Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: N. Kannan

24 Approximation Property Pass to Free Product

Authors: Kankeyanathan Kannan


On approximation properties of group C* algebras is everywhere; it is powerful, important, backbone of countless breakthroughs. For a discrete group G, let A(G) denote its Fourier algebra, and let M₀A(G) denote the space of completely bounded Fourier multipliers on G. An approximate identity on G is a sequence (Φn) of finitely supported functions such that (Φn) uniformly converge to constant function 1 In this paper we prove that approximation property pass to free product.

Keywords: approximation property, weakly amenable, strong invariant approximation property, invariant approximation property

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23 A Novel Approach of Secret Communication Using Douglas-Peucker Algorithm

Authors: R. Kiruthika, A. Kannan


Steganography is the problem of hiding secret messages in 'innocent – looking' public communication so that the presence of the secret message cannot be detected. This paper introduces a steganographic security in terms of computational in-distinguishability from a channel of probability distributions on cover messages. This method first splits the cover image into two separate blocks using Douglas – Peucker algorithm. The text message and the image will be hided in the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the cover image.

Keywords: steganography, lsb, embedding, Douglas-Peucker algorithm

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22 Internet of Things based AquaSwach Water Purifier

Authors: Karthiyayini J., Arpita Chowdary Vantipalli, Darshana Sailu Tanti, Malvika Ravi Kudari, Krtin Kannan


This paper is propelled from the generally existing undertaking of the smart water quality management, which addresses an IoT (Internet of things) based brilliant water quality observing (SWQM) framework which we call it AquaSwach that guides in the ceaseless estimation of water conditions dependent on five actual boundaries i.e., temperature, pH, electric conductivity and turbidity properties and water virtue estimation each time you drink water. Six sensors relate to Arduino-Mega in a discrete way to detect the water parameters. Extracted data from the sensors are transmitted to a desktop application developed in the NET platform and compared with the WHO (World Health Organization) standard values.

Keywords: AquaSwach, IoT, WHO, water quality

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21 Power Line Communication Integrated in a Wireless Power Transfer System: Feasibility of Surveillance Movement

Authors: M. Hemnath, S. Kannan, R. Kiran, K. Thanigaivelu


This paper is based on exploring the possible opportunities and applications using Power Line Communication (PLC) for security and surveillance operations. Various research works are done for introducing PLC into onboard vehicle communication and networking (CAN, LIN etc.) and various international standards have been developed. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is also an emerging technology which is studied and tested for recharging purposes. In this work we present a system which embeds the detection and the response into one which eliminates the need for dedicated network for data transmission. Also we check the feasibility for integrating wireless power transfer system into this proposed security system for transmission of power to detection unit wirelessly from the response unit.

Keywords: power line communication, wireless power transfer, surveillance

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20 Numerical Investigation the Effect of Adjustable Guide Vane for Improving the Airflow Rate in Axial Fans

Authors: Behzad Shahizare, N. Nik-Ghazali, Kannan M. Munisamy, Seyedsaeed Tabatabaeikia


The main objective of this study is to clarify the effect of the adjustable outlet guide vane (OGV) on the axial fan. Three-dimensional Numerical study was performed to analyze the effect of adjustable guide vane for improving the airflow rate in axial fans. Grid independence test was done between five different meshes in order to choose the reliable mesh. In flow analyses, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations was solved using three types of turbulence models named k-ɛ, k-ω and k-ω SST. The aerodynamic performances of the fan and guide vane were evaluated. Numerical method was validated by comparing with experimental test according to AMECA 210 standard. Results showed that, by using the adjustable guide vane the airflow rate is increased around 3% to 6 %. The maximum enhancement of the airflow rate was achieved when pressure was 374pa.

