Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 805

Search results for: distillation column

805 Modification of Underwood's Equation to Calculate Minimum Reflux Ratio for Column with One Side Stream Upper Than Feed

Authors: S. Mousavian, A. Abedianpour, A. Khanmohammadi, S. Hematian, Gh. Eidi Veisi

Abstract:

Distillation is one of the most important and utilized separation methods in the industrial practice. There are different ways to design of distillation column. One of these ways is short cut method. In short cut method, material balance and equilibrium are employed to calculate number of tray in distillation column. There are different methods that are classified in short cut method. One of these methods is Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland method. In this method, minimum reflux ratio should be calculated by underwood equation. Underwood proposed an equation that is useful for simple distillation column with one feed and one top and bottom product. In this study, underwood method is developed to predict minimum reflux ratio for column with one side stream upper than feed. The result of this model compared with McCabe-Thiele method. The result shows that proposed method able to calculate minimum reflux ratio with very small error.

Keywords: minimum reflux ratio, side stream, distillation, Underwood’s method

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804 Modelling and Control of Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Narava Manose

Abstract:

Distillation is a very old separation technology for separating liquid mixtures that can be traced back to the chemists in Alexandria in the first century A. D. Today distillation is the most important industrial separation technology. By the eleventh century, distillation was being used in Italy to produce alcoholic beverages. At that time, distillation was probably a batch process based on the use of just a single stage, the boiler. The word distillation is derived from the Latin word destillare, which means dripping or trickling down. By at least the sixteenth century, it was known that the extent of separation could be improved by providing multiple vapor-liquid contacts (stages) in a so called Rectifactorium. The term rectification is derived from the Latin words rectefacere, meaning to improve. Modern distillation derives its ability to produce almost pure products from the use of multi-stage contacting. Throughout the twentieth century, multistage distillation was by far the most widely used industrial method for separating liquid mixtures of chemical components.The basic principle behind this technique relies on the different boiling temperatures for the various components of the mixture, allowing the separation between the vapor from the most volatile component and the liquid of other(s) component(s). •Developed a simple non-linear model of a binary distillation column using Skogestad equations in Simulink. •We have computed the steady-state operating point around which to base our analysis and controller design. However, the model contains two integrators because the condenser and reboiler levels are not controlled. One particular way of stabilizing the column is the LV-configuration where we use D to control M_D, and B to control M_B; such a model is given in cola_lv.m where we have used two P-controllers with gains equal to 10.

Keywords: modelling, distillation column, control, binary distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
803 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan

Abstract:

Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
802 Design of Multi-Loop Controller for Minimization of Energy Consumption in the Distillation Column

Authors: Vinayambika S. Bhat, S. Shanmuga Priya, I. Thirunavukkarasu, Shreeranga Bhat

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to design a decoupling controller for systems with more inputs more outputs with dead time in it. The de-coupler is designed for the chemical process industry 3×3 plant transfer function with dead time. The Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) based controller has also been designed here for the 2×2 distillation column transfer function. The developed control techniques were simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink. Also, the stability of the process was analyzed, together with the presence of various perturbations in it. Time domain specifications like setting time along with overshoot and oscillations were analyzed to prove the efficiency of the de-coupler method. The load disturbance rejection was tested along with its performance. The QFT control technique was synthesized based on the stability and performance specifications in the presence of uncertainty in time constant of the plant transfer function through sequential loop shaping technique. Further, the energy efficiency of the distillation column was improved by proper tuning of the controller. A distillation column consumes 3% of the total energy consumption of the world. A suitable control technique is very important from an economic point of view. The real time implementation of the process is under process in our laboratory.

