Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1508

Search results for: ion acoustic wave

1508 Acoustic Wave Propagation Method Evaluated in Drains of Dams

Authors: André Taras, Mathieu Soares, M. Rodriguez, M. Argouges


There is a need to reduce the inspection time of drains in dams done through a video camera. A method based on acoustic-guided wave propagation was developed. A system of loudspeakers and microphones was designed to send and measure at the mouth of drains acoustic waves. Physical models were developed to describe wave attenuation as it propagates and its reflection/transmission at obstructions. Extensive lab tests were undertaken in 3-inch composite and 4-inch fibro cement pipes to evaluate the performances of these models. Wave attenuation coefficient and superposition factor for the recorded reflections were obtained for these two types of pipes. The effects of different drain conditions were evaluated, such as distinct and multiple obstructions, cavities, and fouling over length.

Keywords: acoustic wave propagation, inspection, guided wave, drain, pipe, obstruction, reflection, prediction

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1507 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra


The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
1506 Visco-Acoustic Full Wave Inversion in the Frequency Domain with Mixed Grids

Authors: Sheryl Avendaño, Miguel Ospina, Hebert Montegranario


Full Wave Inversion (FWI) is a variant of seismic tomography for obtaining velocity profiles by an optimization process that combine forward modelling (or solution of wave equation) with the misfit between synthetic and observed data. In this research we are modelling wave propagation in a visco-acoustic medium in the frequency domain. We apply finite differences for the numerical solution of the wave equation with a mix between usual and rotated grids, where density depends on velocity and there exists a damping function associated to a linear dissipative medium. The velocity profiles are obtained from an initial one and the data have been modeled for a frequency range 0-120 Hz. By an iterative procedure we obtain an estimated velocity profile in which are detailed the remarkable features of the velocity profile from which synthetic data were generated showing promising results for our method.

Keywords: seismic inversion, full wave inversion, visco acoustic wave equation, finite diffrence methods

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1505 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun


This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

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1504 Test Research on Damage Initiation and Development of a Concrete Beam Using Acoustic Emission Technology

Authors: Xiang Wang


In order to validate the efficiency of recognizing the damage initiation and development of a concrete beam using acoustic emission technology, a concrete beam is built and tested in the laboratory. The acoustic emission signals are analyzed based on both parameter and wave information, which is also compared with the beam deflection measured by displacement sensors. The results indicate that using acoustic emission technology can detect damage initiation and development effectively, especially in the early stage of the damage development, which can not be detected by the common monitoring technology. Furthermore, the positioning of the damage based on the acoustic emission signals can be proved to be reasonable. This job can be an important attempt for the future long-time monitoring of the real concrete structure.

Keywords: acoustic emission technology, concrete beam, parameter analysis, wave analysis, positioning

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1503 Spherical Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Relativistic Quantum Plasma

Authors: Alireza Abdikian


By assuming a quantum relativistic degenerate electron-positron (e-p) plasma media, the nonlinear acoustic solitary propagation in the presence of the stationary ions for neutralizing the plasma background of bounded cylindrical geometry was investigated. By using the standard reductive perturbation technique with cooperation the quantum hydrodynamics model for the e-p fluid, the spherical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation was derived for small but finite amplitude waves and was given the solitary wave solution for the parameters relevant for dense astrophysical objects such as white dwarf stars. By using a suitable coordinate transformation and using improved F-expansion technique, the SKP equation can be solved analytically. The numerical results reveal that the relativistic effects lead to propagate the electrostatic bell shape structures and by increasing the relativistic effects, the amplitude and the width of the e-p acoustic solitary wave will decrease.