Keywords: axial fan, adjustable guide vane, CFD, turbo machinery

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19 The Morphing Avatar of Startup Sales - Destination Virtual Reality

Authors: Sruthi Kannan


The ongoing covid pandemic has accelerated digital transformation like never before. The physical barriers brought in as a result of the pandemic are being bridged by digital alternatives. While basic collaborative activities like voice, video calling, screen sharing have been replicated in these alternatives, there are several others that require a more intimate setup. Pitching, showcasing, and providing demonstrations are an integral part of selling strategies for startups. Traditionally these have been in-person engagements, enabling a depth of understanding of the startups’ offerings. In the new normal scenario of virtual-only connects, startups are feeling the brunt of the lack of in-person connections with potential customers and investors. This poster demonstrates how a virtual reality platform has been conceptualized and custom-built for startups to engage with their stakeholders and redefine their selling strategies. This virtual reality platform is intended to provide an immersive experience for startup showcases and offers the nearest possible alternative to physical meetings for the startup ecosystem, thereby opening newer frontiers for entrepreneurial collaborations.

Keywords: collaboration, sales, startups, strategy, virtual reality

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18 Mobile Microscope for the Detection of Pathogenic Cells Using Image Processing

Authors: P. S. Surya Meghana, K. Lingeshwaran, C. Kannan, V. Raghavendran, C. Priya


One of the most basic and powerful tools in all of science and medicine is the light microscope, the fundamental device for laboratory as well as research purposes. With the improving technology, the need for portable, economic and user-friendly instruments is in high demand. The conventional microscope fails to live up to the emerging trend. Also, adequate access to healthcare is not widely available, especially in developing countries. The most basic step towards the curing of a malady is the diagnosis of the disease itself. The main aim of this paper is to diagnose Malaria with the most common device, cell phones, which prove to be the immediate solution for most of the modern day needs with the development of wireless infrastructure allowing to compute and communicate on the move. This opened up the opportunity to develop novel imaging, sensing, and diagnostics platforms using mobile phones as an underlying platform to address the global demand for accurate, sensitive, cost-effective, and field-portable measurement devices for use in remote and resource-limited settings around the world.

Keywords: cellular, hand-held, health care, image processing, malarial parasites, microscope

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17 A DOE Study of Ultrasound Intensified Removal of Phenol

Authors: P. R. Rahul, A. Kannan


Ultrasound-aided adsorption of phenol by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) was investigated at different frequencies ranging from 35 kHz, 58 kHz, and 192 kHz. Other factors influencing adsorption such as Adsorbent dosage (g/L), the initial concentration of the phenol solution (ppm) and RPM was also considered along with the frequency variable. However, this study involved calorimetric measurements which helped is determining the effect of frequency on the % removal of phenol from the power dissipated to the system was normalized. It was found that low frequency (35 kHz) cavitation effects had a profound influence on the % removal of phenol per unit power. This study also had cavitation mapping of the ultrasonic baths, and it showed that the effect of cavitation on the adsorption system is irrespective of the position of the vessel. Hence, the vessel was placed at the center of the bath. In this study, novel temperature control and monitoring system to make sure that the system is under proper condition while operations. From the BET studies, it was found that there was only 5% increase in the surface area and hence it was concluded that ultrasound doesn’t profoundly alter the equilibrium value of the adsorption system. DOE studies indicated that adsorbent dosage has a higher influence on the % removal in comparison with other factors.

Keywords: ultrasound, adsorption, granulated activated carbon, phenol

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16 Mutagenicity Evaluation of Locally Produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Using Ames Test

Authors: Nur Fathin Alia Che Wahab, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Zuliani Mahmood, Ismail Ab. Rahman, Hanafi Ismail


Locally produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which is a promising material for dentin and bone regeneration as well as in tissue engineering applications. The study was carried out to investigate the mutagenic effect of locally produced BCP using Ames test. Mutagenicity was evaluated with and without the addition of metabolic activation system (S9). This study was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA102, TA1537, and TA1538 strains using preincubation assay method. The doses tested were 5000, 2500, 1250, 625, 313 µg/plate. Negative and positive controls were also included. The bacteria were incubated for 48 hours at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Then, the revertant colonies were counted. Data obtained were evaluated using non-statistical method. The mean number of revertant colonies in strains with and without S9 mix treated with locally produced BCP was less than double when compared to negative control for all the tested concentrations. The results from this study indicate that the locally produced BCP is non-mutagenic under the present test conditions.

