Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1648

Search results for: Sunil Kumar Gupta

1648 Challenges in Multi-Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The demand for cloud storage is increasing because users want continuous access their data. Cloud Storage revolutionized the way how users access their data. A lot of cloud storage service providers are available as DropBox, G Drive, and providing limited free storage and for extra storage; users have to pay money, which will act as a burden on users. To avoid the issue of limited free storage, the concept of Multi Cloud Storage introduced. In this paper, we will discuss the limitations of existing Multi Cloud Storage systems for mobile devices.

Keywords: cloud storage, data privacy, data security, multi cloud storage, mobile devices

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1647 Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Resource Constrained Mobile Devices: Comparison and Analysis

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

Cloud storage is a model of online data storage where data is stored in virtualized pool of servers hosted by third parties (CSPs) and located in different geographical locations. Cloud storage revolutionized the way how users access their data online anywhere, anytime and using any device as a tablet, mobile, laptop, etc. A lot of issues as vendor lock-in, frequent service outage, data loss and performance related issues exist in single cloud storage systems. So to evade these issues, the concept of multi cloud storage introduced. There are a lot of multi cloud storage systems exists in the market for mobile devices. In this article, we are providing comparison of four multi cloud storage systems for mobile devices Otixo, Unclouded, Cloud Fuze, and Clouds and evaluate their performance on the basis of CPU usage, battery consumption, time consumption and data usage parameters on three mobile phones Nexus 5, Moto G and Nexus 7 tablet and using Wi-Fi network. Finally, open research challenges and future scope are discussed.

Keywords: cloud storage, multi cloud storage, vendor lock-in, mobile devices, mobile cloud computing

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1646 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of 120 Families with Sporadic Juvenile Onset Open Angle Glaucoma

Authors: Bindu I. Somarajan, Viney Gupta, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Jasbir Kaur, Sunil Kumar, Shikha Gupta, Abadh K. Chaurasia, Dinesh Gupa, Abhinav Kaushik, Aditi Mehta, Vipin Gupta, Arundhati Sharma

Abstract:

Background: Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (JOAG), affects individuals under the age of 40 years. Studies on a few families of JOAG, that led to the discovery of the Myocilin gene, reported the disease to have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, sporadic forms of JOAG been seen to be more common in some populations. Most pathological homozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene associated with JOAG have been seen among sporadic cases. Given the higher prevalence of sporadic JOAG cases in our population, we aimed to look for common mutations E229K and R368H, the two most common variants in the CYP1B1 gene associated with glaucoma. Objective: To determine the frequency and evaluate genotype phenotype correlation of CYP1B1 E229K and R368H mutations in a cohort of 120 sporadic Juvenile open angle glaucoma patients.Methods: Unrelated JOAG patients whose first degree relatives had been examined and found to be unaffected were included in the study. The patients and their parents were screened for E229K and R368H mutations. The phenotypic characteristics were compared between probands with and with out these mutations by SPSS v16. Results: Out of 120 JOAG patients included in the study, the E229K mutation was seen in 9 probands (7.5%) and R368H in 7 (5.8%). The average age of onset of the disease (p=0.3) and the highest untreated IOP (p=0.4) among those carrying mutations was not significantly different from those who did not have these mutations. The proportion of probands with angle dysgenesis among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 70% (11 out of 16) in comparison to 65% (67 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations (p=0.56). Similarly the probands with moderate to high myopia among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 20% (3 out of 16) in comparison to 18% (18 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations(p=0.59). Conclusion: The frequency of E229K and R368H mutations of the CYP1B1 gene is low even among sporadic JOAG patients. Moreover there is no clinical correlation between the presence of these mutations and disease severity

Keywords: CYP1B1, gene, IOP, JOAG, mutation

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1645 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
1644 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 703
1643 Bioefficacy of Catharanthus roseus on Reproductive Performance of Red Cotton Bug, Dysdercus koenigii (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoriedae)

Authors: Sunil Kayesth, Kamal Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

