Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1460

Search results for: potentially inappropriate medicines

1460 Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Elderly Population

Authors: Ajit Kumar Sah, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Phoolgen Sah, Dev Kumar Shah

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Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM) prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department. Beers’ criteria are the most widely used tools to assess PIM to elderly patients. Prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD) of a hospital of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2011 to October 2012 to 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) in elderly patients was analyzed using Beers Criteria updated to 2013. In the 869 patients included the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%), amlodipine (23.16%), paracetamol (17.6%), salbutamol (15.72%) and vitamin B complex (13.26%). The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with a number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health-related outcomes in these elderly.

Keywords: Beers criteria, elderly, polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medicines

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1459 Inappropriate Prescribing Defined by START and STOPP Criteria and Its Association with Adverse Drug Events among Older Hospitalized Patients

Authors: Mohd Taufiq bin Azmy, Yahaya Hassan, Shubashini Gnanasan, Loganathan Fahrni

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Inappropriate prescribing in older patients has been associated with resource utilization and adverse drug events (ADE) such as hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Globally, there is a lack of published data on ADE induced by inappropriate prescribing. Our study is specific to an older population and is aimed at identifying risk factors for ADE and to develop a model that will link ADE to inappropriate prescribing. The design of the study was prospective whereby computerized medical records of 302 hospitalized elderly aged 65 years and above in 3 public hospitals in Malaysia (Hospital Serdang, Hospital Selayang and Hospital Sungai Buloh) were studied over a 7 month period from September 2013 until March 2014. Potentially inappropriate medications and potential prescribing omissions were determined using the published and validated START-STOPP criteria. Patients who had at least one inappropriate medication were included in Phase II of the study where ADE were identified by local expert consensus panel based on the published and validated Naranjo ADR probability scale. The panel also assessed whether ADE were causal or contributory to current hospitalization. The association between inappropriate prescribing and ADE (hospitalization, mortality and adverse drug reactions) was determined by identifying whether or not the former was causal or contributory to the latter. Rate of ADE avoidability was also determined. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of potential inappropriate prescribing was 58.6%. A total of ADEs were detected in 31 of 105 patients (29.5%) when STOPP criteria were used to identify potentially inappropriate medication; All of the 31 ADE (100%) were considered causal or contributory to admission. Of the 31 ADEs, 28 (90.3%) were considered avoidable or potentially avoidable. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, dementia, baseline activities of daily living function, and number of medications, the likelihood of a serious avoidable ADE increased significantly when a potentially inappropriate medication was prescribed (odds ratio, 11.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.014 - 24.93; p < .001). The medications identified by STOPP criteria, are significantly associated with avoidable ADE in older people that cause or contribute to urgent hospitalization but contributed less towards morbidity and mortality. Findings of the study underscore the importance of preventing inappropriate prescribing.

Keywords: adverse drug events, appropriate prescribing, health services research

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1458 Inappropriate Antibiotic Use: An Online Survey in Thailand

Authors: Surarong Chinwong, Namthip Intarakumhang Na Rachasima, Siyaporn Kuikhiew, Dujrudee Chinwong

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Irrational use of medicines is a major problem in public health. Half of all patients take medicines incorrectly. An inappropriate use of antibiotics is one of the common types of irrational medicine use; for example, patients use antibiotic for treatment of common cold or diarrhea. Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the behaviors on antibiotic use, using amoxicillin and norfloxacin as examples, as well as sources of received health information. Methods: An online self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from participants in Thailand between September and December 2015. Participants were asked about their behaviors on antibiotic use. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of all 405 participants, most were female (65.3 %), aged 18-30 years (49.4 %), undergraduate or lower (69.7%), and civil servant or state enterprises (31.7 %). We found inappropriate behaviors in use of amoxicillin or norfloxacin: 1) there were 201/400 participants (50.3%) taking amoxicillin right away in case of having a common cold, such as having sore throat, running nose, and cough; 2) there were 170/405 participants (42.0%) using amoxicillin for relieving inflammatory symptoms, e.g. muscle inflammation or osteoarthritis; 3) there were 71/398 participants (17.8%) using amoxicillin as a muscle relaxant; 4) there were 135/398 participants (33.9%) using norfloxacin for treating diarrhea. Sources of health information received by the participants were from the internet (78.5%), the radio and/or television (42.2%), advertising publishing (33.3 %), and word of mouth (30.1%). Conclusion: This study showed improper behaviors in antibiotic use especially amoxicillin and norfloxacin. Health care providers including pharmacists should raise the public awareness on dangers of inappropriate antibiotic use and promote the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotic use, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, rational drug use

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1457 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

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Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

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1456 Critical Assessment of Herbal Medicine Usage and Efficacy by Pharmacy Students