Keywords: ames test, biphasic calcium phosphate, dentin regeneration, mutagenicity

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15 Fluoride-Induced Stress and Its Association with Bone Developmental Pathway in Osteosarcoma Cells

Authors: Deepa Gandhi, Pravin K. Naoghare, Amit Bafana, Krishnamurthi Kannan, Saravanadevi Sivanesana


Oxidative stress is known to depreciate normal functioning of osteoblast cells. Present study reports oxidative/inflammatory signatures in fluoride exposed human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and its possible association with the genes involved in bone developmental pathway. Microarray analysis was performed to understand the possible molecular mechanisms of stress-mediated bone lose in HOS cells. Cells were chronically exposed with sub-lethal concentration of fluoride. Global gene expression is profiling revealed 34 up regulated and 2598 down-regulated genes, which were associated with several biological processes including bone development, osteoblast differentiation, stress response, inflammatory response, apoptosis, regulation of cell proliferation. Microarray data were further validated through qRT-PCR and western blot analyses using key representative genes. Based on these findings, it can be proposed that chronic exposure of fluoride may impair bone development via oxidative and inflammatory stress. The present finding also provides important biological clues, which will be helpful for the development of therapeutic targets against diseases related bone.

Keywords: bone, HOS cells, microarray, stress

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14 An Evaluative Approach for Successful Implementation of Lean and Green Manufacturing in Indian SMEs

Authors: Satya S. N. Narayana, P. Parthiban, T. Niranjan, N. Kannan


Enterprises adopt methodologies to increase their business performance and to stay competent in the volatile global market. Lean manufacturing is one such manufacturing paradigm which focuses on reduction of cost by elimination of wastes or non-value added activities. With increased awareness about social responsibility and the necessary to meet the terms of the environmental policy, green manufacturing is becoming increasingly important for industries. Large plants have more resources, have started implementing lean and green practices and they are getting good results. Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) are facing problems in implementing lean and green concept. This paper aims to identify the key issues for implementation of lean and green concept in Indian SMEs. The key factors identified based on literature review and expert opinions are grouped into different levels by Modified Interpretive Structural Modeling (MISM) to explore the importance among the factors to implement lean and green manufacturing. Finally, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) method has been used to determine the extent to which the main principles of lean and green manufacturing have been carried out in the six Indian medium scale manufacturing industries.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, green manufacturing, MISM, FANP

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13 An Ant Colony Optimization Approach for the Pollution Routing Problem

Authors: P. Parthiban, Sonu Rajak, N. Kannan, R. Dhanalakshmi


This paper deals with the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with environmental considerations which is called Pollution Routing Problem (PRP). The objective is to minimize the operational and environmental costs. It consists of routing a number of vehicles to serve a set of customers, and determining fuel consumption, driver wages and their speed on each route segment, while respecting the capacity constraints and time windows. In this context, we presented an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach, combined with a Speed Optimization Algorithm (SOA) to solve the PRP. The proposed solution method consists of two stages. Stage one is to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window (VRPTW) using ACO and in the second stage a SOA is run on the resulting VRPTW solutions. Given a vehicle route, the SOA consists of finding the optimal speed on each arc of the route in order to minimize an objective function comprising fuel consumption costs and driver wages. The proposed algorithm tested on benchmark problem, the preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide good solutions.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, CO2 emissions, combinatorial optimization, speed optimization, vehicle routing

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12 Assessment of Alteration in High Density Lipo Protein, Apolipoprotein A1, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase and Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Patients

Authors: Marina Lazar Chandy, N. Kannan, Rajendra Patil, Vinod Mathew, Ajmal Mohamed, P. K. Sreeja, Renju Jose