Keywords: distillation, energy, MIMO process, time delay, robust stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
801 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali

Abstract:

The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
800 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn

Abstract:

The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: absorption, distillation, heat pump, Unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
799 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah

Abstract:

Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
798 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees

Abstract:

Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
797 Determination of Starting Design Parameters for Reactive-Dividing Wall Distillation Column Simulation Using a Modified Shortcut Design Method

Authors: Anthony P. Anies, Jose C. Muñoz

Abstract:

A new shortcut method for the design of reactive-dividing wall columns (RDWC) is proposed in this work. The RDWC is decomposed into its thermodynamically equivalent configuration naming the Petlyuk column, which consists of a reactive prefractionator and an unreactive main fractionator. The modified FUGK(Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland-Kirkbride) shortcut distillation method, which incorporates the effect of reaction on the Underwood equations and the Gilliland correlation, is used to design the reactive prefractionator. On the other hand, the conventional FUGK shortcut method is used to design the unreactive main fractionator. The shortcut method is applied to the synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) through the liquid phase dehydration of methanol, and the results were used as the starting design inputs for rigorous simulation in Aspen Plus V8.8. A mole purity of 99 DME in the distillate stream, 99% methanol in the side draw stream, and 99% water in the bottoms stream were obtained in the simulation, thereby making the proposed shortcut method applicable for the preliminary design of RDWC.

Keywords: aspen plus, dimethyl ether, petlyuk column, reactive-dividing wall column, shortcut method, FUGK

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
796 The Use of Haar Wavelet Mother Signal Tool for Performance Analysis Response of Distillation Column (Application to Moroccan Case Study)

Authors: Mahacine Amrani

Abstract:

This paper aims at reviewing some Moroccan industrial applications of wavelet especially in the dynamic identification of a process model using Haar wavelet mother response. Two recent Moroccan study cases are described using dynamic data originated by a distillation column and an industrial polyethylene process plant. The purpose of the wavelet scheme is to build on-line dynamic models. In both case studies, a comparison is carried out between the Haar wavelet mother response model and a linear difference equation model. Finally it concludes, on the base of the comparison of the process performances and the best responses, which may be useful to create an estimated on-line internal model control and its application towards model-predictive controllers (MPC). All calculations were implemented using AutoSignal Software.

Keywords: process performance, model, wavelets, Haar, Moroccan

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
795 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira

Abstract:

True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
794 A Technical-Economical Study of a New Solar Tray Distillator

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Assia Cherfa, Lamia Karadaniz

Abstract:

Multiple tray solar distillation offers an interesting alternative for small-scale desalination and production high quality distilled water at a competitive cost using solar energy. In this work, we present indoor/outdoor trial performance data of our multiple tray solar distillation as well as the results of cost estimation analysis.

Keywords: solar desalination, tray distillation, multi-étages solaire, solar distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
793 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon

Abstract:

Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: distillation, heat exchanger, network pinch analysis, chemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
792 Fuel Properties of Distilled Tire Pyrolytic Oil and Its Blends with Biodiesel and Commercial Diesel Fuel

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Tires are extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer which constitutes their nature and therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and consequently, cannot be remoulded into other shapes without serious degradation. Pyrolysis of tires produces four valuable products namely; char, steel, tire pyrolytic oil (TPO) and non-condensable gases. TPO has been reported to have similar properties to commercial diesel fuel (CDF). In this study, distillation of TPO was carried out in a batch distillation column and biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil. FTIR analysis proved that TPO can be used as a fuel due to the available compounds detected and GC analysis displayed 94% biodiesel concentration from waste cooking oil. Different blends of TPO/biodiesel, TPO/CDF and biodiesel/CDF were prepared at different ratios. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, and calorific value were studied. Viscosity and density models were also studied to measure the quality of different blends.

Keywords: biodiesel, distillation, pyrolysis, tire

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
791 Recovery of Acetonitrile from Aqueous Solutions by Extractive Distillation: The Effect of Entrainer

Authors: Aleksandra Y. Sazonova, Valentina M. Raeva

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to apply extractive distillation for acetonitrile removal from water solutions, to validate thermodynamic criterion based on excess Gibbs energy to entrainer selection process for acetonitrile – water mixture separation and show its potential efficiency at isothermal conditions as well as at isobaric (conditions of real distillation process), to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process with chosen entrainers: optimize amount of trays and feeds, entrainer/original mixture and reflux ratios. Equimolar composition of the feed stream was chosen for the process, comparison of the energy consumptions was carried out. Glycerol was suggested as the most energetically and ecologically suitable entrainer.

Keywords: acetonitrile, entrainer, extractive distillation, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
790 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Temperature Polarization of Distillation Membranes for Desalination Technologies

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., Romero C.