Keywords: Electron-positron plasma, Acoustic solitary wave, Relativistic plasmas, the spherical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

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1502 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin


The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
1501 A Study of Standing-Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Patcharin Saechan, Isares Dhuchakallaya


Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a cooling device which uses the acoustic waves to produce the cooling effect. The aim of this paper is to explore the experimental and numerical feasibility of a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. The effects of the stack length, position of stack and operating frequency on the cooling performance are carried out. The circular pore stacks are tested under the atmospheric pressure. A low-cost loudspeaker is used as an acoustic driver. The results show that the location of stack installed in resonator tube has a greater effect on the cooling performance than the stack length and operating frequency, respectively. The temperature difference across the ends of the stack can be generated up to 13.7°C, and the temperature of cold-end is dropped down by 5.3°C from the ambient temperature.

Keywords: cooling performance, refrigerator, standing-wave, thermoacoustics

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1500 Relationship between Wave Velocities and Geo-Pressures in Shallow Libyan Carbonate Reservoir

Authors: Tarek Sabri Duzan


Knowledge of the magnitude of Geo-pressures (Pore, Fracture & Over-burden pressures) is vital especially during drilling, completions, stimulations, Enhance Oil Recovery. Many times problems, like lost circulation could have been avoided if techniques for calculating Geo-pressures had been employed in the well planning, mud weight plan, and casing design. In this paper, we focused on the relationships between Geo-pressures and wave velocities (P-Wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs)) in shallow Libyan carbonate reservoir in the western part of the Sirte Basin (Dahra F-Area). The data used in this report was collected from four new wells recently drilled. Those wells were scattered throughout the interested reservoir as shown in figure-1. The data used in this work are bulk density, Formation Mult -Tester (FMT) results and Acoustic wave velocities. Furthermore, Eaton Method is the most common equation used in the world, therefore this equation has been used to calculate Fracture pressure for all wells using dynamic Poisson ratio calculated by using acoustic wave velocities, FMT results for pore pressure, Overburden pressure estimated by using bulk density. Upon data analysis, it has been found that there is a linear relationship between Geo-pressures (Pore, Fracture & Over-Burden pressures) and wave velocities ratio (Vp/Vs). However, the relationship was not clear in the high-pressure area, as shown in figure-10. Therefore, it is recommended to use the output relationship utilizing the new seismic data for shallow carbonate reservoir to predict the Geo-pressures for future oil operations. More data can be collected from the high-pressure zone to investigate more about this area.

Keywords: bulk density, formation mult-tester (FMT) results, acoustic wave, carbonate shalow reservoir, d/jfield velocities

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1499 Acoustic Energy Harvesting Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF-ZnO Piezoelectric Polymer

Authors: S. M. Giripunje, Mohit Kumar


Acoustic energy that exists in our everyday life and environment have been overlooked as a green energy that can be extracted, generated, and consumed without any significant negative impact to the environment. The harvested energy can be used to enable new technology like wireless sensor networks. Technological developments in the realization of truly autonomous MEMS devices and energy storage systems have made acoustic energy harvesting (AEH) an increasingly viable technology. AEH is the process of converting high and continuous acoustic waves from the environment into electrical energy by using an acoustic transducer or resonator. AEH is not popular as other types of energy harvesting methods since sound waves have lower energy density and such energy can only be harvested in very noisy environment. However, the energy requirements for certain applications are also correspondingly low and also there is a necessity to observe the noise to reduce noise pollution. So the ability to reclaim acoustic energy and store it in a usable electrical form enables a novel means of supplying power to relatively low power devices. A quarter-wavelength straight-tube acoustic resonator as an acoustic energy harvester is introduced with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF doped with ZnO nanoparticles, piezoelectric cantilever beams placed inside the resonator. When the resonator is excited by an incident acoustic wave at its first acoustic eigen frequency, an amplified acoustic resonant standing wave is developed inside the resonator. The acoustic pressure gradient of the amplified standing wave then drives the vibration motion of the PVDF piezoelectric beams, generating electricity due to the direct piezoelectric effect. In order to maximize the amount of the harvested energy, each PVDF and PVDF-ZnO piezoelectric beam has been designed to have the same structural eigen frequency as the acoustic eigen frequency of the resonator. With a single PVDF beam placed inside the resonator, the harvested voltage and power become the maximum near the resonator tube open inlet where the largest acoustic pressure gradient vibrates the PVDF beam. As the beam is moved to the resonator tube closed end, the voltage and power gradually decrease due to the decreased acoustic pressure gradient. Multiple piezoelectric beams PVDF and PVDF-ZnO have been placed inside the resonator with two different configurations: the aligned and zigzag configurations. With the zigzag configuration which has the more open path for acoustic air particle motions, the significant increases in the harvested voltage and power have been observed. Due to the interruption of acoustic air particle motion caused by the beams, it is found that placing PVDF beams near the closed tube end is not beneficial. The total output voltage of the piezoelectric beams increases linearly as the incident sound pressure increases. This study therefore reveals that the proposed technique used to harvest sound wave energy has great potential of converting free energy into useful energy.

