Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 754

Search results for: Maqbool Ahmad

754 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Transient Analysis, porosity, diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
753 Effects of Dietary E on Semen, Hormonal Profile and Testicular Biometry in Teddy Goat Bucks

Authors: Muhammad Zubair, Maqbool Ahmad, Al-Hafizah Shafia Tehseen Gul, Shujait Ali

Abstract:

The use of vitamins has significant effects on the reproductive system of mammals. The present study was conducted to investigate the useful effects of vitamin E on reproductive functions of Teddy bucks. For this purpose, 8 adult Teddy bucks were randomly divided into two treatment groups viz; A (control) and B (vitamin E with dose of 200 mg/kg BW/day). These treatments continued for 12 weeks. Semen quality parameters (volume, motility, sperm morphology and sperm DNA integrity) of experimental bucks of each group was evaluated on weekly basis, while testicular measurements (length, scrotal circumference and weights) were recorded at 0 and 12th week of experiment. Serum concentrations of male sex hormones (testosterone, LH, FSH) and cortisol were recorded fortnightly. Similarly, body weights of bucks were also measured fortnightly until completion of the study. The data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance, followed by Duncan test for multiple mean comparisons. Supplementation of vitamin E improved significantly (P<0.05) the semen quality parameter, body weights, testicular measurements and serum levels of sex hormones. However, there was no effect on serum cortisol. It was concluded from the present study that dietary supplementation of vitamin E has beneficial effects on the semen and hormones in male reproductive system.

Keywords: Hormones, semen, teddy bucks, testicular measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
752 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Sadia Arshad, Sana Javed, Salma Kanwal

Abstract:

The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Numerical Simulations, Fractional differential equation, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

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751 A Study of the Formation, Existence and Stability of Localised Pulses in PDE

Authors: Ayaz Ahmad

Abstract:

TOPIC: A study of the formation ,existness and stability of localised pulses in pde Ayaz Ahmad ,NITP, Abstract:In this paper we try to govern the evolution deterministic variable over space and time .We analysis the behaviour of the model which allows us to predict and understand the possible behaviour of the physical system .Bifurcation theory provides a basis to systematically investigate the models for invariant sets .Exploring the behaviour of PDE using bifurcation theory which provides many challenges both numerically and analytically. We use the derivation of a non linear partial differential equation which may be written in this form ∂u/∂t+c ∂u/∂x+∈(∂^3 u)/(∂x^3 )+¥u ∂u/∂x=0 We show that the temperature increased convection cells forms. Through our work we look for localised solution which are characterised by sudden burst of aeroidic spatio-temporal evolution. Key word: Gaussian pulses, Aeriodic ,spatio-temporal evolution ,convection cells, nonlinearoptics, Dr Ayaz ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Mathematics National institute of technology Patna ,Bihar,,India 800005 [email protected] +91994907553

Keywords: Nonlinear optics, Gaussian pulses, aeriodic, spatio-temporal evolution, convection cells

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750 A Comparative Study of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being among Senior Secondary Male and Female Students

Authors: Farzana Parveen, Shahina Maqbool

Abstract:

Nowadays most of the researchers focused on adolescents that were the most crucial and critical stage of their life’s. In this study, we want to know to what extent does spirituality and psychological well-being plays a vital role in adolescent’s life, and to what extent both were correlated. The first objective of the present study is to examine difference between the mean scores of male and female students on spirituality and Psychological well-being. The second objective of this study is to find out the relationship between Spirituality and Psychological Well-being. The participants of the present study comprised N=100 students who are further divided n=50 male and n=50 female and they were from senior secondary schools and recruited from Metropolitan cities, their age ranged from 13 to 18 years. Data were collected through Spirituality questionnaire and Psychological well-being questionnaire. Results showed that there was insignificant difference between male and female students on spirituality and significant difference between male and female students on psychological well-being. Relationship showed that there was positive correlation between spirituality and psychological well-being. Result was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 software. Insignificant difference was found between males and females students on Spirituality and significant difference showed between males and females students on Psychological well-being. There was positive correlation between Spirituality and psychological well-being.