Authors: Anton V. Dolzhenko, Tahir Mehmood Khan

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An ability to make an evidence-based decision is a critically important skill required for practicing pharmacists. The development of this skill is incorporated into the pharmacy curriculum. We aimed in our study to estimate perception of pharmacy students regarding herbal medicines and their ability to assess information on herbal medicines professionally. The current Monash University curriculum in Pharmacy does not provide comprehensive study material on herbal medicines and students should find their way to find information, assess its quality and make a professional decision. In the Pharmacy course, students are trained how to apply this process to conventional medicines. In our survey of 93 undergraduate students from year 1-4 of Pharmacy course at Monash University Malaysia, we found that students’ view on herbal medicines is sometimes associated with common beliefs, which affect students’ ability to make evidence-based conclusions regarding the therapeutic potential of herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines is widespread and 95.7% of the participated students have prior experience of using them. In the scale 1 to 10, students rated the importance of acquiring herbal medicine knowledge for them as 8.1±1.6. More than half (54.9%) agreed that herbal medicines have the same clinical significance as conventional medicines in treating diseases. Even more, students agreed that healthcare settings should give equal importance to both conventional and herbal medicine use (80.6%) and that herbal medicines should comply with strict quality control procedures as conventional medicines (84.9%). The latter statement also indicates that students consider safety issues associated with the use of herbal medicines seriously. It was further confirmed by 94.6% of students saying that the safety and toxicity information on herbs and spices are important to pharmacists and 95.7% of students admitting that drug-herb interactions may affect therapeutic outcome. Only 36.5% of students consider herbal medicines as s safer alternative to conventional medicines. The students use information on herbal medicines from various sources and media. Most of the students (81.7%) obtain information on herbal medicines from the Internet and only 20.4% mentioned lectures/workshop/seminars as a source of such information. Therefore, we can conclude that students attained the skills on the critical assessment of therapeutic properties of conventional medicines have a potential to use their skills for evidence-based decisions regarding herbal medicines.

Keywords: evidence-based decision, pharmacy education, student perception, traditional medicines

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1455 Inappropriate Job Behaviour and Performance of Employees

Authors: Prakash Singh

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The focus of this paper is on the impact of internal organizational factors on the inappropriate job performance and behaviour of employees. The Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM) in South Africa has been experiencing inappropriate job behaviour and performance of some of its workers. They include misappropriation of resources, maladministration, mismanagement, lack of service delivery, fraud, and corruption. Since many workers in this organization have various levels of formal education, such practices are not expected, because the structural-functionalist assumption is that formal education is a solution to societal challenges. Since inappropriate job behaviour and performance continue to be reported in spite of the formal education of BCMM workers, this study seeks to investigate how the two phenomena co-exist. It thus seeks to put into perspective the paradoxical co-existence of formal education with inappropriate job behaviour and performance, by focusing on the BCMM as a case-study. For data collection, this study used the mixed method approach; that is, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The findings revealed structural, systemic and human impediments to labour productivity in the organization. By and large, the unquestioning acceptance of the assumption that the skills shortage is responsible for inappropriate workers’ job performance and behaviour is discredited by the evidence of skilled personnel who exercise their responsibilities in a manner that undermines their occupational requirements. Therefore, this exploratory study affirms that the narrow conception of skills, that privileges job-specific capabilities, is not enough for cultivating a workforce with appropriate job behaviour and performance practices.

Keywords: inappropriate job behaviour, labour productivity, mismanagement, skills shortage

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1454 In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Two Selected Herbal Medicines

Authors: S. Vinotha, I. Thabrew, S. Sri Ranjani

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Hot aqueous and methanol extracts of the two selected herbal medicines such are Vellarugu Chooranam (V.C) and Amukkirai Chooranam (A.C) were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant activity using four different methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanol extract of V.C were found to be higher (44.41±1.26 mg GAE⁄g; 174.44±9.32 mg QE⁄g) than in the methanol extract of A.C (20.56±0.67 mg GAE⁄g;7.21±0.85 mg QE⁄g). Hot methanol and aqueous extracts of both medicines showed low antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods and Iron chelating activity not found at highest possible concentration. V.C contains higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents than A.C and can also exert greater antioxidant activity than A.C, although the activities demonstrated were lower than the positive control Trolox. The in-vitro antioxidant activity was not related with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanol and aqueous extracts of both herbal medicines (A.C and V.C).

