Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: immunization

71 A Unique Immunization Card for Early Detection of Retinoblastoma

Authors: Hiranmoyee Das

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Aim. Due to late presentation and delayed diagnosis mortality rate of retinoblastoma is more than 50% in developing counties. So to facilitate the diagnosis, to decrease the disease and treatment burden and to increase the disease survival rate, an attempt was made for early diagnosis of Retinoblastoma by including fundus examination in routine immunization programs. Methods- A unique immunization card is followed in a tertiary health care center where examination of pupillary reflex is made mandatory in each visit of the child for routine immunization. In case of any abnormality, the child is referred to the ophthalmology department. Conclusion- Early detection is the key in the management of retinoblastoma. Every child is brought to the health care system at least five times before the age of 2 years for routine immunization. We should not miss this golden opportunity for early detection of retinoblastoma.

Keywords: retinoblastoma, immunization, unique, early

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
70 Mother's Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Childhood Immunization in District Nankana Sahib

Authors: Farina Maqbool

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Background: It is well said that children are considered the future masons of the country and a healthy brain is found in a healthy body. Therefore, a healthy generation can be produced by giving knowledge of immunization to mothers. Immunization is the most lucrative public health intrusion that has placed the greatest effect on the health of the people. The main objective of the present study was to find out the mother’s knowledge, attitude, and practices towards childhood immunization. Methods: Multistage sampling technique was used. One hundred and sixty mothers were selected conveniently who have at least one child up to two years. Data were collected through the face to face interview. The chi-square test was used to test the significance of the association between independent and dependent variables. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. Results: A higher percentage of mothers (85.0%) knew vaccine-preventable diseases. Major proportion (82.5%) of the mothers had thought that immunization is important for their child’s health. A majority (66.3%) of the respondents’ children were fully immunized, whereas 26.3 percent of them were replied negatively. Remaining 7.5 percent of the respondents’ child un-immunized Chi-square value (39.14) shows a highly significant association between the education of the respondents and receiving of all recommended vaccines for children. Gamma value shows a strong positive relationship between the variables.

Keywords: attitude, childhood, immunization, knowledge, practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
69 Determination of Parasitic Load in Different Tissues of Murine Toxoplasmosis after Immunization by Excretory-Secretory Antigens using Real Time QPCR

Authors: Ahmad Daryani, Yousef Dadimoghaddam, Mehdi Sharif, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Baghar Hashemi

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Background: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n= 18) and control (n= 18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2 weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. Results: ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P= 0.000). Conclusion: These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: parasitic load, murine toxoplasmosis, immunization, excretory-secretory antigens, real time QPCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
68 Assessment of Urban Immunization Practices among Urban Mother's in Sri Lanka

Authors: Kasun U. G. Palihakkara

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Although vaccine coverage in Sri Lanka is close to 100%, with the widely spreading vaccine rejection trend reaching South Asian regions, it is essential to catch on whether Sri Lankans are being misinformed from the common misconceptions regarding vaccines. As the rates of target diseases decrease, parents become less accepting of even minor common adverse events. It is essential to preserve the integrity of immunization programs and protect public health by finding out the prevalence of anti-immunization trends. The primary objective of this study was to assess the immunization practices and prevalence of trends related to anti-immunization among urban community in Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study on 323 participants using convenient sampling with 213 self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, 110 online questionnaires were distributed. 31% of the study population does not maintain immunization records for their children. While majority seek information regarding immunization from reliable sources such as the family physician or specialist pediatricians, 30% also refer to unreliable sources such as online communities for their opinion. 31% of study population had not vaccinated for Japanese encephalitis. 73% of the study population had encountered with side effects of vaccination such as fever & 47% believed that such side effects are rare. 52% of the population had hostile attitude regarding the administration of several doses multiple vaccines within a child’s first year. Diseases like polio had been successfully eradicated from Sri Lanka with the help of vigorous vaccination programs. However, majority of the study population believe that there’s no need to keep vaccinating the children for those eradicated diseases and exposing the child for adverse effects of such vaccines. Majority of the population were aware of the existing misconceptions regarding immunization. The most popular misconceptions about vaccines popular among the study population were the MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) vaccine being a possible cause leading to autism and bowel disease and children getting infected with the disease even after they get vaccinated, may be due to the inactivated vaccine. Disturbingly 22% of the study population believed that vaccines are useless in preventing diseases nowadays. These data obtained from the urban study population reveals that even though statistically Sri Lankan immunization coverage is 100%, there is a possibility of anti-vaccination trend arising in Sri Lanka due to the prevalence of various misconceptions and rumors related to it. Therefore these data recommend the need for thorough awareness among the mothers.