Keywords: Spirituality, students, psychological well-being, male and female

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749 Molecular Screening of Piroplasm from Ticks Collected from Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Mahvish Maqbool, Muhmmad Sohail Sajid

Abstract:

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae); bloodsucking parasites of domestic animals, have significant importance in the transmission of diseases and causing huge economic losses. This study aimed to screen endophilic ticks for the Piroplasms using polymerase chain reaction in three districts Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat of Punjab, Pakistan. Ticks were dissected under a stereomicroscope, and internal organs (midguts& salivary glands) were procured to generate pools of optimum weights. DNA extraction was done through standard protocol followed by primer specific PCR for Piroplasma spp. A total of 22.95% tick pools were found positive for piroplasma spp. In districts, Sialkot and Gujranwala Piroplasma prevalence are higher in riverine animals while in Gujarat Prevalence is higher in non-riverine animals. Female animals were found more prone to piroplasma as compared to males. This study will provide useful data on the distribution of Piroplasma in the vector population of the study area and devise future recommendations for better management of ruminants to avoid subclinical and clinical infections and vector transmitted diseases.

Keywords: Babesia, hyalomma, piroplasmposis, tick infectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
748 Automated Localization of Palpebral Conjunctiva and Hemoglobin Determination Using Smart Phone Camera

Authors: Faraz Tahir, M. Usman Akram, Albab Ahmad Khan, Mujahid Abbass, Ahmad Tariq, Nuzhat Qaiser

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the Degree of anemia by taking the picture of the palpebral conjunctiva using Smartphone Camera. We have first localized the region of interest from the image and then extracted certain features from that Region of interest and trained SVM classifier on those features and then, as a result, our system classifies the image in real-time on their level of hemoglobin. The proposed system has given an accuracy of 70%. We have trained our classifier on a locally gathered dataset of 30 patients.

Keywords: Anemia, SVM, smartphone, palpebral conjunctiva

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
747 Parallel Hybrid Honeypot and IDS Architecture to Detect Network Attacks

Authors: Hafiz Gulfam Ahmad, Chuangdong Li, Zeeshan Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a parallel IDS and honeypot based approach to detect and analyze the unknown and known attack taxonomy for improving the IDS performance and protecting the network from intruders. The main theme of our approach is to record and analyze the intruder activities by using both the low and high interaction honeypots. Our architecture aims to achieve the required goals by combing signature based IDS, honeypots and generate the new signatures. The paper describes the basic component, design and implementation of this approach and also demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach reducing the probability of network attacks.

Keywords: Network Security, Intrusion Detection, honeypot, snort, nmap

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746 Sirhindi Family's Islamic Movements in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Nasurullah Qureshi

Abstract:

Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi Mujadid Alif Thani (1564-1624) and his philosophy had influenced sub-continent as the whole; its rulers and nation. In his reign, he convinced the rulers toward Islamic way of life and succeed in his goal. After his death in 1624, his family consecutively produced prominent scholars to present. Some of them moved to Afghanistan and Pakistan's cities i.e., Jalalabad, Qandhar, Peshawar, Queta, Shikarpur, Hyderabad, and Sehwan. They played a vital role in their areas and transmitted spiritual and legal Islamic teachings to people. This research is aimed to elaborate efforts of the family's Sindh settled branch from 1898-present in fields of politics and Islamic education. Their link with Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi will be provided in the introduction. After that, the work will explain their scholarly published work briefly in different fields of Islamic studies such as Quran exegeses and its translation in Sindhi language, Hadith and its sciences, Islamic Jurisprudence, Sufism and etc. In addition, their political role will be briefly discussed in the research throughout the period, especially their noticeable role in the separate homeland for Muslims in the subcontinent. Furthermore, the impact of their scholarly work, political influence and spirituality will be enlightened. Lastly, the research will present the critical viewpoint on their struggle.