Abstract:

Membrane Distillation is an emerging technology that uses thermal and membrane steps for the desalination process to get drinking water. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were deposited by dip-coating process over Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Fiberglass hydrophilic, and Polytetrafluoroethylene hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized and used in a Vacuum Membrane Distillation cell under Ultraviolet light with sea salt feed solution. The presence of AgNP increases the absorption of energy on the membrane, which improves the transmembrane flux.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, desalination technologies, heat deliver

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
789 Simultaneous Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil Using Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Arief Budiman

Abstract:

Reactive Distillation (RD) is a multifunctional reactor which integrates chemical reaction with in situ separation to shift the equilibrium towards the product formation. Thus, it is suitable for equilibrium limited reaction such as esterification and transesterification to enhance the reaction conversion. In this work, the application of RD for high FFA oil esterification-transterification for biodiesel production using sulphuric acid catalyst has been studied. Crude Jatropha Oil with FFA content of 30.57% was utilized as the feedstock. Effects of the catalyst concentration and molar ratio of the alcohol to oils were also investigated. It was revealed that best result was obtained with sulphuric acid catalyst (reaction conversion of 94.71% and FFA content of 1.62%) at 60C, molar ratio of methanol to FFA of 30:1, and catalyst loading of 3%. After undergoing esterification reaction, jatropha oil was then transesterified to produce biodiesel. Transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of NaOH catalyst in RD column at 60C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1, and catalyst concentration of 1%. It demonstrated that biodiesel produced in this work agreed with the Indonesian National and ASTM standard of fuel.

Keywords: reactive distillation, biodiesel, esterification, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
788 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Co-Current and Counter Current of Column Distillation Using Euler Lagrange Approach

Authors: H. Troudi, M. Ghiss, Z. Tourki, M. Ellejmi

Abstract:

Packed columns of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists of separating the liquid mixture of propane and butane to pure gas components by the distillation phenomenon. The flow of the gas and liquid inside the columns is operated by two ways: The co-current and the counter current operation. Heat, mass and species transfer between phases represent the most important factors that influence the choice between those two operations. In this paper, both processes are discussed using computational CFD simulation through ANSYS-Fluent software. Only 3D half section of the packed column was considered with one packed bed. The packed bed was characterized in our case as a porous media. The simulations were carried out at transient state conditions. A multi-component gas and liquid mixture were used out in the two processes. We utilized the Euler-Lagrange approach in which the gas was treated as a continuum phase and the liquid as a group of dispersed particles. The heat and the mass transfer process was modeled using multi-component droplet evaporation approach. The results show that the counter-current process performs better than the co-current, although such limitations of our approach are noted. This comparison gives accurate results for computations times higher than 2 s, at different gas velocity and at packed bed porosity of 0.9.

Keywords: co-current, counter-current, Euler-Lagrange model, heat transfer, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
787 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh

Abstract:

In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml, respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square meter aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 liters and 0.43 liters, respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
786 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak

Abstract:

Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
785 Mechanical Behavior of CFTR Column Joint under Pull out Testing

Authors: Nasruddin Junus

Abstract:

CFTR column is one of the improvements CFT columns by inserting reinforcing steel bars into infill concrete. The presence of inserting reinforcing steel bars is increasing the excellent structural performance of the CFT column, especially on the fire-resisting performance. Investigation on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column connection is summarized in the three parts; column to column joint, column to beam connection, and column base. Experiment that reported in this paper is concerned on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column joint under pull out testing, especially on its stress transfer mechanism. A number series of the pull out test on the CFT with inserting reinforcing steel bar are conducted. Ten test specimens are designed, constructed, and tested to examine experimentally the effect of the size of square steel tube, size of the bearing plate, length of embedment steel bars, kind of steel bars, and the numbers of rib plate.