Introduction- Arecoline, a major constituent of arecanut has shown to have some effect on liver. The use of arecanut is found to be the most common etiological factor for the development of Oral Submucous fibrosis (O.S.M.F). The effect of arecanut usage on liver in patients with O.S.M.F needs to be assessed. Lipids play a role in structural maintenance of cell. Alterations of lipid profile were noted in cancer patients. O.S.M.F being a precancerous lesion can have some effect on the level of lipids in the body. Objectives: This study was done to assess the alterations in liver enzymes (Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase(S.G.P.T ,Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase(S.G.O.T)) and lipid metabolism (High Density Lipoprotien(H.D.L) and Apo Lipoprotien A1 (Apo A1)) in patients with O.S.M.F. Methods-130 patients were taken for the study,100 patients with O.S.M.F and 30 as control group without O.S.M.F. Fasting blood sugar levels were taken, centrifuged and analyzed for S.G.P.T,S.G.O.T, H.D.L and Apo A1 using semi automated spectrophotometer. Results: After statistical analysis, it was concluded that there is an elevation of levels of S.G.P.T, S.G.O.T, and decreased levels of H.D.L, Apo A1 for O.S.M.F group when compared with control group. With increased grade of O.S.M.F. and duration of habit, S.G.P.T. & S.G.O.T. increased whereas, H.D.L. & Apo A1 decreased. All the values were statistically significant at p<0.01.

Keywords: apolipoprotien A1, high density lipoprotien, oral submucous fibrosis, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

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11 Flood Modeling in Urban Area Using a Well-Balanced Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme on Unstructured Triangular Grids

Authors: Rabih Ghostine, Craig Kapfer, Viswanathan Kannan, Ibrahim Hoteit


Urban flooding resulting from a sudden release of water due to dam-break or excessive rainfall is a serious threatening environment hazard, which causes loss of human life and large economic losses. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision, and rescue plans. This work reports on the numerical modelling of flash flood propagation in urban areas after an excessive rainfall event or dam-break. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water model is used with a refined unstructured grid of triangles for representing the urban area topography. The 2D shallow water equations are solved using a second-order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Theoretical test case and three flood events are described to demonstrate the potential benefits of the scheme: (i) wetting and drying in a parabolic basin (ii) flash flood over a physical model of the urbanized Toce River valley in Italy; (iii) wave propagation on the Reyran river valley in consequence of the Malpasset dam-break in 1959 (France); and (iv) dam-break flood in October 1982 at the town of Sumacarcel (Spain). The capability of the scheme is also verified against alternative models. Computational results compare well with recorded data and show that the scheme is at least as efficient as comparable second-order finite volume schemes, with notable efficiency speedup due to parallelization.

Keywords: dam-break, discontinuous Galerkin scheme, flood modeling, shallow water equations

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10 Plausible Influence of Hydroxycitric Acid and Garcinol in Garcinia indica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Hannah Rachel Vasanthi, Paomipem Phazang, Veereshkumar, Sali, Ramesh Parjapath, Sangeetha Marimuthu Kannan


Garcinia indica (G. indica) fruit rind extract commonly used in South Indian culinary and Indian System of medicines is reported to exhibit various biological activities. The present study envisages the influence of the phytoconstituents in G. indica extract (Vrikshamla capsules- a herbal supplement) on diabetic condition. The condition of type 2 diabetes was triggered in experimental animals by feeding high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a sub-diabetogenic dose of 35mg/kg bw of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Oral supplementation of the extract at two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days reduced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (p< 0.001). Pathophysiological changes of obesity and diabetes associated complications majorly mediated by oxidative stress were analyzed by measuring the markers of oxidative stress such as lipid peroxidation, enzymatic (SOD, Catalase, GPx) and non-enzymatic markers (GSH). Conspicuous changes markers were noticed in diabetic condition which was reverted by the G. indica extract. Screening the extract by AccuTOF-DART (MS) revealed the presence of hydroxycitric acid and garcinol in abundant quantity which probably has influenced the biological activity. This was also corroborated through docking studies of hydroxycitric acid and garcinol both individually and synergistically with the antioxidant proteins. Altogether, hydroxycitric acid and garcinol present in G. indica fruit extract alleviates the pathophysiological conditions such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress mediated by diabesity.