Keywords: acoustic energy, acoustic resonator, energy harvester, eigenfrequency, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)

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1498 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface

Authors: Amit Sharma, J. N. Sharma


This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

Keywords: quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission, semiconductors, acoustics

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1497 Bearing Condition Monitoring with Acoustic Emission Techniques

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali


Monitoring the conditions of rotating machinery as bearing is important in order to improve its stability of works. Acoustic emission (AE) and vibration analysis are some of the most accomplished techniques used for this purpose. Acoustic emission has the ability to detect the initial phase of component degradation. Moreover, it has been observed that the success of vibration analysis does not take place below 100 rpm rotational speed. This because the energy generated below 100 rpm rotational speed is not detectable using conventional vibration. From this pint, this paper has presented a focused review of using acoustic emission techniques for monitoring bearings condition.

Keywords: condition monitoring, stress wave analysis, low-speed bearings, bearing defect diagnosis

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1496 Lamb Wave-Based Blood Coagulation Measurement System Using Citrated Plasma

Authors: Hyunjoo Choi, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim


Acoustomicrofluidics has gained much attention due to the advantages, such as noninvasiveness and easy integration with other miniaturized systems, for clinical and biological applications. However, a limitation of acoustomicrofluidics is the complicated and costly fabrication process of electrodes. In this study, we propose a low-cost and lithography-free device using Lamb wave for blood analysis. Using a Lamb wave, calcium ion-removed blood plasma and coagulation reagents can be rapidly mixed for blood coagulation test. Due to the coagulation process, the viscosity of the sample increases and the viscosity change can be monitored by internal acoustic streaming of microparticles suspended in the sample droplet. When the acoustic streaming of particles stops by the viscosity increase is defined as the coagulation time. With the addition of calcium ion at 0-25 mM, the coagulation time was measured and compared with the conventional index for blood coagulation analysis, prothrombin time, which showed highly correlated with the correlation coefficient as 0.94. Therefore, our simple and cost-effective Lamb wave-based blood analysis device has the powerful potential to be utilized in clinical settings.

Keywords: acoustomicrofluidics, blood analysis, coagulation, lamb wave

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1495 Volatile Organic Compounds Detection by Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors with Nanoparticles Embedded in Polymer Sensitive Layers

Authors: Cristian Viespe, Dana Miu


Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors with nanoparticles (NPs) of various dimensions and concentrations embedded in different types of polymer sensing films for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied. The sensors were ‘delay line’ type with a center frequency of 69.4 MHz on ST-X quartz substrates. NPs with different diameters of 7 nm or 13 nm were obtained by laser ablation with lasers having 5 ns or 10 ps pulse durations, respectively. The influence of NPs dimensions and concentrations on sensor properties such as frequency shift, sensitivity, noise and response time were investigated. To the best of our knowledge, the influence of NP dimensions on SAW sensor properties with has not been investigated. The frequency shift and sensitivity increased with increasing NP concentration in the polymer for a given NP dimension and with decreasing NP diameter for a given concentration. The best performances were obtained for the smallest NPs used. The SAW sensor with NPs of 7 nm had a limit of detection (LOD) of 65 ppm (almost five times better than the sensor with polymer alone), and a response time of about 9 s for ethanol.