Influence of hexane extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves on reproductive fitness of Dysdercus koenigii was investigated by evaluating mating behaviour, oviposition behaviour and fertility of the treated insects. The volatiles of the plants were extracted in hexane by ‘cold extraction method’. The insects were treated with the extracts by ‘dry film residual method’. Our studies indicated that the treated male showed altered courtship behaviour, less number of mounting attempts, took more time to mate, less percent successful mating, and more disrupted mating. Similarly, the treated female exhibited either mating refusal or neutral behaviour towards courting males. The maximum disruption in the mating was observed in a cross T♂ X T♀, where males and females were treated with Catharanthus extract. The Dysdercus treated with Catharanthus extracts also showed marked reduction in their reproductive success. The treated females laid lesser number of egg batches and eggs in their life span. Catharanthus extract was effective in alteration of the oviposition behaviour. The eggs laid by the mated females were fertile indicating insemination of the mated females. However, the percent hatchability of the eggs laid by the treated females was less than control. The GC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of juvenile hormone mimics, and the intermediates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, some of these compounds individually or synergistically alter reproductive behaviour of Dysdercus.

Keywords: Catharanthus roseus, Dysdercus koenigii, GC-MS analysis, reproductive performance

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1642 Influence of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara Extracts on Survival and Longevity of Dysdercus koenigii

Authors: Sunil Kayesth, Kamal Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The development of resistance among insects and pests, environmental contamination and adverse effects on non-target organisms is contributed by the indiscriminate use of chemical based insecticides. To overcome these environmental and other ecological issues that are need to replace these harmful toxic compounds. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara plants volatiles on survival and longevity of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract and ethanol extracts of these three plants were used. The fifth instars were exposed to hexane extract with concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5% 1.25%, 0.1%, 0.5% 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625% while, adults were treated with10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%. 1-ml of each of these concentrations was used to make a thin film in sterilized glass jars of 500 ml capacity. Fifteen- newly emerged fifth instar nymphs and adult bugs were treated separately with the extracts for 24- hour exposure to the plant volatiles. For ethanol extracts cottonseed were treated with ethanol extracts of 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25% concentrations. The treated seeds were provided to the Dysdercus for a period of 24 hours and their feeding behaviour was observed. The effect of hexane and ethanol extract of these plants was observed and readings were recorded for 15 days. Survival and longevity of both fifth instars and adults were in correlation with the concentrations of the plant extracts. Among three plant extracts, Ocimum hexane extract was most toxic and Catharanthus was moderate while Lantana was least toxic. The ethanol extracts of Lantana was highly antifeedent while Ocimum was moderate and Catharanthus was least antifeedent. Both Catharanthus and Ocimum appeared to have potential molecules, which possessed insecticidal activity while Ocimum and Lantana showed antifeedent activities. These insecticidal and antifeedent properties may be used in IPM.

Keywords: Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum, Lantana camara, Dysdercus koenigii

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1641 Effects of Seed Culture and Attached Growth System on the Performance of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) Treating Nitrogenous Wastewater

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The start-up of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in hybrid reactor delineated four distinct phases i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Cell lysis phase was marked by death and decay of heterotrophic denitrifiers resulting in breakdown of organic nitrogen into ammonium. Lag phase showed initiation of anammox activity with turnover of heterotrophic denitrifiers, which is evident from appearance of NO3-N in the effluent. In activity elevation phase, anammox became the dominant reaction, which can be attributed to consequent reduction of NH4-N into N2 with increased NO3-N in the effluent. Proper selection of mixed seed culture at influent NO2-/NH4+ ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day led to early startup of anammox within 70 days. Pseudo steady state removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- were found as 94.3% and 96.4% respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m3d at an HRT of 1 day. Analysis of the data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 11% increase in the ammonium removal and results in an average of 29% reduction in sludge washout rate. Mass balance study of nitrogen indicated that 74.1% of total input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2% being utilized in biomass development. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge clearly showed the presence of cocci and rod shaped microorganisms intermingled on the external surface of the granules. The average size of anammox granules (1.2-1.5 mm) with an average settling velocity of 45.6 m/h indicated a high degree of granulation resulting into formation of well compacted granules in the anammox process.