Keywords: antioxidants , diabesity, hydroxycitric acid, garcinol, Garcinia indica, sreptozotocin

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9 Synthesis of Fullerene Nanorods for Detection of Ethylparaben an Endocrine Disruptor in Cosmetics

Authors: Jahangir Ahmad Rather, Emad A. Khudaish, Ahsanulhaq Qurashi, Palanisamy Kannan


Chemical modification and assembling of fullerenes are fundamentally important for the application of fullerenes as functional molecules and in molecular devices and organic electronic devices. We have synthesized fullerene nanorods C60NRs conjugate via liquid-liquid interface and the synthesized C60NRs was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The C60NRs were immobilized on glassy carbon electrode via surface bound diazonium salts as an impact strategy. This method involves electrografting of p–nitrophenyl to give GCE–Ph–NO2 and then the terminal nitro-group was chemically reduced to GCE–Ph–NH2 in a presence of sodium borohydride/gold–polyaniline nanocomposite (NaBH4/Au–PANI). The Au–PANI composite was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, UV-vis, SEM and EDX techniques. The C60NRs were immobilized on GCE–Ph–NH2 via amination reaction which involves N-H addition across a π-bond on [60] fullerene. The immobilized C60NRs/GCE was subjected to electrochemical reduction in 1.0 M KOH to yield ERC60NRs/GCE sensor. The developed sensor shows high electrocatalytic activity for the detection of ethylparaben (EP) over a concentration range from 0.01 to 0.52 µM with a detection limit (LOD) 3.8 nM. The amount of EP present in the nourishing repair cream (OlAY®) was determined by standard addition method at the developed ERC60NRs/GCE sensor. The total concentration of EP was found to be 0.011 µM (0.1%) and is within the permissible limit of 0.19 % EP in cosmetics according to the European scientific committee (SCCS) on consumer safety on 22 March 2011 (SCCS/1348/11).

Keywords: diazonium salt reduction, ethylparaben (EP), endocrine disruptor, fullerene nanorods (C60NRs), gold–polyaniline nanocomposite (Au–PANI)

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8 Temperature Dependent Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics of CuO-ZnO Nanorods Based Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Venkatesan Annadurai, Kannan Ethirajalu, Anu Roshini Ramakrishnan


Copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) based coaxial (CuO-ZnO nanorods) heterojunction has been the interest of various research communities for solar cells, light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors applications. Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type material with the band gap of 1.5 eV and it is considered to be an attractive absorber material in solar cells applications due to its high absorption coefficient and long minority carrier diffusion length. Similarly, n-type ZnO nanorods possess many attractive advantages over thin films such as, the light trapping ability and photosensitivity owing to the presence of oxygen related hole-traps at the surface. Moreover, the abundant availability, non-toxicity, and inexpensiveness of these materials make them suitable for potentially cheap, large area, and stable photovoltaic applications. However, the efficiency of the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction based devices is greatly affected by interface defects which generally lead to the poor performance. In spite of having much potential, not much work has been carried out to understand the interface quality and transport mechanism involved across the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction. Therefore, a detailed investigation of CuO-ZnO heterojunction is needed to understand the interface which affects its photovoltaic performance. Herein, we have fabricated the CuO-ZnO nanorods based heterojunction by simple hydrothermal and electrodeposition technique and investigated its interface quality by carrying out temperature (300 –10 K) dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements under dark and illumination of visible light. Activation energies extracted from the temperature dependent I-V characteristics reveals that recombination and tunneling mechanism across the interfacial barrier plays a significant role in the current flow.

Keywords: heterojunction, electrical transport, nanorods, solar cells

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7 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath


Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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6 Patients' Quality of Life and Caregivers' Burden of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan, Si Jen Yeen, Sara Lew