Keywords: surface acoustic wave sensor, nanoparticles, volatile organic compounds, laser ablation

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1494 Effects of Positron Concentration and Temperature on Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma

Authors: S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra


Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with warm adiabatic ions and isothermal electrons has been studied. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method has been derived for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that for the selected set of parameter values, the system supports only compressive solitons. Investigations reveal that an increase in positron concentration diminishes the amplitude as well as the width of the soliton. It is also found that the temperature ratio of electron to positron (γ) affects the amplitude of the solitary wave. An external magnetic field do not affect the amplitude of ion-acoustic solitons, but obliqueness angle (θ), the angle between wave vector and magnetic field affects the amplitude. The amplitude of the ion-acoustic solitons increases with increase in angle of obliqueness. Magnetization and obliqueness drastically affect the width of the soliton. An increase in ionic temperature decreases the amplitude and width. For the fixed set of parameters, profiles have been drawn to study the combined effect with variation of two parameters on the characteristics of the ion-acoustic solitons (i.e., amplitude and width). The result may be applicable to plasma in the laboratory as well as in the magnetospheric region of the earth.

Keywords: ion-acoustic solitons, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma, reductive perturbation method

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1493 Development of Polymer Nano-Particles as in vivo Imaging Agents for Photo-Acoustic Imaging

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


Molecular imaging has attracted much attention to visualize a tumor site in a living body on the basis of biological functions. A fluorescence in vivo imaging technique has been widely employed as a useful modality for small animals in pre-clinical researches. However, it is difficult to observe a site deep inside a body because of a short penetration depth of light. A photo-acoustic effect is a generation of a sound wave following light absorption. Because the sound wave is less susceptible to the absorption of tissues, an in vivo imaging method based on the photoacoustic effect can observe deep inside a living body. The current study developed an in vivo imaging agent for a photoacoustic imaging method. Nano-particles of poly(lactic acid) including indocyanine dye were developed as bio-compatible imaging agent with strong light absorption. A tumor site inside a mouse body was successfully observed in a photo-acoustic image. A photo-acoustic imaging with polymer nano-particle agent would be a powerful method to visualize a tumor.

Keywords: nano-particle, photo-acoustic effect, polymer, dye, in vivo imaging

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1492 Influence of Rotation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezoelectric Plate

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary, Sanjeev Sahu


Propagation of Rayleigh-type waves in a rotating piezoelectric plate is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The frequency equation have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of rotation and piezoelectricity have been shown. It is also found that piezoelectric material properties have an important effect on Rayleigh wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric materials also in SAW devices.

Keywords: rotation, frequency equation, piezoelectricity, rayleigh-type wave

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1491 Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma

Authors: A. Abdikian


Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.

Keywords: bifurcation theory, phase portrait, magnetized electron-positron plasma, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

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1490 Simulation of Acoustic Properties of Borate and Tellurite Glasses

Authors: M. S. Gaafar, S. Y. Marzouk, I. S. Mahmoud, S. Al-Zobaidi


Makishima and Mackenzie model was used to simulation of acoustic properties (longitudinal and shear ultrasonic wave velocities, elastic moduli theoretically for many tellurite and borate glasses. The model was proposed mainly depending on the values of the experimentally measured density, which are obtained before. In this search work, we are trying to obtain the values of densities of amorphous glasses (as the density depends on the geometry of the network structure of these glasses). In addition, the problem of simulating the slope of linear regression between the experimentally determined bulk modulus and the product of packing density and experimental Young's modulus, were solved in this search work. The results showed good agreement between the experimentally measured values of densities and both ultrasonic wave velocities, and those theoretically determined.