Keywords: anammox, hybrid reactor, startup, granulation, nitrogen removal, mixed seed culture

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1640 Tailoring the Parameters of the Quantum MDS Codes Constructed from Constacyclic Codes

Authors: Jaskarn Singh Bhullar, Divya Taneja, Manish Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Narula

Abstract:

The existence conditions of dual containing constacyclic codes have opened a new path for finding quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes. Using these conditions parameters of length n=(q²+1)/2 quantum MDS codes were improved. A class of quantum MDS codes of length n=(q²+q+1)/h, where h>1 is an odd prime, have also been constructed having large minimum distance and these codes are new in the sense as these are not available in the literature.

Keywords: hermitian construction, constacyclic codes, cyclotomic cosets, quantum MDS codes, singleton bound

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1639 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1638 Support Vector Regression for Retrieval of Soil Moisture Using Bistatic Scatterometer Data at X-Band

Authors: Dileep Kumar Gupta, Rajendra Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, Varun Narayan Mishra, Ajeet Kumar Vishwakarma, Prashant K. Srivastava

Abstract:

An approach was evaluated for the retrieval of soil moisture of bare soil surface using bistatic scatterometer data in the angular range of 200 to 700 at VV- and HH- polarization. The microwave data was acquired by specially designed X-band (10 GHz) bistatic scatterometer. The linear regression analysis was done between scattering coefficients and soil moisture content to select the suitable incidence angle for retrieval of soil moisture content. The 250 incidence angle was found more suitable. The support vector regression analysis was used to approximate the function described by the input-output relationship between the scattering coefficient and corresponding measured values of the soil moisture content. The performance of support vector regression algorithm was evaluated by comparing the observed and the estimated soil moisture content by statistical performance indices %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 2.9451, 1.0986, and 0.9214, respectively at HH-polarization. At VV- polarization, the values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 3.6186, 0.9373, and 0.9428, respectively.

Keywords: bistatic scatterometer, soil moisture, support vector regression, RMSE, %Bias, NSE

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1637 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

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1636 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Hard Material Machining

Authors: Rajaram Kr. Gupta, Bhupendra Kumar, T. V. K. Gupta, D. S. Ramteke

Abstract:

Machining of hard materials is a recent technology for direct production of work-pieces. The primary challenge in machining these materials is selection of cutting tool inserts which facilitates an extended tool life and high-precision machining of the component. These materials are widely for making precision parts for the aerospace industry. Nickel-based alloys are typically used in extreme environment applications where a combination of strength, corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance material characteristics are required. The present paper reports the theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to understand the influence of machining parameters on the response parameters. Considering the basic machining parameters (speed, feed and depth of cut) a study has been conducted to observe their influence on material removal rate, surface roughness, cutting forces and corresponding tool wear. Experiments are designed and conducted with the help of Central Composite Rotatable Design technique. The results reveals that for a given range of process parameters, material removal rate is favorable for higher depths of cut and low feed rate for cutting forces. Low feed rates and high values of rotational speeds are suitable for better finish and higher tool life.

Keywords: speed, feed, depth of cut, roughness, cutting force, flank wear

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1635 Process Performance and Nitrogen Removal Kinetics in Anammox Hybrid Reactor

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

Anammox is a promising and cost effective alternative to conventional treatment systems that facilitates direct oxidation of ammonium nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without addition of any external carbon sources. The present study investigates the process kinetics of laboratory scale anammox hybrid reactor (AHR) which combines the dual advantages of attached and suspended growth. The performance & behaviour of AHR was studied under varying hydraulic retention time (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rate (NLRs). The experimental unit consisted of 4 numbers of 5L capacity anammox hybrid reactor inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge. Pseudo steady state (PSS) ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies of 90.6% and 95.6%, respectively, were achieved during acclimation phase. After establishment of PSS, the performance of AHR was monitored at seven different HRTs of 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. The results showed that with increase in NLR and decrease in HRT (3.0 to 0.25 d), AHR registered appreciable decline in nitrogen removal efficiency from 92.9% to 67.4 %, respectively. The HRT of 2.0 d was considered optimal to achieve substantial nitrogen removal of 89%, because on further decrease in HRT below 1.5 days, remarkable decline in the values of nitrogen removal efficiency were observed. Analysis of data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate (additional 29% reduction). This enhanced performance may be attributed to 25% increase in sludge retention time due to the attached growth media. Three kinetic models, namely, first order, Monod and Modified Stover-Kincannon model were applied to assess the substrate removal kinetics of nitrogen removal in AHR. Validation of the models were carried out by comparing experimental set of data with the predicted values obtained from the respective models. For substrate removal kinetics, model validation revealed that Modified Stover-Kincannon is most precise (R2=0.943) and can be suitably applied to predict the kinetics of nitrogen removal in AHR. Lawrence and McCarty model described the kinetics of bacterial growth. The predicted value of yield coefficient and decay constant were in line with the experimentally observed values.

