Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: ceiling fan

72 Investigating the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon: An Empirical Study of Glass Ceiling's Effects on Selection, Promotion and Female Effectiveness

Authors: Sharjeel Saleem

Abstract:

The glass ceiling has been a burning issue for many researchers. In this research, we examine gender of the BOD, training and development, workforce diversity, positive attitude towards women, and employee acts as antecedents of glass ceiling. Furthermore, we also look for effects of glass ceiling on likelihood of female selection and promotion and on female effectiveness. Multiple linear regression conducted on data drawn from different public and private sector organizations support our hypotheses. The research, however, is limited to Faisalabad city and only females from minority group are targeted here.

Keywords: glass ceiling, stereotype attitudes, female effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
71 A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome: Career Barriers of Women Academics

Authors: Serdar Öge, Alpay Karasoy, Özlem Kara

Abstract:

Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher education institutions. To this end, our study was performed on female academics working at Selcuk University, Konya / Turkey. Our study's main aim can be expressed as to determine whether there are glass ceiling obstacles for female academics working at the higher education institution in question, to measure their glass ceiling perceptions and, thus, to identify what the glass ceiling barrier components for them to promotion to senior management positions are.

Keywords: career, career barriers, glass ceiling syndrome, academics

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
70 Parametric Screening and Design Refinement of Ceiling Fan Blades

Authors: Shamraiz Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad, Adnan Maqsood

Abstract:

This paper describes the application of 2k-design of experiment in order to screen the geometric parameters and experimental refinement of ceiling fan blades. The ratio of the air delivery to the power consumed is commonly known as service value (SV) in ceiling fan designer’s community. Service value was considered as the response for 56 inch ceiling fan and four geometric parameters (bend position at root, bend position at tip, bent angle at root and bent angle at tip) of blade were analyzed. With two levels, the 4-design parameters along with their eleven interactions were studied and design of experiment was employed for experimental arrangement. Blade manufacturing and testing were done in a medium scale enterprise. The objective was achieved and service value of ceiling fan was increased by 10.4 % without increasing the cost of production and manufacturing system. Experiments were designed and results were analyzed using Minitab® 16 software package.

Keywords: parametric screening, 2k-design of experiment, ceiling fan, service value, performance improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
69 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq

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In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Gender inequality, Glass ceiling, Stereotypes, Leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
68 Parallels between the Glass and Lavender Ceilings

Authors: Paul E. Olsen

Abstract:

Researchers, businesses, and governments study the glass ceiling faced by women and members of minority groups at work, but the experiences of gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women with the lavender ceiling have not received similar attention. This qualitative research traces similarities between the lavender ceiling and the glass ceiling. More specifically, it presents a study designed to elucidate the experiences of gay men at work and compare them with those of women and minority group members, as reported in research literature on the glass ceiling. This research asked: 1) What have gay men experienced in the workplace? 2) What experiences have they had with recruitment, mentors, corporate climate, advancement opportunities, performance evaluation, social activities, harassment, and task force and committee assignments? 3) How do these experiences compare with those of women and minorities who have described their experiences with the glass ceiling? Purposeful and convenience sampling were used as participant selection strategies. Participants were diverse in terms of age, education, and industry. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with eight self-identified gay men working in human services, manufacturing, marketing, finance, government, the nonprofit sector, and retail. The gay men in the study described workplace experiences similar to descriptions of the glass ceiling faced by women and minorities. The lavender ceiling parallels the glass ceiling in corporate climates, harassment, mentors, social activities, promotions and performance appraisal, and task force and committee assignments at work. Women and most minorities do not, however, face the disclosure dilemma: Should one reveal his sexual orientation at work?

Keywords: discrimination, diversity, gay and lesbian, human resource

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
67 The Optimal Public Debt Ceiling in Taiwan: A Simulation Approach

Authors: Ho Yuan-Hong, Huang Chiung-Ju

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This study conducts simulation analyses to find the optimal debt ceiling of Taiwan, while factoring in welfare maximization under a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework. The simulation is based on Taiwan's 2001 to 2011 economic data and shows that welfare is maximized at a "debt"⁄"GDP" ratio of 0.2, increases in the "debt"⁄"GDP " ratio leads to increases in both tax and interest rates and decreases in the consumption ratio and working hours. The study results indicate that the optimal debt ceiling of Taiwan is 20% of GDP, where if the "debt"⁄"GDP" ratio is greater than 40%, the welfare will be negative and result in welfare loss.

Keywords: debt sustainability, optimal debt ceiling, dynamic stochastic general equilibrium, welfare maximization

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
66 Innovative Three Wire Capacitor Circuit System for Efficiency and Comfort Improvement of Ceiling Fans

Authors: R. K. Saket, K. S. Anand Kumar

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This paper presents an innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system used to increase the efficiency and comfort improvement of permanent split-capacitor ceiling fan. In this innovative circuit, current has been reduced to save electrical power. The system could be used to replace standard single phase motor 2-wire capacitor configuration by cost effective split value X rated of optimized AC capacitors with the auxiliary winding to provide reliable ceiling fan operation and improved machine performance to save power. In basic system operations, comparisons with conventional ceiling fan are described.