Keywords: glasses, ultrasonic wave velocities, elastic modulus, Makishima & Mackenzie Model

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1489 Influence of Initial Stress and Corrugation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezomagnetic Half-Space

Authors: Abhinav Singhal, Sanjeev A. Sahu


Propagation of Rayleigh-type surface waves in an initially stressed piezomagnetic half- space with irregular boundary is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The dispersion relations have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of initial stress and corrugation have been shown graphically. It is also found that piezomagnetic material properties have an important effect on wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezomagnetic materials.

Keywords: corrugation, frequency equation, piezomagnetic, rayleigh-type wave

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1488 Acoustic Modeling of a Data Center with a Hot Aisle Containment System

Authors: Arshad Alfoqaha, Seth Bard, Dustin Demetriou


A new multi-physics acoustic modeling approach using ANSYS Mechanical FEA and FLUENT CFD methods is developed for modeling servers mounted to racks, such as IBM Z and IBM Power Systems, in data centers. This new approach allows users to determine the thermal and acoustic conditions that people are exposed to within the data center. The sound pressure level (SPL) exposure for a human working inside a hot aisle containment system inside the data center is studied. The SPL is analyzed at the noise source, at the human body, on the rack walls, on the containment walls, and on the ceiling and flooring plenum walls. In the acoustic CFD simulation, it is assumed that a four-inch diameter sphere with monopole acoustic radiation, placed in the middle of each rack, provides a single-source representation of all noise sources within the rack. Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings (FWH) acoustic model is employed. The target frequency is 1000 Hz, and the total simulation time for the transient analysis is 1.4 seconds, with a very small time step of 3e-5 seconds and 10 iterations to ensure convergence and accuracy. A User Defined Function (UDF) is developed to accurately simulate the acoustic noise source, and a Dynamic Mesh is applied to ensure acoustic wave propagation. Initial validation of the acoustic CFD simulation using a closed-form solution for the spherical propagation of an acoustic point source is performed.

Keywords: data centers, FLUENT, acoustics, sound pressure level, SPL, hot aisle containment, IBM

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1487 The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning

Authors: Kyle Saltmarsh


Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.

Keywords: plates, deformation, acoustic features, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1486 Acoustic Wave Propagation to Locate and Evaluate Obstructions in Dam Seepage Drains

Authors: André Taras, Mathieu Soares, M. Rodriguez, M. Argouges


Concrete dams are subject to cracks at the reservoir face of the dam. Water seeps into the cracks of the concrete can create an uplift pressure. To reduce this pressure, drains are bored vertically in the wall of the dam or at angle in the foundation, to intercept these cracks, it permits water to flow and reduce pressure. However, these drains may, with time, clog up from calcite deposit or accretion. Some big dams can bare several hundreds of drains. Before choosing which drain to clean, camera inspection permits to evaluate the state of obstructions, but it is tedious and time consuming. To improve upon the inspection time, research was undertaken to evaluate the potential of the acoustic wave propagation technic to locate obstructions in air filled seepage drains and to evaluate calcite section reduction. Such acoustic technics have been studied for gas and oil pipes to detect cracks and leaks. Physical models were developed to describe wave attenuation due to leakage through the wall and damping with distance. Also, reflection and transmission behaviour had to be described from the incident wave at an obstruction. The values of reflected and incident waveswere extrapolated to the point of obstruction. Their ratio was correlated to the cross-sectional reduction due to calcite at a given obstruction. Extensive lab tests in PVC and Fibrocement pipes have permitted to establish the performances of these models. Also, ballpark figures were obtained for the attenuation coefficient and the effect of superposition of the measured reflected wave to its rebound at the open extremity of the pipe. The effects of cavities were also identified. The proposed paper will present the results from tests undertaken in actual drains in dams. A first series of testswere undertaken at a dam in drains with no important obstruction. These measurementsserved to determine the actual coefficient of attenuation and correction coefficient for superposition. A second series of tests were undertaken on drains with obstructions at another dam. These measurements served to evaluate the performance of the proposed acoustic wave propagation inspection method in predicting the degree of obstruction in actual drains. The proposed method was found to be around 5 times faster than the camera. Correlation between actual and predicted obstructions were encouraging. However, there was a certain degree of interpretation in the amount of obstruction as evaluated by the camera used as a means of comparison. Future work will focus on developing a user-friendly software interface for the wave signal analysis and obstruction prediction.