Keywords: anti-vaccination, immunization, infectious diseases, pediatric health

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
67 The Role of Intellectual Security Immunisation in Reducing Extremism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1979 – 2019

Authors: Anas Abdulrahman A. Almiman

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In recent decades, efforts to combat extremism have focused on non-physical dimensions, as various countries have attempted to raise security awareness or promote authentic and moderate Islamic education. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most successful and unique cases because it has focused on the immunization of Islamic intellectual security to combat extremism. This study aims to define the concept and importance of Islamic intellectual security in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through a descriptive-analytical study. It describes the potential role of Islamic intellectual security immunization in reducing extremism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1979 to 2019, identifying various factors that connect Islamic intellectual security immunization to extremism reduction. One such factor is the MISK Foundation’s forums and conferences intended to raise Islamic intellectual security and reduce intellectual deviation, thus reducing extremism. It concludes that the common significant factor for Islamic intellectual deviation is direct commands and prohibitions. This study supports the efforts made by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to immunize Islamic intellectual security and fight extremism as a consequence.

Keywords: extremism, intellectual security immunization , Saudi Arabia, Islamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
66 Factors Associated with Uptake of Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination in Pregnant Women

Authors: Hassen Mohammed, Michelle Clarke, Helen Marshall

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Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to protect pregnant women and their offspring from vaccine-preventable diseases. Despite the recommendation of maternal influenza and more recently pertussis immunization in Australia, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal. Monitoring the impact of the current funded vaccine programs for pregnant women is limited. The study aimed to assess the impact of the funded program and determine factors associated with vaccine uptake in pregnant women. This observational prospective study was undertaken between November 2014 and July 2016 at the Women’s and Children’s Hospital in South Australia (WCH). Demographic details and vaccination history from South Australian pregnant women who attended the WCH were reviewed. A standardized self-reported survey was conducted in antenatal care with a follow up telephone interview at 8-10 weeks post-delivery. A midwife delivered immunization program for pregnant women in antenatal clinic commenced in April 2015. Of the 180 pregnant women who completed the survey questionnaire, 75.5% and 80.5 % received maternal influenza and pertussis vaccines respectively. First-time mothers had twice the odds of having received influenza vaccine during pregnancy than multiparous women (OR 2.4; CI 1.14 - 4.94; p= 0.021). The proportion of women who received pertussis vaccine during pregnancy, following the introduction of the midwife delivered pertussis vaccination program (140/155, 90.3%) was significantly higher compared with women who received maternal pertussis vaccination prior to the introduction of the program (5/22, 23.7%, p < 0.001). The odds of women receiving maternal pertussis vaccine following the implementation of the midwife delivered program were 31 times higher than women who delivered babies prior to the program (OR 31.7, CI 10.24- 98.27; p < 0.001). High uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy can be attained with health care provider recommendation and inclusion of maternal immunization as part of standard antenatal care.