Keywords: activity, different extracts, herbal medicines, in-vitro antioxidant

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1453 Optimization of Economic Order Quantity of Multi-Item Inventory Control Problem through Nonlinear Programming Technique

Authors: Prabha Rohatgi

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To obtain an efficient control over a huge amount of inventory of drugs in pharmacy department of any hospital, generally, the medicines are categorized on the basis of their cost ‘ABC’ (Always Better Control), first and then categorize on the basis of their criticality ‘VED’ (Vital, Essential, desirable) for prioritization. About one-third of the annual expenditure of a hospital is spent on medicines. To minimize the inventory investment, the hospital management may like to keep the medicines inventory low, as medicines are perishable items. The main aim of each and every hospital is to provide better services to the patients under certain limited resources. To achieve the satisfactory level of health care services to outdoor patients, a hospital has to keep eye on the wastage of medicines because expiry date of medicines causes a great loss of money though it was limited and allocated for a particular period of time. The objectives of this study are to identify the categories of medicines requiring incentive managerial control. In this paper, to minimize the total inventory cost and the cost associated with the wastage of money due to expiry of medicines, an inventory control model is used as an estimation tool and then nonlinear programming technique is used under limited budget and fixed number of orders to be placed in a limited time period. Numerical computations have been given and shown that by using scientific methods in hospital services, we can give more effective way of inventory management under limited resources and can provide better health care services. The secondary data has been collected from a hospital to give empirical evidence.

Keywords: ABC-VED inventory classification, multi item inventory problem, nonlinear programming technique, optimization of EOQ

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1452 Community Pharmacist's Perceptions Towards Generic Drugs in Algeria

Authors: M. Y. Achouri, O. A. Alleg, M. C. L. Moulai, M. A. Selka

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This study aims to assess the perception and attitudes of community pharmacists in Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria) towards generic drugs. This is a descriptive cross-sectional prospective survey and quantitative, conducted over a period of two months from April to May 2014. The target population consisted of 118 pharmacists practicing in pharmacies in Sidi-Bel-Abbes. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire consisting of thirteen (13) items. Fifty six (67%) of community pharmacists in the town of Sidi-Bel-Abbes in the survey believe that generics have a lower quality compared to brand name medicines Only 42% of respondents viewed locally manufactured generic medicines as equal in quality compared to the imported generic medicines, and 63% believe that the generics substitution has led to change the relationship between a pharmacist and patient. In order to promote the practice of generic medicines in Algeria, an educational program should be implemented.

Keywords: generic drugs, perception, attitudes, community pharmacists

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1451 Quantitative Determination of Heavy Metals in Some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Umar, Mohammed Yau, Faruruwa M. Dahiru, Saed Garba

Abstract:

Evaluation of heavy metals in twelve commonly consumed herbal medicines/preparations in Kano State, Nigeria, was carried out. The samples comprised of five unregistered powdered medicines, namely, Zuwo, (ZW); Rai Dorai, (RD); Miyar Tsanya, (MTS); Bagaruwar Makka, (BM); and Madobiya, (M); five unregistered liquid herbal medicinal concussions for pile (MB), yellow fever (MS), typhoid (MT), stomach pain (MC), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and two registered herbal medicines; Alif Powder (AP) and Champion Leaf (CL). The heavy metals evaluation was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and the result revealed the concentrations (ppm) ranges of the heavy metals as follows: Cadmium (0.0045 – 0.1601), Chromium (0.0418 – 0.2092), Cobalt (0.0038 – 0.0760), Copper (0.0547 – 0.2465), Iron (0.1197 – 0.3592), Manganese (0.0123 – 1.4462), Nickel (0.0073 – 0.0960), Lead (0.185 – 0.0927) and Zinc (0.0244 – 0.2444). Comparing the results obtained in this work with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and permissible limits of other countries, the concentrations of heavy metals in the herbal medicine/preparations are within the allowed permissible limits range in herbal medicines and their use could be safe.

Keywords: Kano state, herbal medicines, registered, unregistered

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1450 Assessing the Use of Biomedicine in Nigeria: A Case Study of IDO and Northwest Local Government Areas of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi A. Ajisebiolola

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This study examined people’s responses to demand and consumption of herbal medicines in Nigeria. It also assessed people’s evaluation of the effectiveness of the existing medicines on the treatment of ailments and encouraging forest products utilization for greener future in terms of healthcare delivery. Two Local Government Areas, namely Ido and Ibadan Northwest were adopted for the study; Ido is characterized by rural populace and Ibadan Northwest by urban populace. Out of 500 questionnaires randomly administered to the households in the two local government areas of study, 481 (96.2%) were recovered. Statistical analysis employed showed that people were beginning to understand the importance of herbal medicines in Nigeria as majority of the households use herbal medicines to treat various ailments. Among the major problems encountered by the respondents are lack of precise dosage and adequate preservation methods. It was recommended that Forestry Research Institutes in Nigeria should be deeply involved in the findings on medicinal plants, package them into products and make them available to the society for sustainable healthcare management and greener future of the nation.