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with evolving layers of complexity. Both motor and non-motor symptoms of PD may affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). Life expectancy for an individual with Parkinson’s disease depends on the level of care the individual has access to, can have a direct impact on length of life. Therefore, improvement of the QoL is a significant part of therapeutic plans. Patients with PD, especially those who are in advanced stages, are in great need of assistance, mostly from their family members or caregivers in terms of medical, emotional, and social support. The role of a caregiver becomes increasingly important with the progression of PD, the severity of motor impairment and increasing age of the patient. The nature and symptoms associated with PD can place significant stresses on the caregivers’ burden. As the prevalence of PD is estimated to more than double by 2030, it is important to recognize and alleviate the burden experienced by caregivers. This study focused on the impact of the clinical features on the QoL of PD patients, and of their caregivers. This study included PD patients along with their caregivers and was undertaken at the Malaysian Parkinson's Disease Association from June 2016 to November 2016. Clinical features of PD patients were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society revised Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS); the Hoehn and Yahr Staging of Parkinson's Disease were used to assess the severity and Parkinson's disease activities of daily living scale were used to assess the disability of Parkinson’s disease patients. QoL of PD patients was measured using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The revised version of the Zarit Burden Interview assessed caregiver burden. At least one of the clinical features affected PD patients’ QoL, and at least one of the QoL domains affected the caregivers’ burden. Clinical features ‘Saliva and Drooling’, and ‘Dyskinesia’ explained 29% of variance in QoL of PD patients. The QoL domains ‘stigma’, along with ‘emotional wellbeing’ explained 48.6% of variance in caregivers’ burden. Clinical features such as saliva, drooling and dyskinesia affected the QoL of PD patients. The PD patients’ QoL domains such as ‘stigma’ and ‘emotional well-being’ influenced their caregivers’ burden.

Keywords: carers, quality of life, clinical features, Malaysia

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5 Studies on Radio Frequency Sputtered Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide Absorber Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells

Authors: G. Balaji, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Prasanna, M. D. Kannan, K. Sivakumaran, David Mcilroy


Copper Zin tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) is found to be better alternative to Copper Indium gallium diselenide as absorber layers in thin film based solar cells due to the utilisation of earth-abundant materials in the midst of lower toxicity. In the present study, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films were prepared on soda lime glass using (CuS, ZnS, SnS) targets and were deposited by three different stacking orders, using RF Magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was fixed at 300 °C during the depositions. CZTS thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. All the samples exhibited X-ray peaks pertaining to (112) kesterite phase of CZTS, along with the presence of a predominant wurtzite CZTS phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of all the elements in all the samples. The change in stacking order clearly shows that it affects the structural and phase properties of the films. Relative atomic concentrations of Zn, Cu, Sn and S, which are determined by high-resolution XPS core level spectra integrated peak areas revealed that the CZTS films exhibit inhomogeneity in both stoichiometry and elemental composition. Raman spectroscopy studies on the film showed the presence of CZTS phase. The energy band gap of the CZTS thin films was found to be in the range of 1.5 eV to 1.6 eV. The films were then annealed at 450 °C for 5 hrs and it was found that the predominant nature of the X-ray peaks has transformed from Wurtzite to Kesterite phase which is highly desirable for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. The optimized CZTS layer was used as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. ZnS and CdS were used as buffer layers which in turn prepared by Hot wall epitaxy technique. Gallium doped Zinc oxide was used as a transparent conducting oxide. The solar cell structure Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS or ZnS/GZO has been fabricated, and solar cell parameters were measured.

Keywords: earth-abundant, Kesterite, RF sputtering, thin film solar cells

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4 Genotypic Identification of Oral Bacteria Using 16S rRNA in Children with and without Early Childhood Caries in Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Zuliani Mahmood, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Yean Yean Chan, Salahddin A. Al-Hudhairy