Keywords: acoustic, wave propagation, drains, calcite, dams

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1485 Acoustic Partial Discharge Propagation and Perfectly Matched Layer in Acoustic Detection-Transformer

Authors: Nirav J. Patel, Kalpesh K. Dudani


Partial discharge (PD) is the dissipation of energy caused by localized breakdown of insulation. Power transformers are one of the most important components in the electrical energy network. Insulation degradation of transformer is frequently linked to PD. This is why PD detection is used in power system to monitor the health of high voltage transformer. If such problem are not detected and repaired, the strength and frequency of PD may increase and eventually lead to the catastrophic failure of the transformer. This can further cause external equipment damage, fires and loss of revenue due to an unscheduled outage. Hence, reliable online PD detection is a critical need for power companies to improve personnel safety and decrease the probability of loss of service. The PD phenomenon is manifested in a variety of physically observable signals including Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radiation and Acoustic Disturbances, Electrical pulses. Acoustic method is based on sensing the radiated acoustic emission from discharge sites in the insulation. Propagated wave from the PD fault site are captured sensor are consequently pre-amplified, filtered, recorded and analyze.

Keywords: acoustic, partial discharge, perfectly matched layer, sensor

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1484 Dust Ion Acoustic Shock Waves in Dissipative Superthermal Plasmas

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad


In this paper, the properties of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and stationary dust particles, are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dissipation is taken into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is shown that the basic features of DIA shock waves are significantly modified by the effects of electron superthermality and ion kinematic viscosity.

Keywords: reductive perturbation method, dust ion acoustic shock wave, superthermal electron, dissipative plasmas

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1483 Non-Linear Transformation of Bulk Acoustic Waves at Oblique Incidence on Plane Solid Boundary

Authors: Aleksandr I. Korobov, Natalia V. Shirgina, Aleksey I. Kokshaiskiy


The transformation of two types of acoustic waves can occur on a flat interface between two solids at oblique incidence of longitudinal and shear bulk acoustic waves (BAW). This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the properties of reflection and propagation of longitudinal wave and generation of second and third longitudinal and shear harmonics of BAW at oblique incidence of longitudinal BAW on a flat rough boundary between two solids. The experimental sample was a rectangular isosceles pyramid made of D16 aluminum alloy with the plane parallel bases cylinder made of D16 aluminum alloy pressed to the base. The piezoelectric lithium niobate transducer with a resonance frequency of 5 MHz was secured to one face of the pyramid to generate a longitudinal wave. Longitudinal waves emitted by this transducer felt at an angle of 45° to the interface between two solids and reflected at the same angle. On the opposite face of the pyramid, and on the flat side of the cylinder was attached longitudinal transducer with resonance frequency of 10 MHz or the shear transducer with resonance frequency of 15 MHz. These transducers also effectively received signal at a frequency of 5 MHz. In the spectrum of the transmitted and reflected BAW was observed shear and longitudinal waves at a frequency of 5 MHz, as well as longitudinal harmonic at a frequency harmonic of 10 MHz and a shear harmonic at frequency of 15 MHz. The effect of reversing changing of external pressure applied to the rough interface between two solids on the value of the first and higher harmonics of the BAW at oblique incidence on the interface of the longitudinal BAW was experimentally investigated. In the spectrum of the reflected signal from the interface, there was a decrease of amplitudes of the first harmonics of the signal, and non-monotonic dependence of the second and third harmonics of shear wave with an increase of the static pressure applied to the interface. In the spectrum of the transmitted signal growth of the first longitudinal and shear harmonic amplitude and non-monotonic dependence - first increase and then decrease in the amplitude of the second and third longitudinal shear harmonic with increasing external static pressure was observed. These dependencies were hysteresis at reversing changing of external pressure. When pressure applied to the border increased, acoustic contact between the surfaces improves. This increases the energy of the transmitted elastic wave and decreases the energy of the reflected wave. The second longitudinal acoustic harmonics generation was associated with the Hertz nonlinearity on the interface of two pressed rough surfaces, the generation of the third harmonic was caused by shear hysteresis nonlinearity due to dry friction on a rough interface. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project №14-22-00042).