Keywords: demand and consumption, forest products, herbal medicines, Nigeria

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1449 The Role of the Internal Audit Unit in Detecting and Preventing Fraud at Public Universities in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Fury Khristianty Fitriyah

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This study aims to identify the extent of the role of the Satuan Pengawas Intern (Internal Audit Unit) in detecting and preventing fraud in public universities in West Java under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education. The research method applied was a qualitative case study approach, while the unit of analysis for this study is the Internal Audit Unit at each public university. Results of this study indicate that the Internal Audit Unit is able to detect and prevent fraud within a public university environment by means of red flags to mark accounting anomalies. These stem from inaccurate budget planning that prompts inappropriate use of funds, exacerbated by late disbursements of funds, which potentially lead to fictitious transactions, and discrepancies in recording state-owned assets into a state property management system (SIMAK BMN), which, if not conducted properly, potentially causes loss to the state.

Keywords: governance, internal control, fraud, public university

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1448 Integrated Risk Management in The Supply Chain of Essential Medicines in Zambia

Authors: Mario M. J. Musonda

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Access to health care is a human right, which includes having timely access to affordable and quality essential medicines at the right place and in sufficient quantity. However, inefficient public sector supply chain management contributes to constant shortages of essential medicines at health facilities. Literature review involved a desktop study of published research studies and reports on risk management, supply chain management of essential medicines and their integration to increase the efficiency of the latter. The research was conducted on a sample population of offices under Ministry of Health Headquarters, Lusaka Provincial and District Offices, selected health facilities in Lusaka, Medical Stores Limited, Zambia Medicines Regulatory Authority and Cooperating Partners. Individuals involved in study were selected judgmentally by their functions under selection and quantification, regulation, procurement, storage, distribution, quality assurance, and dispensing of essential medicines. Structured interviews and discussions were held with selected experts and self-administered questionnaires were distributed. Collected and analysed data of 35 returned and usable questionnaires from the 50 distributed. The highest prioritised risks were; inadequate and inconsistent fund disbursements, weak information management systems, weak quality management systems and insufficient resources (HR and infrastructure) among others. The results for this research can be used to increase the efficiency of the public sector supply chain of essential medicines and other pharmaceuticals. The results of the study showed that there is need to implement effective risk management systems by participating institutions and organisations to increase the efficiency of the entire supply chain in order to avoid and/or reduce shortages of essential medicines at health facilities.

Keywords: essential medicine, risk assessment, risk management, supply chain, supply chain risk management

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1447 Need of Medicines Information OPD in Tertiary Health Care Settings: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Swanand Pathak, Kiran R. Giri, Reena R. Giri, Kamlesh Palandurkar, Sangita Totade, Rajesh Jha, S. S. Patel

Abstract:

Background: Population burden, illiteracy, availability of few doctors for larger group of population leads to many unanswered questions left in a patient’s mind. Incomplete information results into noncompliance, therapeutic failure, and adverse drug reactions (ADR). It is very important to establish a system which will provide noncommercial, independent, unbiased source of medicine information. Medicines Info OPD is a concept and step towards safe and appropriate use of medicines. Objective: (1) to assess the present status of knowledge about the medicines in the patients and its correlation with education; (2) to assess the medicine information dispensing modalities, their use and sufficiency from the patients view point; (3) to assess the overall need for Medicines Information OPD in present scenario. Materials and Methods: A pre-validated questionnaire based study was conducted amongst 500 patients of tertiary health care hospital. The questionnaire consisted of specific questions regarding understanding of prescription, knowledge about adverse drug reaction, view about self-medication and opinion regarding the need of Medicines Info OPD. Results: Significantly large proportion of patients opined that doctors do not have sufficient time in current Indian healthcare to explain the prescription and they are not aware of adverse drug reactions, expiry date or use the package inserts etc. Conclusion: Clinically relevant, up to date, user specific, independent, objective and unbiased Medicines Info OPD is essential for appropriate drug use and can help in a big way to common public to address many problems faced by them.

Keywords: information, prescription, unbiased, clinically relevant

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1446 Prevalence of Polypharmacy in Elderly Cardiac Patients at King Fahad Cardiac Center (KFCC) in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed N. Al-Arifi, Hessa Othman Al-Husein, Mostafa Q. Al Shamiri, Ragab Said, Syed Wajid, Salmeen D. Babelghaith

Abstract:

Polypharmacy was defined as a taking more than 4 medications per single patients (minor polypharmacy), patients who are taking more than 10 medications we considered as a major polypharmacy. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy in elderly Saudi cardiac patient. A retrospective observational study was carried out at the department of CCU and cardiology unit of the King Fahad cardiac centre (KFCC) in King Khalid university hospital from May 2012 to October 2012. All Parameters was analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) to conclude the result; tests of association were performed using the chi-square statistic. The mean age of patients was 70.1 ± 7.75 years, more than half 83 (51.6%) were males. The highest frequency of chronic diseases found were hypertension (91.0%) followed by, dyslipidemia (74.9%), and diabetes mellitus. Results showed that 82% had polypharmacy (>4 drugs) during the study period, and 47.9% had major polypharmacy. The incidence of inappropriate drug use was found to be higher with men than female (p = 0.984). In conclusion, this study revealed that high prevalence of polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications in elderly Saudi cardiac inpatients.