Keywords: Sufism, Sindh, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Sirhindi scholars

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745 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

Abstract:

The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: High-rise Buildings, Facilities Management, commercial properties, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

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744 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan

Abstract:

Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Harmonics, Cockcroft-Walton circuit, ripple factor, HVDC generator

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743 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Faiz Ahmad, Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam

Abstract:

In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, Partial discharges, PMMA, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
742 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

Abstract:

Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: Pakistan, Case study, child labour, underdeveloped countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
741 Design of a Universal Wireless Battery Charger

Authors: Ahmad B. Musamih, Ahmad A. Albloushi, Ahmed H. Alshemeili, Abdulaziz Y. Alfili, Ala A. Hussien

Abstract:

This paper proposes a universal wireless battery charger design for portable electronic devices. As the number of portable electronics devices increases, the demand for more flexible and reliable charging techniques is becoming more urgent. A wireless battery charger differs from a traditional charger in the way the power transferred to the battery. In the latter, the power is transferred through electrical wires that connect the charger terminals to the battery terminals, while in the former; the power is transferred by induction without electrical connections. With a detection algorithm that detects the battery size and chemistry, the proposed charger will be able to accommodate a wide range of applications, and will allow a more flexible and reliable option to most of today’s portable electronics.

Keywords: Efficiency, wireless power transfer, resonance frequency, magnetically-coupled resonators

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740 Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation

Authors: Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Muhammad Abbas, Shazalina Mat Zin, Ahmad Abd. Majid

Abstract:

The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature.

Keywords: Finite Difference, Wave Equation, collocation method, cubic trigonometric B-spline

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739 Study on Developmental and Pathogenesis Related Genes Expression Deregulation in Brassica compestris Infected with 16Sr-IX Associated Phytoplasma

Authors: Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Muhammad Tahir, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Samia Yasin, Ijaz Ahmad

Abstract:

Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhibited plant pathogenic bacteria that are transferred by insect vectors. Among biotic factors, Phytoplasma infection induces abnormality influencing the physiology as well as morphology of plants. In 16Sr-IX group phytoplasma-infected brassica compestris, flower abnormalities have been associated with changes in the expression of floral development genes. To determine whether methylation was involved in down-regulation of flower development, the process of DNA methylation and Demethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism for regulation of floral gene expression in phytoplasma infected Brassica transmitted by Orosious orientalis vector by using RT-PCR, MSRE-PCR, Southern blotting, Bisulfite Sequencing, etc. Transcriptional expression of methylated genes was found to be globally down-regulated in plants infected with phytoplasma, but not severely in those infested by insect vectors and variation in expression was found in genes involved in methylation. These results also showed that genes particularly orthologous to Arabidopsis APETALA3 involved in petal formation and flower development was down-regulated severely in phytoplasma-infected brassica and with the fact that phytoplasma and insect induce variation in developmental gene expression. The DNA methylation status of flower developmental gene in phytoplasma infected plants with 5-azacytidine restored gene expression strongly suggesting that DNA methylation was involved in down-regulation of floral development genes in phytoplasma infected brassica.

Keywords: phytoplasma, DNA Methylation, genes expression, flower development

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738 Effect of Bull Exposure on Post-Partum Estrus Interval in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

Authors: Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Masood Akhtar, Tanveer Ahmad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Ijaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Ejaz Ahmad