Keywords: permanent split-capacitor motor, innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system, standard 2-wire capacitor circuit system, metalized film X-rated capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
65 The Effect of Window Position and Ceiling Height on Cooling Load in Architectural Studio

Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi

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This paper investigates the effect of variations in window and ceiling heights on cooling inside an architectural training studio with a full-width window. For architectural training, students use the studio more often than they use ordinary classrooms. Therefore, studio dimensions and size, and the window position, directly influence the cooling load. Energy for cooling is one of the most expensive costs in the studio because of the high activity levels of students during the warm season. The methodology of analysis involves measuring energy changes in the Energy Plus software in Kish Island. It was proved that the cooling energy in an architecture studio can be increased by changing window levels and ceiling heights to add a range of cooling energy.

Keywords: cooling energy, Energy Plus, studio classroom, window position

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
64 Experimental Observation on Air-Conditioning Using Radiant Chilled Ceiling in Hot Humid Climate

Authors: Ashmin Aryal, Pipat Chaiwiwatworakul, Surapong Chirarattananon

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Radiant chilled ceiling (RCC) has been perceived to save more energy and provide better thermal comfort than the traditional air conditioning system. However, its application has been rather limited by some reasons e.g., the scarce information about the thermal characteristic in the radiant room and the local climate influence on the system performance, etc. To bridge such gap, an office-like experiment room with a RCC was constructed in the hot and humid climate of Thailand. This paper presents exemplarily results from the RCC experiments to give an insight into the thermal environment in a radiant room and the cooling load associated to maintain the room's comfort condition. It gave a demonstration of the RCC system operation for its application to achieve thermal comfort in offices in a hot humid climate, as well.

Keywords: radiant chilled ceiling, thermal comfort, cooling load, outdoor air unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
63 Thermal Comfort Characteristics in an Enclosure with a Radiant Ceiling Heating and Floor Air Heating System

Authors: Seung-Ho Yoo, Jong-Ryeul Sohn

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An environmental friendly or efficient heating & cooling systems attract a great attention, due to the energy or environmental problems. Especially the heat balance of human body is about 50% influenced by radiation exchange in built environment. Therefore, a thermal comfort characteristics in a radiant built environment need to be accessed through the development of an efficient evaluation method. Almost of Korean housings use traditionally the radiant floor heating system. A radiant cooling system attracts also many attention nowadays in the viewpoint of energy conservation and comfort. Thermal comfort characteristics in an enclosure with a radiant heating and cooling system are investigated by experiment, thermal sensation vote analysis and mean radiant temperature simulation. Asymmetric radiation between radiant heating ceiling and air heating system in 9 points of room is compared with each other.

Keywords: radiant heating and cooling ceiling, asymmetric radiation, thermal comfort, thermal sensation vote

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
62 Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving Evaluation of a Combined System in an Office Room Using Displacement Ventilation

Authors: A. Q. Ahmed, S. Gao

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In this paper, the energy saving and human thermal comfort in a typical office room are investigated. The impact of a combined system of exhaust inlet air with light slots located at the ceiling level in a room served by displacement ventilation system is numerically modelled. Previous experimental data are used to validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. A case study of simulated office room includes two seating occupants, two computers, two data loggers and four lamps. The combined system is located at the ceiling level above the heat sources. A new method of calculation for the cooling coil load in stratified air distribution (STRAD) system is used in this study. The results show that 47.4 % energy saving of space cooling load can be achieved by combing the exhaust inlet air with light slots at the ceiling level above the heat sources.

Keywords: air conditioning, displacement ventilation, energy saving, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
61 Effects of Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Activated Building Systems

Authors: L. Marcos Domínguez, Nils Rage, Ongun B. Kazanci, Bjarne W. Olesen

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Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient solution to provide buildings with an optimal indoor thermal environment. This solution uses the structure of the building to store heat, reduce the peak loads, and decrease the primary energy demand. TABS require the heated or cooled surfaces to be as exposed as possible to the indoor space, but exposing the bare concrete surfaces has a diminishing effect on the acoustic qualities of the spaces in a building. Acoustic solutions capable of providing optimal acoustic comfort and allowing the heat exchange between the TABS and the room are desirable. In this study, the effects of free-hanging units on the cooling performance of TABS and the occupants’ thermal comfort was measured in a full-scale TABS laboratory. Investigations demonstrate that the use of free-hanging sound absorbers are compatible with the performance of TABS and the occupant’s thermal comfort, but an appropriate acoustic design is needed to find the most suitable solution for each case. The results show a reduction of 11% of the cooling performance of the TABS when 43% of the ceiling area is covered with free-hanging horizontal sound absorbers, of 23% for 60% ceiling coverage ratio and of 36% for 80% coverage. Measurements in actual buildings showed an increase of the room operative temperature of 0.3 K when 50% of the ceiling surface is covered with horizontal panels and of 0.8 to 1 K for a 70% coverage ratio. According to numerical simulations using a new TRNSYS Type, the use of comfort ventilation has a considerable influence on the thermal conditions in the room; if the ventilation is removed, then the operative temperature increases by 1.8 K for a 60%-covered ceiling.