Keywords: CFTR column, pull out, stress, transfer mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
784 Comparative Study of Stone Column with and without Encasement Using Waste Aggregate

Authors: V. K. Stalin, V. Paneerselvam, M. Bharath, M. Kirithika

Abstract:

In developing countries like India due to the rapid urbanization, large amount of waste materials are produced every year. These waste materials can be utilized in the improvement of problematic soils. Stone column is one of the best methods to improve soft clay deposits. In this study, load tests were conducted to ensure the suitability of waste as column materials. The variable parameters studied are material, number of column and encasement. The materials used for the study are stone aggregate, copper slag, construction waste, for one, two and three number of columns with geotextile and geogrid encasement. It was found that the performance of waste as column material are comparable to that of conventional stone column with and without encasement. Hence, it is concluded that the copper slag and construction waste may be used as a column material in place of conventional stone aggregate to improve the soft clay advantage being utilization of waste.

Keywords: stone column, geocomposite, construction waste, copper slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
783 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid

Abstract:

Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

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782 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

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781 Integrating Knowledge Distillation of Multiple Strategies

Authors: Min Jindong, Wang Mingxia

Abstract:

With the widespread use of artificial intelligence in life, computer vision, especially deep convolutional neural network models, has developed rapidly. With the increase of the complexity of the real visual target detection task and the improvement of the recognition accuracy, the target detection network model is also very large. The huge deep neural network model is not conducive to deployment on edge devices with limited resources, and the timeliness of network model inference is poor. In this paper, knowledge distillation is used to compress the huge and complex deep neural network model, and the knowledge contained in the complex network model is comprehensively transferred to another lightweight network model. Different from traditional knowledge distillation methods, we propose a novel knowledge distillation that incorporates multi-faceted features, called M-KD. In this paper, when training and optimizing the deep neural network model for target detection, the knowledge of the soft target output of the teacher network in knowledge distillation, the relationship between the layers of the teacher network and the feature attention map of the hidden layer of the teacher network are transferred to the student network as all knowledge. in the model. At the same time, we also introduce an intermediate transition layer, that is, an intermediate guidance layer, between the teacher network and the student network to make up for the huge difference between the teacher network and the student network. Finally, this paper adds an exploration module to the traditional knowledge distillation teacher-student network model. The student network model not only inherits the knowledge of the teacher network but also explores some new knowledge and characteristics. Comprehensive experiments in this paper using different distillation parameter configurations across multiple datasets and convolutional neural network models demonstrate that our proposed new network model achieves substantial improvements in speed and accuracy performance.

Keywords: object detection, knowledge distillation, convolutional network, model compression

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780 Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Essential Oils: A Clean Chemical Processing in the Teaching and Research Laboratory

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat

Abstract:

Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: clevenger, microwave, extraction; hydro-distillation, essential oil, orange peel

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779 Numerical Investigation of the Jacketing Method of Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: S. Boukais, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, A. Kezmane

Abstract:

The first intent of this study is to develop a finite element model that can predict correctly the behavior of the reinforced concrete column. Second aim is to use the finite element model to investigate and evaluate the effect of the strengthening method by jacketing of the reinforced concrete column, by considering different interface contact between the old and the new concrete. Four models were evaluated, one by considering perfect contact, the other three models by using friction coefficient of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. The simulation was carried out by using Abaqus software. The obtained results show that the jacketing reinforcement led to significant increase of the global performance of the behavior of the simulated reinforced concrete column.

Keywords: strengthening, jacketing, rienforced concrete column, Abaqus, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
778 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5 mm to 6.3 mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3 mm to 8 mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, column faces bending, concrete filled hollow sections

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
777 Synthesis and Characterization of PVDF, FG, PTFE, and PES Membrane Distillation Modified with Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., RomeroC.

Abstract:

The Silver Nanoparticles (AgNP) are used as deliver of heat on surface of Membrane Distillation in order to fight against Thermal Polarization and improving the Desalination Process. In this study AgNPwere deposited by dip coating process over PVDF, FG hydrophilic, and PTFE hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized by SEM, EDS, contact angle, Pore size distributionand using a UV lamp and a thermal camera were measured the performance of heat deliver. The presence of AgNP 50 – 150 nm and the increase in absorption of energy over membrane were verified.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, plasmon effect, heat deliver

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776 Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube

Authors: Bum Yean Cho, Heung-Youl Kim, Ki-Seok Kwon, Kang-Su Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.

Keywords: CFT (concrete-filled tube) column, fire resistance performance, slot, weld

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