Keywords: influenza, maternal immunization, pertussis, provider recommendation

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
65 Assessment of the Efficacy of Oral Vaccination of Wild Canids and Stray Dogs against Rabies in Azerbaijan

Authors: E. N. Hasanov, K. Y. Yusifova, M. A. Ali

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Rabies is a zoonotic disease that causes acute encephalitis in domestic and wild carnivores. The goal of our investigation was to analyze the data on oral vaccination of wild canids and stray dogs in Azerbaijan. Before the start of the vaccination campaign conducted by the International Dialogue for Environmental Action (IDEA) Animal Care Center (IACC), all rabies cases in Azerbaijan for the period of 2017-2020 were analyzed. So, 30 regions for oral immunization with the Rabadrop vaccine were selected. In total, 95.9 thousand doses of baits were scattered in 30 regions, 970 (0.97%) remained intact. In addition, a campaign to sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs and cats undoubtedly had a positive impact on reducing the dynamics of rabies incidence. During the period 2017-2020, 2339 dogs and 2962 cats were sterilized and vaccinated under this program. It can be noted that the risk of rabies infection can be reduced through special preventive measures against disease reservoirs, which include oral immunization of wild and stray animals.

Keywords: rabies, vaccination, oral immunization, wild canids, stray dogs, baits, disease reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
64 Lessons Learned from Push-Plus Implementation in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Aisha Giwa, Mohammed-Faosy Adeniran, Olufunke Femi-Ojo

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Four decades ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The EPI blueprint laid out the technical and managerial functions necessary to routinely vaccinate children with a limited number of vaccines, providing protection against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, polio, and tuberculosis, and to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus by vaccinating women of childbearing age with tetanus toxoid. Despite global efforts, the Routine Immunization (RI) coverage in two of the World Health Organization (WHO) regions; the African Region and the South-East Asia Region, still remains short of its targets. As a result, the WHO Regional Director for Africa declared 2012 as the year for intensifying RI in these regions and this also coincided with the declaration of polio as a programmatic emergency by the WHO Executive Board. In order to intensify routine immunization, the National Routine Immunization Strategic Plan (2013-2015) stated that its core priority is to ensure 100% adequacy and availability of vaccines for safe immunization. To achieve 100% availability, the “PUSH System” and then “Push-Plus” were adopted for vaccine distribution, which replaced the inefficient “PULL” method. The NPHCDA plays the key role in coordinating activities in area advocacy, capacity building, engagement of 3PL for the state as well as monitoring and evaluation of the vaccine delivery process. eHealth Africa (eHA) is a player as a 3PL service provider engaged by State Primary Health Care Boards (SPHCDB) to ensure vaccine availability through Vaccine Direct Delivery (VDD) project which is essential to successful routine immunization services. The VDD project ensures the availability and adequate supply of high-quality vaccines and immunization-related materials to last-mile facilities. eHA’s commitment to the VDD project saw the need for an assessment of the project vis-a-vis the overall project performance, evaluation of a process for necessary improvement suggestions as well as general impact across Kano State (Where eHA had transitioned to the state), Bauchi State (currently manage delivery to all LGAs except 3 LGAs currently being managed by the state), Sokoto State (eHA currently covers all LGAs) and Zamfara State (Currently, in-sourced and managed solely by the state).

Keywords: cold chain logistics, health supply chain system strengthening, logistics management information system, vaccine delivery traceability and accountability

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
63 Change of Epidemiological Characteristics and Disease Burden of Varicella Due to Implementation of Mass Immunization Program in Taiwan from 2000 to 2012

Authors: En-Tzu Wang, Ting-Ann Wang, Yi-Hui Shen, Yu-Min Chou, Chi-Tai Fang, Chin-Hui Yang