Keywords: cardiac inpatients, medications, polypharmacy, prevalence

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1445 Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Five Different Generic Brands of Prednisolone

Authors: Asma A. Ben Ahmed, Hajer M. Alborawy, Alaa A. Mashina, Pradeep K. Velautham, Abdulmonem Gobassa, Emhemmed Elgallal, Mohamed N. El Attug

Abstract:

Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, primarily as a cost saving measure in healthcare provision. Generic medicines are typically 20 – 90 % cheaper than originator equivalents. Physicians often continue to prescribe brand-name drugs to their patients even when less expensive pharmacologically equivalent generic drugs are available. Because generics are less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, the cost-savings to the patient is not the only factor that physicians consider when choosing between generic and brand-name drugs. Unfortunately Physicians in general and Libyan Physicians in particular tend to prescribe brand-name drugs, even without evidence of their therapeutic superiority, because neither they nor their insured patients bear these drugs’ increased cost with respect to generic substitutes. This study is to compare the quality of five different prednisolone tablets of the same strength from different companies under different trade names: Julphar, October pharma, Akums, Actavis, Pfizer compared them with pure prednisolone reference (BPCRS).

Keywords: quality control, pharmaceutical analysis, generic medicines, prednisolone

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1444 Afrikan Natural Medicines: An Innovation-Based Model for Medicines Production, Curriculum Development and Clinical Application

Authors: H. Chabalala, A. Grootboom, M. Tang

Abstract:

The innovative development, production, and clinical utilisation of African natural medicines requires frameworks from systematisation, innovation, registration. Afrika faces challenges when it comes to these sectors. The opposite is the case as is is evident in ancient Asian (Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha) medical systems, which are interfaced into their respective national health and educational systems. Afrikan Natural Medicines (ANMs) are yet to develop systematisation frameworks, i.e. disease characterisation and medicines classification. This paper explores classical medical systems drawn from Afrikan and Chinese experts in natural medicines. An Afrikological research methodology was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 key respondents selected through purposeful sampling technique. Data was summarised into systematisation frameworks for classical disease theories, patient categorisation, medicine classification, aetiology and pathogenesis of disease, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and treatment methods. It was discovered that ancient Afrika had systematic medical cosmologies, remnants of which are evident in most Afrikan cultural health practices. Parallels could be drawn from classical medical concepts of antiquity, like Chinese Taoist and Indian tantric health systems. Data revealed that both the ancient and contemporary ANM systems were based on living medical cosmologies. The study showed that African Natural Healing Systems have etiological systems, general pathogenesis knowledge, differential diagnostic techniques, comprehensive prognosis and holistic treatment regimes. Systematisation models were developed out of these frameworks, and this could be used for evaluation of clinical research, medical application including development of curriculum for high-education. It was envisaged that frameworks will pave way towards the development, production and commercialisation of ANMs. This was piloted in inclusive innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation of South African natural medicines, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and health infusions. The central model presented here in will assist in curriculum development and establishment of Afrikan Medicines Hospitals and Pharmaceutical Industries.

Keywords: African Natural Medicines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Medical Cosmology, Clinical Application

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1443 Herbal Medicines Used for the Cure of Jaundice among the Some Tribal Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Awdhesh Narayan Sharma

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The use of herbal medicines for the cure of various ailments among the tribal population is as old as human origin itself. Most of the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh inhabit in remote and inaccessible ecological setup. From long back, tribals and forests are interrelated to each other. They use an enormous range of wild plants for their basic needs and medicines. The tribal developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-through hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. They have passed this knowledge through traditions, taboos, totems, folklore by words of mouth from generation to generation. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of herbal medicine for the cure of Jaundice among the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh, India, through primary data as well as available secondary data. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and included available secondary source of data by various investigators. It may be concluded that a sizable herbal medicinal plants' wealth exists in Madhya Pradesh, India, which still awaits for scientific exploration. The existing herbal medicines used for the cure of jaundice need an extensive investigation from the pharmaceutical point of view.

Keywords: Bharias, herbal medicine, tribal, Madhya Pradesh

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1442 Adoption of Electronic Logistics Management Information System for Life-Saving Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Medicines: A Bangladesh Perspective