Keywords: anammox, kinetics, modelling, nitrogen removal, sludge wash out rate, AHR

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1634 Critical Role of Lipid Rafts in Influenza a Virus Binding to Host Cell

Authors: Dileep Kumar Verma, Sunil Kumar Lal

Abstract:

Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Influenza A Virus (IAV) surface protein hemagglutinin is known to play an important role in viral attachment to the host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Selective nature of Influenza A virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding has been explored in depth. However, the detailed mechanism of IAV binding to host cell membrane and entry into the host remains elusive. In the present study we investigated the role of lipid rafts in early life cycle events of IAV. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol by Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin. Using GM1, a well-known lipid raft marker, we were able to observe co-localization of IAV on lipid rafts on the host cell membrane. This experiment suggests a direct involvement of lipid rafts in the initiation of the IAV life cycle. Upon disruption of lipid rafts by Methyl-b-cyclodextrin, we observed a significant reduction in IAV binding on the host cell surface indicating a significant decrease in virus attachment to coherent membrane rafts. Our results provide proof that host lipid rafts and their constituents play an important role in the adsorption of IAV. This study opens a new avenues in IAV virus-host interactions to combat infection at a very early steps of the viral lifecycle.

Keywords: lipid raft, adsorption, cholesterol, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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1633 Intrathecal Fentanyl with 0.5% Bupivacaine Heavy in Chronic Opium Abusers

Authors: Suneet Kathuria, Shikha Gupta, Kapil Dev, Sunil Katyal

Abstract:

Chronic use of opioids in opium abusers can cause poor pain control and increased analgaesic requirement. We compared the duration of spinal anaesthesia in chronic opium abusers and non-abusers. This prospective randomised study included 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Grade I or II adults undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia with 10 mg bupivacaine, and 25 μg fentanyl in non-opium abusers (Group A); and chronic opium abusers (Group B), and 40 μg fentanyl in chronic opium abusers (Group C). Patients were assessed for onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of effective analgesia. Mean time to onset of adequate analgesia in opium abusers was significantly longer in chronic opium abusers than in opium-naive patients. The duration of sensory block and motor block was significantly less in chronic opium abusers than in non-opium abusers. Duration of effective analgesia in groups A, B and C was 255.55 ± 26.84, 217.85 ± 15.15, and 268.20 ± 18.25 minutes, respectively; this difference was statistically significant. In chronic opium abusers, the duration of spinal anaesthesia is significantly shorter than that in opium nonabusers. The duration of spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl in chronic opium abusers can be improved by increasing the intrathecal fentanyl dose from 25 μg to 40 μg.

Keywords: bupivacaine, chronic opium abusers, fentanyl, intrathecal

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1632 Graphical User Interface Testing by Using Deep Learning

Authors: Akshat Mathur, Sunil Kumar Khatri

Abstract:

This paper presents brief about how the use of Artificial intelligence in respect to GUI testing can reduce workload by using DL-fueled method. This paper also discusses about how graphical user interface and event driven software testing can derive benefits from the use of AI techniques. The use of AI techniques not only reduces the task and work load but also helps in getting better output than manual testing. Although results are same, but the use of Artifical intelligence techniques for GUI testing has proven to provide ideal results. DL-fueled framework helped us to find imperfections of the entire webpage and provides test failure result in a score format between 0 and 1which signifies that are test meets it quality criteria or not. This paper proposes DL-fueled method which helps us to find the genuine GUI bugs and defects and also helped us to scale the existing labour-intensive and skill-intensive methodologies.