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Background and purpose: A mass varicella immunization program was established to provide free 1-dose vaccination for all 1-year-old children throughout Taiwan since 2004. The epidemiological characteristics and disease burden of varicella from 2000 to 2012 was investigated and the results will be essential to refine the national immunization policy. Method: We included patients (n = 17,838–164,245) with ICD-9-CM codes 052 (chickenpox) from the 2000 to 2012 National Health Insurance Database. The age, period, and cohort-specific incidence of varicella were calculated. The hospital admission rate, medical costs and indirect costs from the societal perspective of varicella including travel costs to the medical facility, registration fee, productivity losses of the patients and caregivers were also estimated. Result: There were 979,252 patients for medical treatment due to varicella from 2000 to 2012 in Taiwan. The implementation of a routine childhood varicella vaccination program has resulted in 87% decline in morbidity (881.49 to 115.17 per 100,000). The average age of patients increased from 7.9 years to 16.3 years. The overall varicella-related hospital admission rate was 15.5 per 1000 patients, and peaked in the groups of infants younger than 1 year, adults aged from 20 to 39 years and elders over 70 years. Among patients admitted to hospital, 33.5% of them had one or more complications. Patients with underlying diseases had higher admission rate (241.6 per 1,000) and longer duration of hospital stay (6.61 days vs. 4.76 days). The annual varicella-related medical expense declined after 2002 and the proportion of medical costs for admission has increased to 42%. The annual indirect costs from the societal perspective of varicella were 5.29 to 9.63 times higher than varicella-related medical costs. Every one dollar invested in the varicella immunization program, 2.97 dollars of medical and social costs were saved on average. Conclusion: The dramatic decline in morbidity, hospitalization, medical and social costs of varicella can be directly attributed to the implementation of the mass immunization program. Two-dose vaccination is recommended for both children with underlying diseases and susceptible adults to prevent serious complications and hospitalizations.

Keywords: disease burden, epidemiology, medical and social costs, varicella, varicella vaccine

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62 Missed Opportunities for Immunization of under Five Children in Calabar South County Cros River State, Nigeria, the Way Forward

Authors: Celestine Odigwe, Epoke Lincoln, Rhoda-Dara Ephraim

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Background; Immunization against the childhood killer diseases is the cardinal strategy for the prevention of these diseases all over the world in under five children, these diseases include; Tuberculosis, Measles, Polio, Tetanus, Diphthria, Pertusis, Yellow Fever, Hepatitis B, Haemophilus Influenza type B. 6.9 million children die before their fifth birthday , 80% of the worlds death in children under 5 years occur in 25 countries most in Africa and Asia and 2 million children can be saved each year with routine immunization Therefore failure to achieve total immunization coverage puts several children at risk. Aim; The aim of the study was to ascertain the prevalence, Investigate the various reasons and causes why several under five children in a suburb of calabar municipal county fail to get the required immunizations as at and when due and possibly the consequences, so that efforts can be re-directed towards the solution of the problems so identified. Methods; the study was a community based cross sectional study. The respondents were the mothers/guardians of the sampled children who were all aged 0-59 months. To be eligible for recruitment into the study, the parent or guardian was required to give an informed consent, reside within the Calabar South County with his/her children aged 0-59 months. We calculated our sample size using the Leslie-Kish formula and we used a two-staged sampling method, first to ballot for the wards to be involved and then to select four of the most populated ones in the wards chosen. Data collection was by interviewer administered structured questionnaire (Appendix I), Data collected was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Percentages were calculated and represented using charts and tables Results; The number of children sampled was 159. We found that 150 were fully immunized and 9 were not, the prevalence of missed opportunity was 32% from the study. The reasons for missed opportunities were varied, ranging from false contraindications, logistical problems resulting in very poor access roads to health facilities and poor organization of health centers together with negative health worker attitudes. Some of the consequences of these missed opportunities were increased susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases, resurgence of the above diseases and increased morbidity and mortality of children aged less than 5 years. Conclusion; We found that ignorance on the part of both parents/guardians and health care staff together with infrastructural inadequacies in the county such as- roads, poor electric power supply for storage of vaccines were hugely responsible for most missed opportunities for immunization. The details of these and suggestions for improvement and the way forward are discussed.