Keywords: acoustic comfort, concrete core activation, full-scale measurements, thermally activated building systems, TRNSys

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
60 Effect of Impulse Fans Clearance Height on Smoke Behavior in enclosed Car Parks: Comparative Study using CFD

Authors: Khaled Abou Hweij, Adnan Akhdar

Abstract:

Recently, in many cities, car parks are commonly contracted below ground level in commercial, public, and residential buildings, which creates significant challenges for managing the smoke release from critical fire events such as car fire due to ceiling height limitations in these enclosed car parks. In fact, if not properly ventilated, a large amount of very hot smoke will be generated, filling the car park volume rapidly, thus compromising the egress of occupants and the access of fire fighters to the seat of the fire. As such, ventilating enclosed car parks is crucial as to deliver fresh air that helps in renewing air and expelling harmful gasses in normal mode of operation, and diluting smoke while reducing its temperature in emergency fire mode of operation. Traditionally, during car fire scenarios, smoke is controlled and exhausted mechanically via ducting system where louvers are commonly provided at high level and make-up air at low level. However, this strategy becomes very cumbersome in car parks where the available ceiling height and space is limited (especially in large towers with multiple services in the basements), rendering ducts installation almost impossible. In these cases, it is more efficient to use jet fans fixed under the car park ceiling to direct the fresh air/make-up air towards the designated extraction points and achieve the required ventilation performance both in normal and emergency fire modes. If not properly designed, the momentum generated by the jet fans can induce significant turbulence levels, which can force smoke to recirculate and spread behind the fire source in a phenomenon know as back-layering, compromising the safe routes used to distinguish the fire. This study will use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation on a full 3D model of an underground car park basement in order to understand how the jet fans clearance height from the ceiling affect the ventilation of the car park in normal mode and the propagation of smoke in emergency mode considering a typical 4MW car fire event based on the findings of BRE research program for car fires in basements. The simulations are carried using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software to check the achieved visibility levels, air speeds, carbon monoxide concentrations, and temperatures for the investigated jet fans clearance heights and to elucidate the smoke behavior and air movement in the car park in both normal and emergency modes of operation.

Keywords: carparks, computational fluid dynamics, cfd, fire, jet fans, smoke, turbulence, air change effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
59 Troubling Depictions of Gambian Womanhood in Dayo Forster’s Reading the Ceiling

Authors: A. Wolfe

Abstract:

Dayo Forster’s impressively crafted Reading the Ceiling (2007) enjoys a relatively high profile among Western readers. It is one of only a handful of Gambian novels to be published by an international publisher, Simon and Schuster of London, and was subsequently shortlisted for the Commonwealth Writer’s Best First Book Prize in 2008. It is currently available to US readers in print and as an e-book and has 167 ratings on Goodreads. This paper addresses the possible influence of the book on Western readers’ perception of The Gambia, or Africa in general, through its depiction of the conditions of Gambian women’s lives. Through a close reading of passages and analysis of imagery, intertextuality, and characterization in the book, the paper demonstrates that Forster portrays the culture of The Gambia as oppressively patriarchal and the prospects for young girls who stay in the country as extremely limited. Reading the Ceiling starts on Ayodele’s 18th birthday, the day she has planned to have sex for the first time. Most of the rest of the book is divided into three parts, each following the chain of events that occur after sex with a potential partner. Although Ayodele goes abroad for her education in each of the three scenarios, she ultimately capitulates to the patriarchal politics and demands of marriage and childrearing in The Gambia, settling for relationships with men she does not love, cooking and cleaning for husbands and children, and silencing her own opinions and desires in exchange for the familiar traditions of patriarchal—and, in one case, polygamous—marriage. Each scenario ends with resignation to death, as, after her mother’s funeral, Ayodele admits to herself that she will be next. Forster uses dust and mud imagery throughout the novel to indicate the dinginess of Ayodele’s life as a young woman, and then wife and mother, in The Gambia as well as the inescapability of this life. This depiction of earthen material is also present in the novel’s recounting of an oral tale about a mermaid captured by fishermen, a story that mirrors Ayodele’s ensnarement by traditional marriage customs and gender norms. A review of the fate of other characters in the novel reveals that Ayodele is not the only woman who becomes trapped by the expectations for women in The Gambia, as those who stay in the country end up subservient to their husbands and/or victims of men’s habitual infidelity. It is important to note that Reading the Ceiling is focused on the experiences of a minority—The Gambia’s middle class, Christian urban dwellers with money for education. Regardless of its limited scope, the novel clearly depicts The Gambia as a place where women are simply unable to successfully contend against traditional patriarchal norms. Although this novel evokes vivid imagery of The Gambia through original and compelling descriptions of food preparation, clothing, and scenery, it perhaps does little to challenge stereotypical perceptions of the lives of African women among a Western readership.