Authors: Mohammad Julhas Sujan, Md. Ferdous Alam

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Maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) holds one of the prime focuses in Bangladesh’s national healthcare system. To save the lives of mothers and children, knowing the stock of MNCH medicines in different healthcare facilities and when to replenish them are essential. A robust information system not only facilitates efficient management of the essential MNCH medicines but also helps effective allocation of scarce resources. In Bangladesh, Supply chain management of the 25-essential life-saving medicines are currently tracked and monitored via an electronic logistics management information system (eLMIS). Our aim was to conduct a cross-sectional study with a year (2020) worth of data from 24 districts of Bangladesh to evaluate how eLMIS is helping the Government and other stakeholders in efficient supply chain management. Data were collected from 4711 healthcare facilities ranging from primary to secondary levels within a district. About 90% (4143) are community clinics which are considered primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. After eLMIS implementation, the average reporting rate across the districts has been increased (> 97%). The month of stock (MOS) of zinc is an average 6 months compared to Inj. Magnesium Sulphate which will take 2.5 years to consume according to the current average monthly consumption (AMC). Due to first approaching expiry, Tab. Misoprostol, 7.1% Chlorhexidine and Inj. Oxytocin may become unusable. Moreover, Inj. Oxytocin is temperature sensitive and may reduce its efficacy if it is stocked for a longer period. In contrast, Zinc should be sufficiently stocked to prevent sporadic stockouts. To understand how data are collected, transmitted, processed, and aggregated for MNCH medicines in a faster and timely manner, an electronic logistics management information system (eLMIS) is necessary. We recommend the use of such a system in developing countries like Bangladesh for efficient supply chain management of essential MNCH medicines.

Keywords: adaption, eLMIS, MNCH, live-saving medicines

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1441 Traditional Medicines Used for the Enhancement of Male Sexual Performance among the Indigenous Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: A. N. Sharma

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A traditional medicine comprises a knowledge system, practices related to the cure of various ailments that developed over generations by indigenous people or populations. The indigenous populations developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-though hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of traditional medicines for the enhancement of male sexual performance among the indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh, India. Madhya Pradesh state is situated more or less in the central part of India. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, traditional health service providers of Sagar district, and other indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh. It may be concluded that sizable traditional medicines exist in Madhya Pradesh, India, for the enhancement of male sexual performance, which still awaits for scientific exploration and intensive pharmaceutical investigations.

Keywords: Bharias, indigenous, Madhya Pradesh, sexual performance, traditional medicine

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1440 A Saudi Herbal Database: An Approach for Organizing the Rich Herbal Resource of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

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The use of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle has gained a significant acceptance across the globe. The increasing popularity of Herbal Medicine can be owed to the fact that is relatively inexpensive and has lesser side effects as compared to general medicines. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a rich heritage of herbal medicine for overages. However, the information about essential traditional herbs of Arabian origin and their implication in the treatment of various diseases are not well documented in an organized manner. Therefore, the requirement of a local platform (database system) for herbal medicines of Arab origin is the need of the day. In this context, various questionnaire and surveys were conducted over a period of 6 months. The surveys were targeted to identify a range of herbal remedies used by the communities of Saudi Arabia e.g., pharmacists and local people. The survey leads us to identify many of the mysterious local medicinal herbs used for the treatment of various ailments and thus reveals a unique insight into the natural herbal resource of Saudi Arabia. The information of the herbal medicines will be further used to develop a Saudi herbal database system using the principles of waterfall method. An interactive dynamic electronic web portal of the herbal database system will be built using MySQL and PHP for accessing the information available in the Saudi herbal database system. The web portal will be a step forward in creating awareness among the Arab nationals of their rich herbal heritage.

Keywords: Saudi herbal medicine, community survey, database system and design, MySQL, PHP

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1439 Mentoring Writing Skills: A Classroom Friendly Approach

Authors: Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

Facilitating writing skill among the young techies seems a bit challenging. Various factors may owe to this difficulty. Inappropriate syllabus, inadequate infrastructure, to some extent, untrained faculty members and above all the background of learners may be treated as the components that make the process challenging. In order to convert/create/prepare writing skill friendly, the focused items will have to be different from the classroom the present day traditional classroom situation. This paper focuses on the multiple contemporary strategies for approaching a wide range of typical problems that the writers face in a specific technical university of Odisha.

Keywords: background of learners, classroom friendly approach, inappropriate syllabus, traditional classroom situation

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1438 Co-payment Strategies for Chronic Medications: A Qualitative and Comparative Analysis at European Level

Authors: Pedro M. Abreu, Bruno R. Mendes

Abstract:

The management of pharmacotherapy and the process of dispensing medicines is becoming critical in clinical pharmacy due to the increase of incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases, the complexity and customization of therapeutic regimens, the introduction of innovative and more expensive medicines, the unbalanced relation between expenditure and revenue as well as due to the lack of rationalization associated with medication use. For these reasons, co-payments emerged in Europe in the 70s and have been applied over the past few years in healthcare. Co-payments lead to a rationing and rationalization of user’s access under healthcare services and products, and simultaneously, to a qualification and improvement of the services and products for the end-user. This analysis, under hospital practices particularly and co-payment strategies in general, was carried out on all the European regions and identified four reference countries, that apply repeatedly this tool and with different approaches. The structure, content and adaptation of European co-payments were analyzed through 7 qualitative attributes and 19 performance indicators, and the results expressed in a scorecard, allowing to conclude that the German models (total score of 68,2% and 63,6% in both elected co-payments) can collect more compliance and effectiveness, the English models (total score of 50%) can be more accessible, and the French models (total score of 50%) can be more adequate to the socio-economic and legal framework. Other European models did not show the same quality and/or performance, so were not taken as a standard in the future design of co-payments strategies. In this sense, we can see in the co-payments a strategy not only to moderate the consumption of healthcare products and services, but especially to improve them, as well as a strategy to increment the value that the end-user assigns to these services and products, such as medicines.