Keywords: graphical user interface, GUI, artificial intelligence, deep learning, ML technology

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1631 Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Leaves Extract and Isolated Constituents from Saraca Asoca

Authors: Sunil Kumar

Abstract:

Background: The present study was performed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the constituents isolated from Sarca asoca by enzyme inhibitory activity. Methods: The dried leaves of Sarca asoca were defatted with petroleum ether and further the same amount plant materials were extracted with methanol. The dried methanol extract was subjected to fractionation and chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of kaemferol, β-sitosterol and quercetin stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro enzyme inhibition effect. Results: The isolated compounds kaemferol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed 45.32, 40.5 and 41.23% α-amylase inhibition respectively and 43.45, 39.29 and 32.43% α-glucosidase inhibition respectively at the conc. of 50 µg/kg. Conclusion: The compounds isolated from Sarca asoca showed in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. So, Euphorbia hirta is a beneficial plant for management of diabetic disorders.

Keywords: diabetes, quercetin, sitosterol, stigmasterol

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1630 Performance Analysis of Carbon Nanotube for VLSI Interconnects and Their Comparison with Copper Interconnects

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Prashant Gupta

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of the bundle of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for low-power and high-speed interconnects for future VLSI applications. The power dissipation, delay and power delay product (PDP) of SWCNT bundle interconnects are examined and compared with that of the Cu interconnects at 22 nm technology node for both intermediate and global interconnects. The results show that SWCNT bundle consume less power and also faster than Cu for intermediate and global interconnects. It is concluded that the metallic SWCNT has been regarded as a viable candidate for intermediate and global interconnects in future technologies.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, SWCNT, low power, delay, power delay product, global and intermediate interconnects

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1629 Ternary Content Addressable Memory Cell with a Leakage Reduction Technique

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Nitin Gupta

Abstract:

Ternary Content Addressable Memory cells are mainly popular in network routers for packet forwarding and packet classification, but they are also useful in a variety of other applications that require high-speed table look-up. The main TCAM-design challenge is to decrease the power consumption associated with the large amount of parallel active circuitry, without compromising with speed or memory density. Furthermore, when the channel length decreases, leakage power becomes more significant, and it can even dominate dynamic power at lower technologies. In this paper, we propose a TCAM-design technique, called Virtual Power Supply technique that reduces the leakage by a substantial amount.

Keywords: match line (ML), search line (SL), ternary content addressable memory (TCAM), Leakage power (LP)

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1628 Bioefficacy of Ocimum sanctum on Reproductive Performance of Red Cotton Bug, Dysdercus koenigii (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoriedae)

Authors: Kamal Kumar Gupta, Sunil Kayesth

Abstract:

Dysdercus koenigii is serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous crop. Present research work aimed at ecofriendly approach for management of pest by plant extracts. The impact of Ocimum sanctum was studied on reproductive performance of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract of Ocimum leaves was prepared by ‘cold extraction method’. The newly emerged fifth instar nymphs were exposed to the extract of concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 0.00625% by ‘thin film residual method’ for a period of 24h. Reproductive fitness of the adults emerged from the treated nymphs was evaluated by assessing their courtship behaviour, oviposition behaviour, and fertility. The studies indicated that treatment of Dysdercus with the hexane extract of Ocimum altered their courtship behaviour. Consequently, the treated males exhibited less sexual activity, performed fewer mounting attempts, increased time to mate and showed decreased percent successful mating. The females often rejected courting treated male by shaking the abdomen. Similarly, the treated females in many cases remained non-receptive to the courting male. Premature termination of mating in the mating pairs prior to insemination further decreased the mating success of the treated adults. Maximum abbreviation of courtship behaviour was observed in the experimental set up where both the males and the females were treated. Only females which mate successfully were observed for study of oviposition behaviour. The treated females laid lesser number of egg batches and eggs in their life span. The eggs laid by these females were fertile indicating insemination of the female. However, percent hatchability was lesser than control. The effects of hexane extract were dose dependent. Treatment with 0.1% and 0.05% extract altered courtship behaviour. Doses of concentrations less than 0.05% did not affect courtship behaviour but altered the oviposition behaviour and fertility. Significant reduction in the fecundity and fertility was observed in the treatments at concentration as low as 0.00625%. The GCMS analysis of the extract revealed a plethora of phytochemicals including juvenile hormone mimics, and the intermediates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, some of these compounds individually or synergistically impair reproductive behaviour of Dysdercus. Alteration of courtship behaviour and suppression of fecundity and fertility with the help of plant extracts has wide potentials in suppression of pest population and ‘integrated pest management’.