Keywords: African literature, commonwealth literature, marriage, stereotypes, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
58 The Effects of Spatial Dimensions and Relocation and Dimensions of Sound Absorbers in a Space on the Objective Parameters of Sound

Authors: Mustafa Kavraz

Abstract:

This study investigated the differences in the objective parameters of sound depending on the changes in the lengths of the lateral surfaces of a space and on the replacement of the sound absorbers that are placed on these surfaces. To this end, three models of room were chosen. The widths and heights of these rooms were the same but the lengths of the rooms were changed. The smallest room was 8 m. wide and 10 m. long. The lengths of the other two rooms were 15 m. and 20 m. For each model, the differences in the objective parameters of sound were determined by keeping all the material in the space intact and by changing only the positions of the sound absorbers that were placed on the walls. The sound absorbers that were used on the walls were of two different sizes. The sound absorbers that were placed on the walls were 4 m and 8 m. long and story-height (3 m.). In all model room types, the sound absorbers were placed on the long walls in three different ways: at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the front wall; at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the back wall; and in the middle part of the long walls. Except for the specially placed sound absorbers, the ground, wall and ceiling surfaces were covered with three different materials. There were no constructional elements such as doors and windows on the walls. On the surfaces, the materials specified in the Odeon 10 material library were used as coating material. Linoleum was used as flooring material, painted plaster as wall coating material and gypsum boards as ceiling covering (2 layers with a total of 32 mm. thickness). These were preferred due to the fact that they are the commonly used materials for these purposes. This study investigated the differences in the objective parameters of sound depending on the changes in the lengths of the lateral surfaces of a space and on the replacement of the sound absorbers that are placed on these surfaces. To this end, three models of room were chosen. The widths and heights of these rooms were the same but the lengths of the rooms were changed. The smallest room was 8 m. wide and 10 m. long. The lengths of the other two rooms were 15 m. and 20 m. For each model, the differences in the objective parameters of sound were determined by keeping all the material in the space intact and by changing only the positions of the sound absorbers that were placed on the walls. The sound absorbers that were used on the walls were of two different sizes. The sound absorbers that were placed on the walls were 4 m and 8 m. long and story-height (3 m.). In all model room types, the sound absorbers were placed on the long walls in three different ways: at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the front wall; at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the back wall; and in the middle part of the long walls. Except for the specially placed sound absorbers, the ground, wall and ceiling surfaces were covered with three different materials. There were no constructional elements such as doors and windows on the walls. On the surfaces, the materials specified in the Odeon 10 material library were used as coating material. Linoleum was used as flooring material, painted plaster as wall coating material and gypsum boards as ceiling covering (2 layers with a total of 32 mm. thickness). These were preferred due to the fact that they are the commonly used materials for these purposes.

Keywords: sound absorber, room model, objective parameters of sound, jnd

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
57 Comparison of Mini-BESTest versus Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: R. Harihara Prakash, Shweta R. Parikh, Sangna S. Sheth

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The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) of varying severity. Evaluation were done to obtain (1) the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2) concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3) the sensitivity & specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Methods and Material: Seventy-seven(77) people with Parkinson's Disease were tested for balance deficits using the Berg Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) disease severity scales were used for classification. Materials used in this study were case record sheet, chair without arm rests or wheels, Incline ramp, stopwatch, a box, 3 meter distance measured out and marked on the floor with tape [from chair]. Statistical analysis used: Multiple Linear regression was carried out of UPDRS jointly on the two scores for the Berg and Mini-BESTest. Receiver operating characteristic curves for classifying people into two groups based on a threshold for the H&Y score, to discriminate between mild PD versus more severe PD.Correlation co-efficient to find relativeness between the two variables. Results: The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r = 0.732,P < 0.001), but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness −0.714 Berg, −0.512 Mini-BESTest). Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P < 0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P = 0.72 Berg), and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC).

Keywords: balance, berg balance scale, MINI BESTest, parkinson's disease

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56 Using Dynamic Glazing to Eliminate Mechanical Cooling in Multi-family Highrise Buildings

Authors: Ranojoy Dutta, Adam Barker

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Multifamily residential buildings are increasingly being built with large glazed areas to provide tenants with greater daylight and outdoor views. However, traditional double-glazed window assemblies can lead to significant thermal discomfort from high radiant temperatures as well as increased cooling energy use to address solar gains. Dynamic glazing provides an effective solution by actively controlling solar transmission to maintain indoor thermal comfort, without compromising the visual connection to outdoors. This study uses thermal simulations across three Canadian cities (Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal) to verify if dynamic glazing along with operable windows and ceiling fans can maintain the indoor operative temperature of a prototype southwest facing high-rise apartment unit within the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort range for a majority of the year, without any mechanical cooling. Since this study proposes the use of natural ventilation for cooling and the typical building life cycle is 30-40 years, the typical weather files have been modified based on accepted global warming projections for increased air temperatures by 2050. Results for the prototype apartment confirm that thermal discomfort with dynamic glazing occurs only for less than 0.7% of the year. However, in the baseline scenario with low-E glass there are up to 7% annual hours of discomfort despite natural ventilation with operable windows and improved air movement with ceiling fans.