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bull exposure continuously or intermittently or its excretory products after calving on postpartum interval to estrus, in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Forty-eight buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were allocated one of the four treatments in a totally randomized plan using a 4 x 1 factorial design. The four treatment groups were BEC (Bull Exposed Continuously), BEI (Bull Exposed Intermittently), EPB (Excretory Products of Bull) and BNE (Bull Not Exposed). BEC; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed continuously to the physical presence of a bull whereas in BEI; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed intermittently to the physical presence of bull. EPB; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed to discharge waste (urine and feces) of bull and BNE buffaloes (n = 12) were not exposed to a bull or discharge waste of bulls. Buffaloes were exposed on day 15 after parturition. Day 15 postpartum represented d 0 for each treatment. The postpartum interval from calving to first behavioural estrus was 66.88 days in BEC, 75.12 days in BEI, 77.28 days in EPB and 76.5 days in BNE treatments. Postpartum interval to first behavioural estrus was shorter in BEC than BEI, EPB, and BNE treatments. There was no significant difference in postpartum interval to estrus between BEI, EPB and BNE treatments. In present study, the percentage of buffaloes showing estrus during experimental period was 75.0%, 66.66%, 66.66% and 58.33% in BEC, BEI, EPB and BNE treatments, respectively. The mean serum progesterone concentration did not differ significantly between BEC and other (BEI, EPB, and BNE) treatments. It was concluded that presence of bull has positive effect in reducing calving interval in Nili Ravi buffalo.

Keywords: Biostimulation, buffalo, calving interval, bull exposure

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737 A Context Aware Mobile Learning System with a Cognitive Recommendation Engine

Authors: Jalal Maqbool, Gyu Myoung Lee

Abstract:

Using smart devices for context aware mobile learning is becoming increasingly popular. This has led to mobile learning technology becoming an indispensable part of today’s learning environment and platforms. However, some fundamental issues remain - namely, mobile learning still lacks the ability to truly understand human reaction and user behaviour. This is due to the fact that current mobile learning systems are passive and not aware of learners’ changing contextual situations. They rely on static information about mobile learners. In addition, current mobile learning platforms lack the capability to incorporate dynamic contextual situations into learners’ preferences. Thus, this thesis aims to address these issues highlighted by designing a context aware framework which is able to sense learner’s contextual situations, handle data dynamically, and which can use contextual information to suggest bespoke learning content according to a learner’s preferences. This is to be underpinned by a robust recommendation system, which has the capability to perform these functions, thus providing learners with a truly context-aware mobile learning experience, delivering learning contents using smart devices and adapting to learning preferences as and when it is required. In addition, part of designing an algorithm for the recommendation engine has to be based on learner and application needs, personal characteristics and circumstances, as well as being able to comprehend human cognitive processes which would enable the technology to interact effectively and deliver mobile learning content which is relevant, according to the learner’s contextual situations. The concept of this proposed project is to provide a new method of smart learning, based on a capable recommendation engine for providing an intuitive mobile learning model based on learner actions.

Keywords: Learning, Mobile, context, aware

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
736 Parametric Screening and Design Refinement of Ceiling Fan Blades

Authors: Riaz Ahmad, Shamraiz Ahmad, Adnan Maqsood

Abstract:

This paper describes the application of 2k-design of experiment in order to screen the geometric parameters and experimental refinement of ceiling fan blades. The ratio of the air delivery to the power consumed is commonly known as service value (SV) in ceiling fan designer’s community. Service value was considered as the response for 56 inch ceiling fan and four geometric parameters (bend position at root, bend position at tip, bent angle at root and bent angle at tip) of blade were analyzed. With two levels, the 4-design parameters along with their eleven interactions were studied and design of experiment was employed for experimental arrangement. Blade manufacturing and testing were done in a medium scale enterprise. The objective was achieved and service value of ceiling fan was increased by 10.4 % without increasing the cost of production and manufacturing system. Experiments were designed and results were analyzed using Minitab® 16 software package.