Caries is the most common childhood disease which develops due to disturbances in the physiological equilibrium in the dental plaque resulting in demineralization of tooth structures. Plaque and dentine samples were collected from three different tooth surfaces representing caries progression (intact, over carious lesion and dentine) in children with early childhood caries (ECC, n=36). In caries free (CF) children, plaque samples were collected from sound tooth surfaces at baseline and after one year (n=12). The genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and subjected to 16S rRNA PCR amplification. The end products were cloned into pCR®2.1-TOPO® Vector. Five randomly selected positive clones collected from each surface were sent for sequencing. Identification of the bacterial clones was performed using BLAST against GenBank database. In the ECC group, the frequency of Lactobacillus sp. detected was significantly higher in the dentine surface (p = 0.031) than over the cavitated lesion. The highest frequency of bacteria detected in the intact surfaces was Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum (33.3%) while Streptococcus mutans was detected over the carious lesions and dentine surfaces at a frequency of 33.3% and 52.7% respectively. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum was also found to be highest in the CF group (41.6%). Follow up at the end of one year showed that the frequency of Corynebacterium matruchotii detected was highest in those who remained caries free (16.6%), while Porphyromonas catoniae was highest in those who developed caries (25%). In conclusion, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas catoniae are strongly associated with caries progression, while Lactobacillus sp. is restricted to deep carious lesions. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum and Corynebacterium matruchotii may play a role in sustaining the healthy equilibrium in the dental plaque. These identified bacteria show promise as potential biomarkers in diagnosis which could help in the management of dental caries in children.

Keywords: early childhood caries, genotypic identification, oral bacteria, 16S rRNA

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3 Quantum Chemical Investigation of Hydrogen Isotopes Adsorption on Metal Ion Functionalized Linde Type A and Faujasite Type Zeolites

Authors: Gayathri Devi V, Aravamudan Kannan, Amit Sircar


In the inner fuel cycle system of a nuclear fusion reactor, the Hydrogen Isotopes Removal System (HIRS) plays a pivoted role. It enables the effective extraction of the hydrogen isotopes from the breeder purge gas which helps to maintain the tritium breeding ratio and sustain the fusion reaction. One of the components of HIRS, Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) columns with zeolites adsorbents are considered for the physisorption of hydrogen isotopes at 1 bar and 77 K. Even though zeolites have good thermal stability and reduced activation properties making them ideal for use in nuclear reactor applications, their modest capacity for hydrogen isotopes adsorption is a cause of concern. In order to enhance the adsorbent capacity in an informed manner, it is helpful to understand the adsorption phenomena at the quantum electronic structure level. Physicochemical modifications of the adsorbent material enhances the adsorption capacity through the incorporation of active sites. This may be accomplished through the incorporation of suitable metal ions in the zeolite framework. In this work, molecular hydrogen isotopes adsorption on the active sites of functionalized zeolites are investigated in detail using Density Functional Theory (DFT) study. This involves the utilization of hybrid Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) with dispersion correction to account for the exchange and correlation functional of DFT. The electronic energies, adsorption enthalpy, adsorption free energy, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO), Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) energies are computed on the stable 8T zeolite clusters as well as the periodic structure functionalized with different active sites. The characteristics of the dihydrogen bond with the active metal sites and the isotopic effects are also studied in detail. Validation studies with DFT will also be presented for adsorption of hydrogen on metal ion functionalized zeolites. The ab-inito screening analysis gave insights regarding the mechanism of hydrogen interaction with the zeolites under study and also the effect of the metal ion on adsorption. This detailed study provides guidelines for selection of the appropriate metal ions that may be incorporated in the zeolites framework for effective adsorption of hydrogen isotopes in the HIRS.

Keywords: adsorption enthalpy, functionalized zeolites, hydrogen isotopes, nuclear fusion, physisorption

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2 Dual-Layer Microporous Layer of Gas Diffusion Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells under Various RH Conditions