Keywords: courtship behaviour, Dysdercus koenigii, Ocimum sanctum, oviposition behaviour

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1627 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

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1626 Investigating the Process Kinetics and Nitrogen Gas Production in Anammox Hybrid Reactor with Special Emphasis on the Role of Filter Media

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

Anammox is a novel and promising technology that has changed the traditional concept of biological nitrogen removal. The process facilitates direct oxidation of ammonical nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without the addition of external carbon sources. The present study investigated the feasibility of anammox hybrid reactor (AHR) combining the dual advantages of suspended and attached growth media for biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The experimental unit consisted of 4 nos. of 5L capacity AHR inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge (1:1). The process was established by feeding the reactors with synthetic wastewater containing NH4-H and NO2-N in the ratio 1:1 at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to higher ammonium concentration till it attained pseudo steady state removal at a total nitrogen concentration of 1200 mg/l. During this period, the performance of the AHR was monitored at twelve different HRTs varying from 0.25-3.0 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. AHR demonstrated significantly higher nitrogen removal (95.1%) at optimal HRT of 1 day. Filter media in AHR contributed an additional 27.2% ammonium removal in addition to 72% reduction in the sludge washout rate. This may be attributed to the functional mechanism of filter media which acts as a mechanical sieve and reduces the sludge washout rate many folds. This enhances the biomass retention capacity of the reactor by 25%, which is the key parameter for successful operation of high rate bioreactors. The effluent nitrate concentration, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process was also minimised significantly (42.3-52.3 mg/L). Process kinetics was evaluated using first order and Grau-second order models. The first-order substrate removal rate constant was found as 13.0 d-1. Model validation revealed that Grau second order model was more precise and predicted effluent nitrogen concentration with least error (1.84±10%). A new mathematical model based on mass balance was developed to predict N2 gas in AHR. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen dictated significantly higher correlation (R2=0.986) and predicted N2 gas with least error of precision (0.12±8.49%). SEM study of biomass indicated the presence of the heterogeneous population of cocci and rod shaped bacteria of average diameter varying from 1.2-1.5 mm. Owing to enhanced NRE coupled with meagre production of effluent nitrate and its ability to retain high biomass, AHR proved to be the most competitive reactor configuration for dealing with nitrogen laden wastewater.

Keywords: anammox, filter media, kinetics, nitrogen removal

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1625 Some Pertinent Issues and Considerations on CBSE

Authors: Anil Kumar Tripathi, Ratneshwer Gupta

Abstract:

All the software engineering researches and best industry practices aim at providing software products with high degree of quality and functionality at low cost and less time. These requirements are addressed by the Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) as well. CBSE, which deals with the software construction by components’ assembly, is a revolutionary extension of Software Engineering. CBSE must define and describe processes to assure timely completion of high quality software systems that are composed of a variety of pre built software components. Though these features provide distinct and visible benefits in software design and programming, they also raise some challenging problems. The aim of this work is to summarize the pertinent issues and considerations in CBSE to make an understanding in forms of concepts and observations that may lead to development of newer ways of dealing with the problems and challenges in CBSE.

Keywords: software component, component based software engineering, software process, testing, maintenance

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1624 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1623 Magneto-Solutal Convection in Newtonian Fluid Layer with Modulated Gravity

Authors: Om Prakash Keshri, Anand Kumar, Vinod K. Gupta

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of gravity modulation on the onset of convection in viscous fluid layer under the influence of induced magnetic field, salted from above on the boundaries, has been investigated. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis has been performed. A linear stability analysis is performed to show that the gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. A method based on small amplitude of the modulation is used to compute the critical value of Rayleigh number and wave number. The effect of Smith number, salute Rayleigh number and magnetic Prandtl number on the stability of the system is investigated.