Keywords: clinical pharmacy, co-payments, healthcare, medicines

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1437 Effects of Poor Job Performance Practices on the Job Satisfaction of Workers

Authors: Prakash Singh, Thembinkosi Twalo

Abstract:

The sustainability of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), in South Africa, is being threatened by the reported cases of poor administration, weak management of resources, inappropriate job performance, and inappropriate job behaviour of some of the workers. Since the structural-functionalists assume that formal education is a solution to societal challenges, it therefore means that the BCMM should not be experiencing this threat since many of its workers have various levels of formal education. Consequently, this study using the mixed method research approach, set out to investigate the paradoxical co-existence of inappropriate job behaviour and performance with formal education at the BCMM. Considering the impact of human factors in the labour process, this study draws attention to the divergent objectives of skill and skill bearer, with the application of knowledge subject to the knowledge bearer’s motives, will, attitudes, ethics and values. Consequently, inappropriate job behaviour and performance practices could be due to numerous factors such as lack of the necessary capabilities or refusal to apply what has been learnt due to racial or other prejudices. The role of the human factor in the labour process is a serious omission in human capital theory, which regards schooling as the only factor contributing to the ability to do a job. For this reason this study’s theoretical framework is an amalgamation of the four theories - human capital, social capital, cultural capital, and reputation capital – in an effort to obtain a broader view of the factors that shape job behaviour and performance. Since it has been established that human nature plays a crucial role in how workers undertake their responsibilities, it is important that this be taken into consideration in the BCMM’s monitoring and evaluation of the workers’ job performance practices. Hence, this exploratory study brings to the fore, the effects of poor job performance practices on the job satisfaction of workers.

Keywords: human capital, poor job performance practices, service delivery, workers’ job satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1436 Status of Popularity of Ayurveda Products in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Upasana Sharma, Jayanti Dutta, Amarjeet Singh

Abstract:

Background: Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system. It is widely used in India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide. Objectives: 1) To assess the extent and pattern of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products by the people of Chandigarh. 2) To assess the perceived impact of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products among the users. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in a city of North India. Overall 371 households were covered from rural, urban and slum areas from December 2010 to April 2011. Respondents were interviewed regarding practices about Ayurveda products. Results: Around 160 (43%; 95% CI= 38.15, 47.85) of the respondents were using Ayurvedic products in one form or the other. Out of them, 91 (57%) had used Ayurvedic medicines in combination with some other system of medicine rather than as a standalone therapy. Most of them (81%) preferred Ayurveda products for chronic digestive system related problems. Conclusion: The present study revealed that respondents had keen interest in Ayurveda. A section of population was taking Ayurvedic treatment for their health ailments. There was a great level of satisfaction among the users but high cost bothered them at times.

Keywords: ayurveda, alternative medicine, chronic diseases, complimentary medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
1435 Design and Development of Herbal Formulations: Challenges and Solutions

Authors: B. Sathyanarayana

Abstract:

As per the report of World Health Organization, more than 80% of world population uses medicines made from herbal and natural materials. They have stood the test of time for their safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Quality assurance and control measures, such as national quality specification and standards for herbal materials, good manufacturing practices (GMP) for herbal medicines, labelling, and licensing schemes for manufacturing, imports and marketing, should be in place in every country where herbal medicines are regulated. These measures are vital for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. In the case of herbal products challenge begins at the stage of designing itself except the classical products. Selection of herbal ingredients, officinal parts to be used, proportions are vital. Once the formulation is designed one should take utmost care to produce the standardized product of assured quality and safety. Quality control measures should cover the validation of quality and identity of raw materials, in process control (as per SOP and GMP norms) and at the level of final product. Quality testing, safety and efficacy studies of the final product are required to ensure the safe and effective use of the herbal products in human beings. Medicinal plants being the materials of natural resource are subjected to great variation making it really difficult to fix quality standards especially in the case of polyherbal preparations. Manufacturing also needs modification according to the type of ingredients present. Hence, it becomes essential to develop Standard operative Procedure for a specific herbal product. Present paper throws a light on the challenges that are encountered during the design and development of herbal products.