Keywords: missed opportunity, immunization, under five, Calabar south

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61 Integrating Blockchain and Internet of Things Platforms: An Empirical Study on Immunization Cold Chain

Authors: Fawzia Abujalala, Asma Elmangoush, Majdi Ashibani

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The adoption of Blockchain technology introduces the possibility to decentralize cold chain systems. This adaptation enhances them to be more efficient, accessible, verifiable, and data security. Additionally, the Internet of Things (IoT) concept is considered as an added-value to various application domains. Cargo tracking and cold chain are a few to name. However, the security of the IoT transactions and integrated devices remains one of the key challenges to the IoT application’s success. Consequently, Blockchain technology and its consensus protocols have been used to solve many information security problems. In this paper, the researchers discussed the advantages of integrating Blockchain technology into IoT platform to improve security and provide an overview of existing literature on integrating Blockchain and IoT platforms. Then, presented the immunization cold chain solution as a use-case that could apply to any critical goods based on integrating hyperledger fabric platform and IoT platform.

Keywords: blockchain, hyperledger fabric, internet of things, security, traceability

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
60 Is Swaziland on Track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals?

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman

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Background: The importance of maternal and child healthcare services cannot be stressed enough. These services are very important for the health and health outcomes of the mother and that of the child and in ensuring that both maternal and child deaths are prevented. The objective of the study is to inspire good quality maternal and child health care services in Swaziland. Specifically, is Swaziland on track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals? Methods: The study used secondary data from the Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07. This is an explorative and descriptive study which used pre-selected variables to study factors influencing the use of maternal and child healthcare services in Swaziland. Different types of examinations, such as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analysis were adopted. Results: The study findings showed a high use rate of antenatal care (97.3%) and delivery care (74.0%), and a low rate of postnatal care use (20.5%). The uptake childhood immunization is also high in the country, averaging more than 80.0%. Moreover, certain factors which were found to be influencing the use of maternal healthcare and childhood immunization include: woman’s age, parity, media exposure, maternal education, wealth status, and residence. The findings also revealed that these factors affect the use of maternal and child health differently. Conclusion: It is important to study factors related to maternal and child health uptake to inform relevant stakeholders about possible areas of improvement. Programs to educate families about the importance of maternal and child healthcare services should be implemented. Swaziland needs to work hard on child survival and maternal health care services, no doubt it is on track with the MDG 4 & 5.

Keywords: maternal healthcare, antenatal care, delivery care, postnatal care, child health, immunization, socio-economic and demographic factors

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59 Analysis of Anti-Tuberculosis Immune Response Induced in Lungs by Intranasal Immunization with Mycobacterium indicus pranii

Authors: Ananya Gupta, Sangeeta Bhaskar

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Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a saprophytic mycobacterium. It is a predecessor of M. avium complex (MAC). Whole genome analysis and growth kinetics studies have placed MIP in between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. It shares significant antigenic repertoire with M. tuberculosis and have unique immunomodulatory properties. MIP provides better protection than BCG against pulmonary tuberculosis in animal models. Immunization with MIP by aerosol route provides significantly higher protection as compared to immunization by subcutaneous (s.c.) route. However, mechanism behind differential protection has not been studied. In this study, using mice model we have evaluated and compared the M.tb specific immune response in lung compartments (airway lumen / lung interstitium) as well as spleen following MIP immunization via nasal (i.n.) and s.c. route. MIP i.n. vaccination resulted in increased seeding of memory T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) in the airway lumen. Frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing Th1 migratory marker (CXCR3) and activation marker (CD69) were also high in airway lumen of MIP i.n. group. Significantly high ex vivo secretion of cytokines- IFN-, IL-12, IL-17 and TNF- from cells of airway luminal spaces provides evidence of antigen-specific lung immune response, besides generating systemic immunity comparable to MIP s.c. group. Analysis of T cell response on per cell basis revealed that antigen specific T-cells of MIP i.n. group were functionally superior as higher percentage of these cells simultaneously secreted IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha cytokines as compared to MIP s.c. group. T-cells secreting more than one of the cytokines simultaneously are believed to have robust effector response and crucial for protection, compared with single cytokine secreting T-cells. Adoptive transfer of airway luminal T-cells from MIP i.n. group into trachea of naive B6 mice revealed that MIP induced CD8 T-cells play crucial role in providing long term protection. Thus the study demonstrates that MIP intranasal vaccination induces M.tb specific memory T-cells in the airway lumen that results in an early and robust recall response against M.tb infection.