Keywords: performance improvement, parametric screening, ceiling fan, service value

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735 Arabic Fables in Contemporary Garbs: Ahmed Shawqī’s Reconstruction of Fables in the Modern Era

Authors: Monia Hejaiej

Abstract:

The fable has lent itself to memorable imitations and reinventions. The writing of fables, in prose and verse, was widely cultivated not only in pre-Islamic Arabia but also in the middle ages, reaching its culmination with the Egyptian poet and man of letters Ahmad Shawqī (1989-1932), who revived the ancient tradition, a relatively minor and unexploited genre in the modern era, and re-wrote rimed fables with an Arab Islamic flavor, articulating a set of modern ethico-political concepts and sensibilities such as a belief in good judgment in governance, individual liberty, democracy, a sense of the brotherhood of man and justice. This essay aims to restore the 20th Century poet to his rightful place in the international pantheon of literary achievement, and offers an examination of the Arabian fabulist tradition as it appears in Arabic literature, and a treatment of this genre re-visiting a few representative samples of Ahmad Shawqī collection of fables and their implications for contemporary politics in the Middle East.

Keywords: Democracy, ethics of care, fable, politcs, governace

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734 Social Media and Student-Teacher Relationship: A Case Study Form Kashmir University

Authors: Wahid Ahmad Dar, Irshad Ahmad Najar

Abstract:

The influence of social media is percolating to every corner of our social life. It is also changing the social sphere of the classroom in particular and education in general. This paper tries to explore the ways in which social media is influencing student-teacher relationship. Differences have been found in student’s ability to draw benefits from using ICT. Besides digital divides in access and usage, there are attitudinal differences among students towards ICT aligned with traditional forms of social differences. The paper particularly focusses on how students from diverse backgrounds are using social media to interact with their teachers and how such interactions differ on the basis of social class, gender and residential background of students. A qualitative research methodology has been used for answering these questions. Open-ended questionnaire has been designed and administered to a sample of postgraduate students from University of Kashmir drawn purposively ensuring optimum number of subjects from all backgrounds. The data were analyzed by content analysis, deciphering general patterns in the data.

Keywords: Social Media, Gender, Social Class, student-teacher relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
733 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear

Abstract:

High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, current density, modulation bandwidth, high-speed VCSELs, small-signal characteristics, thermal impedance

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732 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Jacob Tsado, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba, Nwohu Ndubuka Mark, Ahmad Adam Asharaf

Abstract:

Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: Performance, Transmission System, available transfer capability, real power efficiency

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731 Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Ahmad Amiri, Hamid K. Arzani, Salim Newaz Kazi, Ahmad Badarudin

Abstract:

The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, Turbulent Flow, graphene nanoplatelet, forced convection flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
730 Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition

Authors: Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Muhammad Imran Ahmad, Ruzelita Ngadiran, Mohd Nazrin Md Isa, Raja Abdullah Raja Ahmad, Said Amirul Anwar Ab Hamid, Muzammil Jusoh, Mohd ZaizuIlyas

Abstract:

This paper presents two technique, local feature extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical information to improve the performance of face recognition system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub block window that are mapping on the face image. For each of this block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several Gaussian function that has different statistical properties, the best feature representation can be model using probability density function. The recognition process is performed using maximum likelihood value computed using pre-calculate GMM components. The method is tested using FERET data sets and is able to achieved 92% recognition rates.

Keywords: local features modelling, face recognition system, Gaussian mixture models, Feret

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729 Jirga: A Traditional Approach to Peacebuidling in Conflict Affected Fragile Communities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Nizar Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon, Farhat Ullah

Abstract:

This study investigates the peace efforts made by Pakhtun’s traditional institution Jirga in conflict-affected communities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data were collected through a structured interview schedule from a sample of 278 household members in four selected villages of Dir Upper and Dir Lower Districts. A Chi square test was applied to ascertain relationships between Jirga related factors with the state of peace in the study area. It was found that factors such as Jirga regularly conducted meetings (P=. 000), it inflicted punishment upon local militants (P=. 001), ex-combatants were re-integrated through Jirga (P= .000) and Jirga ordered the local the defiant to leave the community had a significant association with state of peace in the area. It is concluded that Jirga system had played a vital role in the peacebuilding process of the area through provision of support to government in peace operation and mobilizing local people for peace in the area. It is suggested that Jirga shall to be the part of peace process and government needs to provide its possible support to members of the Jirga in order to enhance their capacity of peace work.