Keywords: electrochromic glazing, multi-family housing, passive cooling, thermal comfort, natural ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
55 Numerical Simulation of a Combined Impact of Cooling and Ventilation on the Indoor Environmental Quality

Authors: Matjaz Prek

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Impact of three different combinations of cooling and ventilation systems on the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has been studied. Comparison of chilled ceiling cooling in combination with displacement ventilation, cooling with fan coil unit and cooling with flat wall displacement outlets was performed. All three combinations were evaluated from the standpoint of whole-body and local thermal comfort criteria as well as from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The comparison was made on the basis of numerical simulation with DesignBuilder and Fluent. Numerical simulations were carried out in two steps. Firstly the DesignBuilder software environment was used to model the buildings thermal performance and evaluation of the interaction between the environment and the building. Heat gains of the building and of the individual space, as well as the heat loss on the boundary surfaces in the room, were calculated. In the second step Fluent software environment was used to simulate the response of the indoor environment, evaluating the interaction between building and human, using the simulation results obtained in the first step. Among the systems presented, the ceiling cooling system in combination with displacement ventilation was found to be the most suitable as it offers a high level of thermal comfort with adequate ventilation efficiency. Fan coil cooling has proved inadequate from the standpoint of thermal comfort whereas flat wall displacement outlets were inadequate from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The study showed the need in evaluating indoor environment not solely from the energy use point of view, but from the point of view of indoor environmental quality as well.

Keywords: cooling, ventilation, thermal comfort, ventilation effectiveness, indoor environmental quality, IEQ, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
54 Improved Thermal Comfort and Sensation with Occupant Control of Ceiling Personalized Ventilation System: A Lab Study

Authors: Walid Chakroun, Sorour Alotaibi, Nesreen Ghaddar, Kamel Ghali

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This study aims at determining the extent to which occupant control of microenvironment influences, improves thermal sensation and comfort, and saves energy in spaces equipped with ceiling personalized ventilation (CPV) system assisted by chair fans (CF) and desk fans (DF) in 2 experiments in a climatic chamber equipped with two-station CPV systems, one that allows control of fan flow rate and the other is set to the fan speed of the selected participant in control. Each experiment included two participants each entering the cooled space from transitional environment at a conventional mixed ventilation (MV) at 24 °C. For CPV diffuser, fresh air was delivered at a rate of 20 Cubic feet per minute (CFM) and a temperature of 16 °C while the recirculated air was delivered at the same temperature but at a flow rate 150 CFM. The macroclimate air of the space was at 26 °C. The full speed flow rates for both the CFs and DFs were at 5 CFM and 20 CFM, respectively. Occupant 1 was allowed to operate the CFs or the DFs at (1/3 of the full speed, 2/3 of the full speed, and the full speed) while occupant 2 had no control on the fan speed and their fan speed was selected by occupant 1. Furthermore, a parametric study was conducted to study the effect of increasing the fresh air flow rate on the occupants’ thermal comfort and whole body sensations. The results showed that most occupants in the CPV+CFs, who did not control the CF flow rate, felt comfortable 6 minutes. The participants, who controlled the CF speeds, felt comfortable in around 24 minutes because they were preoccupied with the CFs. For the DF speed control experiments, most participants who did not control the DFs felt comfortable within the first 8 minutes. Similarly to the CPV+CFs, the participants who controlled the DF flow rates felt comfortable at around 26 minutes. When the CPV system was either supported by CFs or DFs, 93% of participants in both cases reached thermal comfort. Participants in the parametric study felt more comfortable when the fresh air flow rate was low, and felt cold when as the flow rate increased.

Keywords: PMV, thermal comfort, thermal environment, thermal sensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
53 Seismic Protection of Automated Stocker System by Customized Viscous Fluid Dampers

Authors: Y. P. Wang, J. K. Chen, C. H. Lee, G. H. Huang, M. C. Wang, S. W. Chen, Y. T. Kuan, H. C. Lin, C. Y. Huang, W. H. Liang, W. C. Lin, H. C. Yu

Abstract:

The hi-tech industries in the Science Park at southern Taiwan were heavily damaged by a strong earthquake early 2016. The financial loss in this event was attributed primarily to the automated stocker system handling fully processed products, and recovery of the automated stocker system from the aftermath proved to contribute major lead time. Therefore, development of effective means for protection of stockers against earthquakes has become the highest priority for risk minimization and business continuity. This study proposes to mitigate the seismic response of the stockers by introducing viscous fluid dampers in between the ceiling and the top of the stockers. The stocker is expected to vibrate less violently with a passive control force on top. Linear damper is considered in this application with an optimal damping coefficient determined from a preliminary parametric study. The damper is small in size in comparison with those adopted for building or bridge applications. Component test of the dampers has been carried out to make sure they meet the design requirement. Shake table tests have been further conducted to verify the proposed scheme under realistic earthquake conditions. Encouraging results have been achieved by effectively reducing the seismic responses of up to 60% and preventing the FOUPs from falling off the shelves that would otherwise be the case if left unprotected. Effectiveness of adopting a viscous fluid damper for seismic control of the stocker on top against the ceiling has been confirmed. This technique has been adopted by Macronix International Co., LTD for seismic retrofit of existing stockers. Demonstrative projects on the application of the proposed technique are planned underway for other companies in the display industry as well.

