarization results revealed highly deformed specimen are more prone to pitting corrosion as compared to the condition when amount of deformation is less. It is also observed that stability of the passive layer decreases with the amount of deformation. With the increase of deformation, current density increases in a passive zone and passive zone is also decreased. From Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study it is found that with increasing amount of deformation polarization resistance (Rp) decreases. EBSD results showed that average geometrically necessary dislocation density increases with increasing strain which in term increased galvanic corrosion as dislocation areas act as the less noble metal.

Keywords: dual phase 590 steel, prestrain, potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectra

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