Keywords: Terrorism, Peacebuilding, Jirga, traditional mechanism, conflict affect areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
728 The Association between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Behavior among Patients with Hypertension

Authors: Fazel Zinat Motlagh, Ahmad Ali Eslami, Reza Chaman, Rashid Ghafari, Zahra Behzad

Abstract:

Background: Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform several self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy and self-care behaviors related to hypertension. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer Ahmad province, the south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients, were randomly selected and participated in the study. Self-care behavior was measured with using H-SCALE (Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects). Logistic regression conducted to detect correlation between self-efficacy and adherence to hypertension self-care behaviors. Results: Less than half (40.8%) of the participants reported that they have good self-efficacy to manage hypertension. Good self-efficacy was significantly associated with improve in adherence to medication (95% CI: 1.68, 1.83), eating a low-salt diet (95% CI: 1.44–1.73), physical activity (95% CI: 1.39–1.55), quit smoking (95% CI: 0.38–0.47), and weight management techniques (95% CI: 0.66–0.82). Conclusion: Hypertension self-efficacy was associated with adherence to self-care behaviors among adult with hypertension. According to our finding hypertension is a manageable condition. Self-efficacy is important factor in adherence with self-care behaviors related with hypertension.

Keywords: Hypertension, Self-efficacy, Self-Care, Iran

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727 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad

Abstract:

Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: buffalo milk, cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, milk coagulant

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726 Ranking Effective Factors on Strategic Planning to Achieve Organization Objectives in Fuzzy Multivariate Decision-Making Technique

Authors: Ahmad Aslizadeh, Elahe Memari, Ahmad Memari

Abstract:

Today strategic planning is counted as the most important duties of senior directors in each organization. Strategic planning allows the organizations to implement compiled strategies and reach higher competitive benefits than their competitors. The present research work tries to prepare and rank the strategies form effective factors on strategic planning in fulfillment of the State Road Management and Transportation Organization in order to indicate the role of organizational factors in efficiency of the process to organization managers. Connection between six main factors in fulfillment of State Road Management and Transportation Organization were studied here, including Improvement of Strategic Thinking in senior managers, improvement of the organization business process, rationalization of resources allocation in different parts of the organization, coordination and conformity of strategic plan with organization needs, adjustment of organization activities with environmental changes, reinforcement of organizational culture. All said factors approved by implemented tests and then ranked using fuzzy multivariate decision-making technique.

Keywords: Strategic Planning, fuzzy TOPSIS, improvement of organization business process, multivariate decision-making

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725 Seasonal Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties and Their Radiative Effects over Indo-Gangetic Plain in India

Authors: Kanika Taneja, V. K. Soni, S. D. Attri, Kafeel Ahmad, Shamshad Ahmad

Abstract:

Aerosols represent an important component of earth-atmosphere system and have a profound impact on the global and regional climate. With the growing population and urbanization, the aerosol load in the atmosphere over the Indian region is found to be increasing. Several studies have reported that the aerosol optical depth over the northern part of India is higher as compared to the southern part. The northern India along the Indo-Gangetic plain is often influenced with dust transported from the Thar Desert in northwestern India and from Arabian Peninsula during the pre-monsoon season. Seasonal variations in aerosol optical and radiative properties were examined using data retrieved from ground based multi-wavelength Prede Sun/sky radiometer (POM-02) over Delhi, Rohtak, Jodhpur and Varanasi for the period April 2011-April 2013. These stations are part of the Skynet-India network of India Meteorological Department. The Sun/sky radiometer (POM-02) has advantage over other instruments that it can be calibrated on-site. These aerosol optical properties retrieved from skyradiometer observations are further used to analyze the Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (DARF) over the study locations.

Keywords: radiative forcing, aerosol optical properties, indo- gangetic plain, sky radiometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 274