Keywords: hi-tech industries, seismic protection, automated stocker system, viscous fluid damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
52 Between the Pen and the Dish Towel: Paradox of Globalization

Authors: Sandra Maria Cerqueira Da Silva

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In Brazil, women are the majority of the country's population. They have advanced in terms of years of education and professional training. However, this has not prevented the differences in the labor market from being sustained, particularly the wage gap and inequalities concerning the access to command positions and promotions, i.e., in the gender relations and treatment. One of the conditions which constitute a barrier to career advancement is the necessary support chain to support women when they are in the labor market. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to demonstrate, describe, and criticize some of the current conformations of support chains and how these compete to promote the phenomenon known as glass ceiling in the country. However, this support may come even from inside a woman's own home, with a fairer division of household activities between men and women. Such behavior can free an entire network of women within the same family. In addition, it can serve as pressure to structure better conditions for women as a whole, improving the living conditions of the poor population. This can occur through programs and projects for qualification and retraining of adult women. In answer to the question that guides this study, it is concluded that a family support system is critical to the success of women in management positions. To meet this demand, one of the ways could be the development of specific gender policies by the public authorities, in accordance with the emerging global economic policies, in order to provide and structure the necessary support. This would respond to feminist manifestations - which should go on pointing needs – although the legislative assembly should also propose ideas to change this picture. This is a qualitative research, with a poststructuralist approach, featuring a cutout corpus of three interviews carried out with women holding leadership positions in the academia. Questions related to this very discussion are many. New studies could address points as the promotion of qualification and expansion of skills of women in subaltern condition. There is also need to investigate possible support systems, considering the inequalities and local economic conditions.

Keywords: gender and labor market, glass ceiling, post-structuralism, support chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
51 A Feminist Historical Institutional Approach and Gender Participation in Queensland Politics

Authors: Liz van Acker, Linda Colley

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Political processes are shaped by the gendered culture of parliaments. This paper examines how the institution of parliament has been affected by the changing number of women in politics. In order to understand how and why gender change occurs, the paper employs a feminist historical institutionalism approach. It argues that while it is difficult to change the gendered nature of political institutions, it is possible, from a gender perspective, to understand the processes of change both formally and informally. Increasing women’s representation has been a slow process which has not occurred without political struggles. A broadly defined ‘feminist historical institutionalism’ has critiqued existing approaches to institutions and combined historical institutional analysis with tools of gender to enhance our understanding of institutional processes and change. The paper examines the gendered rules, norms, and practices that influence institutional design choices and processes. Institutions such as Parliament often are able to adjust to women’s entry and absorb them without too much interruption. Exploring the hidden aspects to informal institutions involves identifying unspoken and accepted norms that may guide decision-making – exposing and questioning the gender status quo. This paper examines the representation of women in the Queensland Parliament, Australia. It places the Queensland experience in historical context, as well as in the national and international context. The study is interesting, given that its gender representation has rocketed from one of the worst performing states in 2012 to one of the best performing in 2015 with further improvements in 2017. The state currently has a re-elected female Premier, a female Deputy Premier and a female-dominated cabinet – in fact, Queensland was the first ministry in Australia to have a majority of women in its Cabinet. However, it is unnecessary to dig far below these headlines to see that this is uncharacteristic of its history: progress towards this current position has been slow and patchy. The paper finds that matters such as the glass ceiling and the use of quotas explain women’s recent success in Queensland politics.

Keywords: feminist historical institutional approach, glass ceiling, quotas, women’s participation in politics

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
50 Improving the Weekend Handover in General Surgery: A Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Michael Ward, Eliana Kalakouti, Andrew Alabi

Abstract:

Aim: The handover process is recognized as a vulnerable step in the patient care pathway where errors are likely to occur. As such, it is a major preventable cause of patient harm due to human factors of poor communication and systematic error. The aim of this study was to audit the general surgery department’s weekend handover process compared to the recommended criteria for safe handover as set out by the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS). Method: A retrospective audit of the General Surgery department’s Friday patient lists and patient medical notes used for weekend handover in a London-based District General Hospital (DGH). Medical notes were analyzed against RCS's suggested criteria for handover. A standardized paper weekend handover proforma was then developed in accordance with guidelines and circulated in the department. A post-intervention audit was then conducted using the same methods for cycle 1. For cycle 2, we introduced an electronic weekend handover tool along with Electronic Patient Records (EPR). After a one-month period, a second post-intervention audit was conducted. Results: Following cycle 1, the paper weekend handover proforma was only used in 23% of patient notes. However, when it was used, 100% of them had a plan for the weekend, diagnosis and location but only 40% documented potential discharge status and 40% ceiling of care status. Qualitative feedback was that it was time-consuming to fill out. Better results were achieved following cycle 2, with 100% of patient notes having the electronic proforma. Results improved with every patient having documented ceiling of care, discharge status and location. Only 55% of patients had a past surgical history; however, this was still an increase when compared to paper proforma (45%). When comparing electronic versus paper proforma, there was an increase in documentation in every domain of the handover outlined by RCS with an average relative increase of 1.72 times (p<0.05). Qualitative feedback was that the autofill function made it easy to use and simple to view. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the implementation of an electronic autofill handover proforma significantly improved handover compliance with RCS guidelines, thereby improving the transmission of information from week-day to weekend teams.