Keywords: airway lumen, Mycobacterium indicus pranii, Th1 migratory markers, vaccination

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58 Nanocomplexes on the Base of Triterpene Saponins Isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis Plants as an Efficient Adjuvants for Influenza Vaccine Use

Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Pavel Alexyuk, Madina Alexyuk, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Irina Zaitseva, Nadezhda Sokolova, Elmira Omirtaeva

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Introduction: Triterpene saponins of plant origin are one of the most promising candidates for elaboration of novel adjuvants. Due to the combination of immunostimulating activity and the capacity interact with amphipathic molecules with formation of highly immunogenic nanocomplexes, triterpene saponins could serve as a good adjuvant/delivery system for vaccine use. In the research presented adjuvants on the base of nanocomplexes contained triterpene saponins isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Saponaria officinalis plants indigenous to Kazakhstan were elaborated for influenza vaccine use. Methods: Purified triterpene saponins 'Glabilox' and 'SO1' with low toxicity and high immunostimulatory activity were isolated from plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Saponaria officinalis L. by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Influenza virus A/St-Petersburg/5/09 (H1N1) propagated in 9-days old chicken embryos was concentrated and purified by centrifugation in sucrose gradient. Nanocomplexes contained lipids, and triterpene saponins Glabilox or SO1 were prepared by dialysis technique. Immunostimulating activity of experimental vaccine preparations was studied in vaccination/challenge experiments in mice. Results: Humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against influenza virus infection were examined after single subcutaneous and intranasal immunization. Mice were immunized subunit influenza vaccine (HA+NA) or whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine in doses 3.0/5.0/10.0 µg antigen/animal mixed with adjuvant in dose 15.0 µg/animal. Sera were taken 14-21 days following single immunization and mice challenged by A/St-Petersburg/5/09 influenza virus in dose 100 EID₅₀. Study of experimental influenza vaccine preparations in animal immunization experiments has shown that subcutaneous and intranasal immunization with subunit influenza vaccine mixed with nanocomplexes contained Glabilox or SO1 saponins stimulated high levels of humoral immune response (IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody) and cellular immune response (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ cytokines) and resulted 80-90% protection against lethal influenza infection. Also, single intranasal and single subcutaneous immunization with whole virus inactivated influenza vaccine mixed with nanoparticulated adjuvants stimulated high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and provided 100% protection against lethal influenza infection. Conclusion: The results of study have shown that nanocomplexes contained purified triterpene saponins Glabilox and SO1 isolated from plants indigenous to Kazakhstan can stimulate a broad spectrum of humoral and cellular immune responses and induce protection against lethal influenza infection. Both elaborated adjuvants are promising for incorporation to influenza vaccine intended for subcutaneous and intranasal routes of immunization.

Keywords: influenza vaccine, adjuvants, triterpene saponins, immunostimulating activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
57 DNA Vaccine Study against Vaccinia Virus Using In vivo Electroporation

Authors: Jai Myung Yang, Na Young Kim, Sung Ho Shin

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The adverse reactions of current live smallpox vaccines and potential use of smallpox as a bioterror weapon have heightened the development of new effective vaccine for this infectious disease. In the present study, DNA vaccine vector was produced which was optimized for expression of the vaccinia virus L1 antigen in the mouse model. A plasmid IgM-tL1R, which contains codon-optimized L1R gene, was constructed and fused with an IgM signal sequence under the regulation of a SV40 enhancer. The expression and secretion of recombinant L1 protein was confirmed in vitro 293 T cell. Mice were administered the DNA vaccine by electroporation and challenged with vaccinia virus. We observed that immunization with IgM-tL1R induced potent neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge. Isotyping studies reveal that immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibody predominated after the immunization, indicative of a T helper type 1 response. Our results suggest that an optimized DNA vaccine, IgM-tL1R, can be effective in stimulating anti-vaccinia virus immune response and provide protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge.