Keywords: viscous fluid, induced magnetic field, gravity modulation, salute convection

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1622 Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery of Anti-Biotic and Anti-Cancer Agents

Authors: Sunil Kumar

Abstract:

For many years, small organic molecules derived naturally from microbes and plants have delivered a number of expedient therapeutic drug agents. The search for naturally occurring lead compounds has continued in recent years as well, with the constituents of marine flora and fauna along with those of telluric microorganisms and plants being investigated for their anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activities. It has been observed that such promising lead molecules incline to promptly generate substantial attention among scientists like synthetic organic chemists and biologists. Subsequently, the availability of a given precious natural product sample may be enriched, and it may be possible to determine a preliminary idea of structure-activity relationships to develop synthetic analogues. For instance, anti-tumor drug topotecan is a synthetic chemical compound similar in chemical structure to camptothecin which is found in extracts of Camptotheca acuminate. Similarly, researchers at AstraZeneca discovered anti-biotic pyrrolamide through a fragment-based lead generation approach from kibdelomycin, which is isolated from Staphylococcus aureuss.

Keywords: anticancer, antibiotic, lead molecule, natural product, synthetic analogues

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1621 Intrathecal Sufentanil or Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Low Dose Bupivacaine in Endoscopic Urological Procedures

Authors: Shikha Gupta, Suneet Kathuria, Supriya Sampley, Sunil Katyal

Abstract:

Opioids are being increasingly used these days as adjuvants to local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double‑blind study is to compare the effects of adding sufentanil or fentanyl to low dose bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures. A total of 90 elective endoscopic urological surgery patients, 40‑80 years old, received spinal anesthesia with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (Group A) or by adding sufentanil 10 μg (Group B) or fentanyl 25 μg (Group C) to 5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. These groups were compared in terms of the quality of spinal anesthesia as well as analgesia. Analysis of variance and Chi‑square test were used for Statistical analysis. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was significantly rapid in Group A as compared with Groups B and C. The maximum upper level of sensory block was higher in Group A patients than Groups B and C patients. Quality of analgesia was significantly better and prolonged in sufentanil group as compared with other two groups. Motor block was more intense and prolonged in Group A as compared with Groups B and C patients. Request for post‑operative analgesic was significantly delayed in Group B patients. Hence in conclusions, spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures in elderly patients using low dose bupivacaine (5 mg) combined with 10 μg sufentanil is associated with a lower incidence of hemodynamic instability, better quality and prolonged duration as compared to that by adding 25 μg fentanyl.

Keywords: adjuvants, bupivacaine, fentanyl, intrathecal, low dose spinal, sufentanil

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1620 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
1619 Dissipation of Tebuconazole in Cropland Soils as Affected by Soil Factors

Authors: Bipul Behari Saha, Sunil Kumar Singh, P. Padmaja, Kamlesh Vishwakarma

Abstract:

Dissipation study of tebuconazole in alluvial, black and deep-black clayey soils collected from paddy, mango and peanut cropland of tropical agro-climatic zone of India at three concentration levels were carried out for monitoring the water contamination through persisted residual toxicity. The soil-slurry samples were analyzed by capillary GC-NPD methods followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique and cleanup process. An excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1 to 50 μgkg-1. The detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) limits were 3 and 10 μgkg-1 respectively. Well spiked recoveries were achieved from 96.28 to 99.33 % at levels 5 and 20 μgkg-1 and method precision (% RSD) was ≤ 5%. The soils dissipation of tebuconazole was fitted in first order kinetic-model with half-life between 34.48 to 48.13 days. The soil organic-carbon (SOC) content correlated well with the dissipation rate constants (DRC) of the fungicide Tebuconazole. An increase in the SOC content resulted in faster dissipation. The results indicate that the soil organic carbon and tebuconazole concentrations plays dominant role in dissipation processes. The initial concentration illustrated that the degradation rate of tebuconazole in soils was concentration dependent.

Keywords: cropland soil, dissipation, laboratory incubation, tebuconazole

Procedia PDF Downloads 153