Keywords: herbal product, challenges, quality, safety, efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1434 The Emerging Role of Cannabis as an Anti-Nociceptive Agent in the Treatment of Chronic Back Pain

Authors: Josiah Damisa, Michelle Louise Richardson, Morenike Adewuyi

Abstract:

Lower back pain is a significant cause of disability worldwide and associated with great implications in terms of the well-being of affected individuals and society as a whole due to its undeniable socio-economic impact. With its prevalence on the increase as a result of an aging global population, the need for novel forms of pain management is ever paramount. This review aims to provide further insight into current research regarding a role for the endocannabinoid signaling pathway as a target in the treatment of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on its potential use as part of the treatment of lower back pain. Potential advantages and limitations of cannabis-based medicines over other forms of analgesia currently licensed for medical use are discussed in addition to areas that require ongoing consideration and research. To evaluate the efficacy of cannabis-based medicines in chronic pain, studies pertaining to the role of medical cannabis in chronic disease were reviewed. Standard searches of PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases were undertaken with peer-reviewed journal articles reviewed based on the indication for pain management, cannabis treatment modality used and study outcomes. Multiple studies suggest an emerging role for cannabis-based medicines as therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic back pain. A potential synergistic effect has also been purported if these medicines are co-administered with opiate analgesia due to the similarity of the opiate and endocannabinoid signaling pathways. However, whilst recent changes to legislation in the United Kingdom mean that cannabis is now licensed for medicinal use on NHS prescription for a number of chronic health conditions, concerns remain as to the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicines. Research is lacking into both their side effect profiles and the long-term effects of cannabis use. Legal and ethical considerations to the use of these products in standardized medical practice also persist due to the notoriety of cannabis as a drug of abuse. Despite this, cannabis is beginning to gain traction as an alternative or even complementary drug to opiates, with some preclinical studies showing opiate-sparing effects. Whilst there is a paucity of clinical trials in this field, there is scope for cannabinoids to be successful anti-nociceptive agents in managing chronic back pain. The ultimate aim would be to utilize cannabis-based medicines as alternative or complementary therapies, thereby reducing opiate over-reliance and providing hope to individuals who have exhausted all other forms of standard treatment.

Keywords: endocannabinoids, cannabis-based medicines, chronic pain, lower back pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
1433 NanoCelle®: A Nano Delivery Platform to Enhance Medicine

Authors: Sean Hall

Abstract:

Nanosystems for drug delivery are not new; as medicines evolve, so too does the desire to deliver a more targeted, patient-compliant medicine. Though, historically the widespread use of nanosystems for drug delivery has been fouled by non-replicability, scalability, toxicity issues, and economics. Examples include steps of manufacture and thus cost to manufacture, toxicity for nanoparticle scaffolding, autoimmune response, and considerable technical expertise for small non-commercial yields. This, unfortunately, demonstrates the not-so-obvious chasm between science and drug formulation for regulatory approval. Regardless there is a general and global desire to improve the delivery of medicines, reduce potential side effect profiles, promote increased patient compliance, and increase and/or speed public access to medicine availability. In this paper, the author will discuss NanoCelle®, a nano-delivery platform that specifically addresses degradation and solubility issues that expands from fundamental micellar preparations. NanoCelle® has been deployed in several Australian listed medicines and is in use of several drug candidates across small molecules, with research endeavors now extending into large molecules. The author will discuss several research initiatives as they relate to NanoCelle® to demonstrate similarities seen in various drug substances; these examples will include both in vitro and in vivo work.

Keywords: NanoCelle®, micellar, degradation, solubility, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1432 Pharmacy-Station Mobile Application

Authors: Taissir Fekih Romdhane

Abstract:

This paper proposes a mobile web application named Pharmacy-Station that sells medicines and permits user to search for medications based on their symptoms, making it is easy to locate a specific drug online without the need to visit a pharmacy where it may be out of stock. This application is developed using the jQuery Mobile framework, which uses many web technologies and languages such as HTML5, PHP, JavaScript and CSS3. To test the proposed application, we used data from popular pharmacies in Saudi Arabia that included important information such as location, contact, and medicines in stock, etc. This document describes the different steps followed to create the Pharmacy-Station application along with screenshots. Finally, based on the results, the paper concludes with recommendations and further works planned to improve the Pharmacy-Station mobile application.

Keywords: pharmacy, mobile application, jquery mobile framework, search, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
1431 A System to Detect Inappropriate Messages in Online Social Networks

Authors: Shivani Singh, Shantanu Nakhare, Kalyani Nair, Rohan Shetty

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As social networking is growing at a rapid pace today it is vital that we work on improving its management. Research has shown that the content present in online social networks may have significant influence on impressionable minds. If such platforms are misused, it will lead to negative consequences. Detecting insults or inappropriate messages continues to be one of the most challenging aspects of Online Social Networks (OSNs) today. We address this problem through a Machine Learning Based Soft Text Classifier approach using Support Vector Machine algorithm. The proposed system acts as a screening mechanism the alerts the user about such messages. The messages are classified according to their subject matter and each comment is labeled for the presence of profanity and insults.

Keywords: machine learning, online social networks, soft text classifier, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 421