Keywords: DNA vaccine, electroporation, L1R, vaccinia virus

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56 Evaluation Rabbit Serum of the Immunodominant Proteins of Mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis Extracts

Authors: Maryam Hashemi, Nematollah Razmi, Rasool Madani

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M. paratuberculosis is a slow growing mycobactin dependent mycobacterial species known to be the causative agent of Johne’s disease in all species of domestic ruminants worldwide. JD is characterized by gradual weight loss; decreased milk production. Excretion of the organism may occur for prolonged periods (1 to 2.5 years) before the onset of clinical disease. In recent years, researchers focus on identification a specific antigen of MAP to use in diagnosis test and preparation of effective vaccine. In this paper, for production of polyclonal antibody against proteins of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cell wall a rabbit immunization at a certain time period with antigen. After immunization of the animal, blood samples were collected from the rabbit for producing enriched serum. Antibodies were purified with ion exchange chromatography. For exact measurement of interaction, western blotting test was used and as it is demonstrated in the study, sharp bands appear in nitrocellulose paper and specific bands were 50 and 150 KD molecular weight. These were indicating immunodominant proteins.

Keywords: immunodominant, paratuberculosis, Western blotting, cell wall proteins, protein purification

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55 The Need for Including Hepatitis a Vaccine in Routine Childhood Immunization Programs in Europe as a Response to the Influx of Refugees from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Regions

Authors: S. Ramia, N. Melhem, K. Kreidieh

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The world is facing an unprecedented displacement crisis. Recently, over 1.1 million asylum seekers have been granted protection status in the European Union (EU). The majority of these asylum seekers were from countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.This influx carries with it a potential introduction of infectious diseases that have been eliminated in the EU, which poses a challenge for EU health authorities. Compared to MENA region countries where Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) endemicity is high to intermediate, member states of the EU show very low (Western Europe) to low (Eastern Europe) levels of HAV endemicity. Because of this situation, there is an ongoing public health concern in high-income countries, like members of the EU, that many adults remain susceptible to HAV outbreaks. The overwhelming majority of the EU members’ states do not include HAV vaccine in their immunization calendars. Hence, this paper urgently calls for the implementation of new policies regarding HAV in EU members’ states.

Keywords: European union, hepatitis A, MENA region refugees, vaccine preventable diseases

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54 Assessing Immunization across Life Stages of the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) to the Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

Authors: Kerri L. Surbaugh, Lakmini Y. Mallikarachchi, Jason R. Rohr

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Emerging diseases are key factors in the disconcerting rate of contemporary amphibian declines. The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), ranks among the chief pathogenic challenges to vulnerable amphibian populations. Although live Bd can immunosuppress amphibian hosts, amphibian exposure to dead Bd can induce an adaptive immune response, leading to acquired resistance to the pathogen. In this experiment, dose and duration of flash-frozen Bd were manipulated over a variety of life-stages of the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and the magnitude of acquired resistance to the pathogen was quantified via qPCR analyses of spore abundance post subsequent live Bd challenges. It was found that Cuban treefrogs can develop resistance to Bd and that life stage, dose and duration thresholds exist for acquired resistance. This experiment will aid in facilitating the development of a vaccine against Bd which could be used on location and could help curb worldwide amphibian declines associated with this pathogen.