Keywords: surgery, handover, proforma, electronic handover, weekend, general surgery

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49 Experimental Analysis of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek

Abstract:

The paper deals with current issues in research of advanced methods to increase reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre - reinforced polymer. The paper describes experimental testing of composite timber-concrete beam with FRP reinforcement and compares results with FEM analysis.

Keywords: timber-concrete composite, strengthening, fibre-reinforced polymer, experimental analysis

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48 Specification Requirements for a Combined Dehumidifier/Cooling Panel: A Global Scale Analysis

Authors: Damien Gondre, Hatem Ben Maad, Abdelkrim Trabelsi, Frédéric Kuznik, Joseph Virgone

Abstract:

The use of a radiant cooling solution would enable to lower cooling needs which is of great interest when the demand is initially high (hot climate). But, radiant systems are not naturally compatibles with humid climates since a low-temperature surface leads to condensation risks as soon as the surface temperature is close to or lower than the dew point temperature. A radiant cooling system combined to a dehumidification system would enable to remove humidity for the space, thereby lowering the dew point temperature. The humidity removal needs to be especially effective near the cooled surface. This requirement could be fulfilled by a system using a single desiccant fluid for the removal of both excessive heat and moisture. This task aims at providing an estimation of the specification requirements of such system in terms of cooling power and dehumidification rate required to fulfill comfort issues and to prevent any condensation risk on the cool panel surface. The present paper develops a preliminary study on the specification requirements, performances and behavior of a combined dehumidifier/cooling ceiling panel for different operating conditions. This study has been carried using the TRNSYS software which allows nodal calculations of thermal systems. It consists of the dynamic modeling of heat and vapor balances of a 5m x 3m x 2.7m office space. In a first design estimation, this room is equipped with an ideal heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification system so that the room temperature is always maintained in between 21C and 25C with a relative humidity in between 40% and 60%. The room is also equipped with a ventilation system that includes a heat recovery heat exchanger and another heat exchanger connected to a heat sink. Main results show that the system should be designed to meet a cooling power of 42W.m−2 and a desiccant rate of 45 gH2O.h−1. In a second time, a parametric study of comfort issues and system performances has been achieved on a more realistic system (that includes a chilled ceiling) under different operating conditions. It enables an estimation of an acceptable range of operating conditions. This preliminary study is intended to provide useful information for the system design.

Keywords: dehumidification, nodal calculation, radiant cooling panel, system sizing

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47 Behavior of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek

Abstract:

The paper deals with current issues in the research of advanced methods to increase the reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with the additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer. The study evaluates deflection of a selected group of timber beams with concrete slab and additional CFRP reinforcement using different calculating methods and observes differences in results from different calculating methods. An elastic calculation method and evaluation with FEM analysis software were used.

Keywords: timber-concrete composite, strengthening, fibre-reinforced polymer, theoretical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
46 Structure Conduct and Performance of Rice Milling Industry in Sri Lanka

Authors: W. A. Nalaka Wijesooriya

Abstract:

The increasing paddy production, stabilization of domestic rice consumption and the increasing dynamism of rice processing and domestic markets call for a rethinking of the general direction of the rice milling industry in Sri Lanka. The main purpose of the study was to explore levels of concentration in rice milling industry in Polonnaruwa and Hambanthota which are the major hubs of the country for rice milling. Concentration indices reveal that the rice milling industry in Polonnaruwa operates weak oligopsony and is highly competitive in Hambanthota. According to the actual quantity of paddy milling per day, 47 % is less than 8Mt/Day, while 34 % is 8-20 Mt/day, and the rest (19%) is greater than 20 Mt/day. In Hambanthota, nearly 50% of the mills belong to the range of 8-20 Mt/day. Lack of experience of the milling industry, poor knowledge on milling technology, lack of capital and finding an output market are the major entry barriers to the industry. Major problems faced by all the rice millers are the lack of a uniform electricity supply and low quality paddy. Many of the millers emphasized that the rice ceiling price is a constraint to produce quality rice. More than 80% of the millers in Polonnaruwa which is the major parboiling rice producing area have mechanical dryers. Nearly 22% millers have modern machineries like color sorters, water jet polishers. Major paddy purchasing method of large scale millers in Polonnaruwa is through brokers. In Hambanthota major channel is miller purchasing from paddy farmers. Millers in both districts have major rice selling markets in Colombo and suburbs. Huge variation can be observed in the amount of pledge (for paddy storage) loans. There is a strong relationship among the storage ability, credit affordability and the scale of operation of rice millers. The inter annual price fluctuation ranged 30%-35%. Analysis of market margins by using series of secondary data shows that farmers’ share on rice consumer price is stable or slightly increases in both districts. In Hambanthota a greater share goes to the farmer. Only four mills which have obtained the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification from Sri Lanka Standards Institution can be found. All those millers are small quantity rice exporters. Priority should be given for the Small and medium scale millers in distribution of storage paddy of PMB during the off season. The industry needs a proper rice grading system, and it is recommended to introduce a ceiling price based on graded rice according to the standards. Both husk and rice bran were underutilized. Encouraging investment for establishing rice oil manufacturing plant in Polonnaruwa area is highly recommended. The current taxation procedure needs to be restructured in order to ensure the sustainability of the industry.