Authors: Grigoria Athanasaki, Veerarajan Vimala, A. M. Kannan, Louis Cindrella


Energy usage has been increased throughout the years, leading to severe environmental impacts. Since the majority of the energy is currently produced from fossil fuels, there is a global need for clean energy solutions. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) offer a very promising solution for transportation applications because of their solid configuration and low temperature operations, which allows them to start quickly. One of the main components of PEMFCs is the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL), which manages water and gas transport and shows direct influence on the fuel cell performance. In this work, a novel dual-layer GDL with gradient porosity was prepared, using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as pore former, to improve the gas diffusion and water management in the system. The microporous layer (MPL) of the fabricated GDL consists of carbon powder PUREBLACK, sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant, 34% wt. PTFE and the gradient porosity was created by applying one layer using 30% wt. PEG on the carbon substrate, followed by a second layer without using any pore former. The total carbon loading of the microporous layer is ~ 3 For the assembly of the catalyst layer, Nafion membrane (Ion Power, Nafion Membrane NR211) and Pt/C electrocatalyst (46.1% wt.) were used. The catalyst ink was deposited on the membrane via microspraying technique. The Pt loading is ~ 0.4, and the active area is 5 cm2. The sample was ex-situ characterized via wetting angle measurement, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Pore Size Distribution (PSD) to evaluate its characteristics. Furthermore, for the performance evaluation in-situ characterization via Fuel Cell Testing using H2/O2 and H2/air as reactants, under 50, 60, 80, and 100% relative humidity (RH), took place. The results were compared to a single layer GDL, fabricated with the same carbon powder and loading as the dual layer GDL, and a commercially available GDL with MPL (AvCarb2120). The findings reveal high hydrophobic properties of the microporous layer of the GDL for both PUREBLACK based samples, while the commercial GDL demonstrates hydrophilic behavior. The dual layer GDL shows high and stable fuel cell performance under all the RH conditions, whereas the single layer manifests a drop in performance at high RH in both oxygen and air, caused by catalyst flooding. The commercial GDL shows very low and unstable performance, possibly because of its hydrophilic character and thinner microporous layer. In conclusion, the dual layer GDL with PEG appears to have improved gas diffusion and water management in the fuel cell system. Due to its increasing porosity from the catalyst layer to the carbon substrate, it allows easier access of the reactant gases from the flow channels to the catalyst layer, and more efficient water removal from the catalyst layer, leading to higher performance and stability.

Keywords: gas diffusion layer, microporous layer, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, relative humidity

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1 Statistical Optimization of Adsorption of a Harmful Dye from Aqueous Solution

Authors: M. Arun, A. Kannan


Textile industries cater to varied customer preferences and contribute substantially to the economy. However, these textile industries also produce a considerable amount of effluents. Prominent among these are the azo dyes which impart considerable color and toxicity even at low concentrations. Azo dyes are also used as coloring agents in food and pharmaceutical industry. Despite their applications, azo dyes are also notorious pollutants and carcinogens. Popular techniques like photo-degradation, biodegradation and the use of oxidizing agents are not applicable for all kinds of dyes, as most of them are stable to these techniques. Chemical coagulation produces a large amount of toxic sludge which is undesirable and is also ineffective towards a number of dyes. Most of the azo dyes are stable to UV-visible light irradiation and may even resist aerobic degradation. Adsorption has been the most preferred technique owing to its less cost, high capacity and process efficiency and the possibility of regenerating and recycling the adsorbent. Adsorption is also most preferred because it may produce high quality of the treated effluent and it is able to remove different kinds of dyes. However, the adsorption process is influenced by many variables whose inter-dependence makes it difficult to identify optimum conditions. The variables include stirring speed, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. Further, the internal diffusional resistance inside the adsorbent particle leads to slow uptake of the solute within the adsorbent. Hence, it is necessary to identify optimum conditions that lead to high capacity and uptake rate of these pollutants. In this work, commercially available activated carbon was chosen as the adsorbent owing to its high surface area. A typical azo dye found in textile effluent waters, viz. the monoazo Acid Orange 10 dye (CAS: 1936-15-8) has been chosen as the representative pollutant. Adsorption studies were mainly focused at obtaining equilibrium and kinetic data for the batch adsorption process at different process conditions. Studies were conducted at different stirring speed, temperature, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration settings. The Full Factorial Design was the chosen statistical design framework for carrying out the experiments and identifying the important factors and their interactions. The optimum conditions identified from the experimental model were validated with actual experiments at the recommended settings. The equilibrium and kinetic data obtained were fitted to different models and the model parameters were estimated. This gives more details about the nature of adsorption taking place. Critical data required to design batch adsorption systems for removal of Acid Orange 10 dye and identification of factors that critically influence the separation efficiency are the key outcomes from this research.

Keywords: acid orange 10, activated carbon, optimum adsorption conditions, statistical design

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