Keywords: generation of acoustic harmonics, hysteresis nonlinearity, Hertz nonlinearity, transformation of acoustic waves

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1482 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel


In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

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1481 Optimizing the Design Parameters of Acoustic Power Transfer Model to Achieve High Power Intensity and Compact System

Authors: Ariba Siddiqui, Amber Khan


The need for bio-implantable devices in the field of medical sciences has been increasing day by day; however, the charging of these devices is a major issue. Batteries, a very common method of powering the implants, have a limited lifetime and bulky nature. Therefore, as a replacement of batteries, acoustic power transfer (APT) technology is being accepted as the most suitable technique to wirelessly power the medical implants in the present scenario. The basic model of APT consists of piezoelectric transducers that work on the principle of converse piezoelectric effect at the transmitting end and direct piezoelectric effect at the receiving end. This paper provides mechanistic insight into the parameters affecting the design and efficient working of acoustic power transfer systems. The optimum design considerations have been presented that will help to compress the size of the device and augment the intensity of the pressure wave. A COMSOL model of the PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) transducer was developed. The model was simulated and analyzed on a frequency spectrum. The simulation results displayed that the efficiency of these devices is strongly dependent on the frequency of operation, and a wrong choice of the operating frequency leads to the high absorption of acoustic field inside the tissue (medium), poor power strength, and heavy transducers, which in effect influence the overall configuration of the acoustic systems. Considering all the tradeoffs, the simulations were performed again by determining an optimum frequency (900 kHz) that resulted in the reduction of the transducer's thickness to 1.96 mm and augmented the power strength with an intensity of 432 W/m². Thus, the results obtained after the second simulation contribute to lesser attenuation, lightweight systems, high power intensity, and also comply with safety limits provided by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It was also found that the chosen operating frequency enhances the directivity of the acoustic wave at the receiver side.

Keywords: acoustic power, bio-implantable, COMSOL, Lead Zirconate Titanate, piezoelectric, transducer

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1480 Numerical Study of Nonlinear Guided Waves in Composite Laminates with Delaminations

Authors: Reza Soleimanpour, Ching Tai Ng


Fibre-composites are widely used in various structures due to their attractive properties such as higher stiffness to mass ratio and better corrosion resistance compared to metallic materials. However, one serious weakness of this composite material is delamination, which is a subsurface separation of laminae. A low level of this barely visible damage can cause a significant reduction in residual compressive strength. In the last decade, the application of guided waves for damage detection has been a topic of significant interest for many researches. Among all guided wave techniques, nonlinear guided wave has shown outstanding sensitivity and capability for detecting different types of damages, e.g. cracks and delaminations. So far, most of researches on applications of nonlinear guided wave have been dedicated to isotropic material, such as aluminium and steel, while only a few works have been done on applications of nonlinear characteristics of guided waves in anisotropic materials. This study investigates the nonlinear interactions of the fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave (A0) with delamination in composite laminates using three-dimensional (3D) explicit finite element (FE) simulations. The nonlinearity considered in this study arises from interactions of two interfaces of sub-laminates at the delamination region, which generates contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN). The aim of this research is to investigate the phenomena of CAN in composite laminated beams by a series of numerical case studies. In this study interaction of fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave with delamination of different sizes are studied in detail. The results show that the A0 lamb wave interacts with the delaminations generating CAN in the form of higher harmonics, which is a good indicator for determining the existence of delaminations in composite laminates.

Keywords: contact acoustic nonlinearity, delamination, fibre reinforced composite beam, finite element, nonlinear guided waves

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1479 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid


One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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