Keywords: conduct, performance, structure (SCP), rice millers

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45 Centralized Peak Consumption Smoothing Revisited for Habitat Energy Scheduling

Authors: M. Benbouzid, Q. Bresson, A. Duclos, K. Longo, Q. Morel

Abstract:

Currently, electricity suppliers must predict the consumption of their customers in order to deduce the power they need to produce. It is, then, important in a first step to optimize household consumption to obtain more constant curves by limiting peaks in energy consumption. Here centralized real time scheduling is proposed to manage the equipment's starting in parallel. The aim is not to exceed a certain limit while optimizing the power consumption across a habitat. The Raspberry Pi is used as a box; this scheduler interacts with the various sensors in 6LoWPAN. At the scale of a single dwelling, household consumption decreases, particularly at times corresponding to the peaks. However, it would be wiser to consider the use of a residential complex so that the result would be more significant. So, the ceiling would no longer be fixed. The scheduling would be done on two scales, firstly, per dwelling, and secondly, at the level of a residential complex.

Keywords: smart grid, energy box, scheduling, Gang Model, energy consumption, energy management system, wireless sensor network

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44 Evaluating the Energy Efficiency Measures for an Educational Building in a Hot-Humid Region

Authors: Rafia Akbar

Abstract:

This paper assesses different Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) and their impact on energy consumption and carbon footprint of an educational building located in Islamabad. A base case was first developed in accordance with typical construction practices in Pakistan. Several EEMs were separately applied to the baseline design to quantify their impact on operational energy reduction of the building and the resultant carbon emissions. Results indicate that by applying these measures, there is a potential to reduce energy consumption up to 49% as compared to the base case. It was observed that energy efficient ceiling fans and lights, insulation of the walls and roof and an efficient air conditioning system for the building can provide significant energy savings. The results further indicate that the initial investment cost of these energy efficiency measures can be recovered within 6 to 7 years of building’s service life.

Keywords: CO2 savings, educational building, energy efficiency measures, payback period

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43 An Analysis of Gender Discrimination and Horizontal Hostility among Working Women in Pakistan

Authors: Nadia Noor, Farida Faisal

Abstract:

Horizontal hostility has been identified as a special type of workplace violence and refers to the aggressive behavior inflicted by women towards other women due to gender issues or towards minority group members due to minority issues. Many women, while they want eagerly to succeed and invest invigorated efforts to achieve success, harbor negative feelings for other women to succeed in their career. This phenomenon has been known as Horizontal Violence, Horizontal Hostility, Lateral Violence, Indirect Aggression, or The Tall Poppy Syndrome in Australian culture. Tall Poppy is referred to as a visibly successful individual who attracts envy or hostility due to distinctive characteristics. Therefore, horizontal hostility provides theoretical foundation to examine fierce competition among females than males for their limited access to top level management positions. In Pakistan, gender discrimination persists due to male dominance in the society and women do not enjoy basic equality rights in all aspects of life. They are oppressed at social and organizational level. As Government has been trying to enhance women participation through providing more employment opportunities, provision of peaceful workplace is mandatory that will enable aspiring females to achieve objectives of career success. This research study will help to understand antecedents, dimensions and outcomes of horizontal hostility that hinder career success of competitive females. The present paper is a review paper and various forms of horizontal hostility have been discussed in detail. Different psychological and organizational level drivers of horizontal hostility have been explored through literature. Psychological drivers include oppression, lack of empowerment, learned helplessness and low self-esteem. Organizational level drivers include sticky floor, glass ceiling, toxic work environment and leadership role. Horizontal hostility among working women results in psychological and physical outcomes including stress, low motivation, poor job performance and intention to leave. The study recommends provision of healthy and peaceful work environment that will enable competent women to achieve objectives of career success. In this regard, concrete actions and effective steps are required to promote gender equality at social and organizational level. The need is to ensure the enforcement of legal frameworks by government agencies in order to provide healthy working environment to women by reducing harassment and violence against them. Organizations must eradicate drivers of horizontal hostility and provide women peaceful work environment. In order to develop coping skills, training and mentoring must be provided to them.

Keywords: gender discrimination, glass ceiling, horizontal hostility, oppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 66