Keywords: acquired resistance, ecoimmunology, emerging infectious disease, fungal host response, fungal pathogen, immunization

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53 Tempo-Spatial Pattern of Progress and Disparity in Child Health in Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Gudakesh Yadav

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Uttar Pradesh is one of the poorest performing states of India in terms of child health. Using data from the three round of NFHS and two rounds of DLHS, this paper attempts to examine tempo-spatial change in child health and care practices in Uttar Pradesh and its regions. Rate-ratio, CI, multivariate, and decomposition analysis has been used for the study. Findings demonstrate that child health care practices have improved over the time in all regions of the state. However; western and southern region registered the lowest progress in child immunization. Nevertheless, there is no decline in prevalence of diarrhea and ARI over the period, and it remains critically high in the western and southern region. These regions also poorly performed in giving ORS, diarrhoea and ARI treatment. Public health services are least preferred for diarrhoea and ARI treatment. Results from decomposition analysis reveal that rural area, mother’s illiteracy and wealth contributed highest to the low utilization of the child health care practices consistently over the period of time. The study calls for targeted intervention for vulnerable children to accelerate child health care service utilization. Poor performing regions should be targeted and routinely monitored on poor child health indicators.

Keywords: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), decomposition, diarrhea, inequality, immunization

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52 Activities for Increasing Childhood Vaccination Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Population, Greece, European Program PHILOS, 2017

Authors: C. Silvestros, K. Mellou, T. Georgakopoulou, A. Koustenis, E. Kokkinou, C. Botsi, A. Terzidis

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'PHILOS – Emergency health response to refugee crisis' is a programme of the Greek Ministry of Health, implemented by the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP) funded by the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) of EU’s DG Migration and Home Affairs. One of the main objectives of the program is the immunization coverage of the target – population to assure the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. The program foresees vaccination needs assessment of children hosted at camps at the mainland and implementation of interventions to cover the vaccination gaps in co-operation with the Ministry of Health. The National Immunization Advisory Committee in Greece recommended that MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella), PCV (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) and HEXA (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccines should be performed in priority. Recording was completed at 24 camps (May - June 2017); 3381 children (0-18 years) were recorded. The median number of children hosted at each camp was 95 (range: 5-553). For 68% of the children, the WHO vaccination booklet was available. 44%, 48.5% and 61% of the children were vaccinated with at least one dose of PCV, HEXA, and MMR, respectively. The proportion of vaccinated children for the three vaccines mentioned above is significantly lower for the remaining doses; PCV (second dose 8%, third dose 1.3%), HEXA (second dose 13%, third dose 2.7%, forth dose 0.1%) and MMR (second dose 23%). None of the 37 (10 from Afghanistan, 3 from Bangladesh, 23 from Pakistan, 1 from Syria) recorded unaccompanied children did not have a WHO vaccination booklet and were considered unvaccinated. There is no differentiation in vaccination coverage among different ethnicities. Massive catch up vaccination was performed at 4 camps, and 671 vaccinations were performed (245 PCV, 307 HEXA, and 119 MMR). Similar interventions are planned for all camps of the country. Recording reveled gaps in vaccination coverage of the population, mainly because of the mobility of the population, the influx of refugees- which is still ongoing- and new births. Mass vaccination campaigns are considered vital in order to increase vaccination coverage, and continuous efforts are needed in order all children living at the camps to have full access to the National Childhood Immunization Program.

Keywords: vaccine preventable, refugee–migrants camps, vaccination coverage, PCV, MMR, HEXA

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51 An Assessment of Adverse Events Following Immunization Reporting Pattern of Selected Vaccines in VigiAccess

Authors: Peter Yamoah, Frasia Oosthuizen

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Introduction: Reporting of Adverse Events Following Immunization continues to be a challenge. Pharmacovigilance centers throughout the world are mandated by the WHO to submit AEFI reports from various countries to a large pool of adverse drug reaction electronic database called Vigibase. Despite the relevant information of AEFI in Vigibase, it is unavailable to the general public. However, the WHO has an alternative website called VigiAccess which is an open access website serving as a repository of reported adverse drug reactions and AEFIs. The aim of the study was to ascertain the reporting pattern of a number of commonly used vaccines in VigiAccess. Methods: VigiAccess was thoroughly searched on the 5th of February 2018 for AEFI reports of measles vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV), yellow fever vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, tetanus vaccine and tuberculosis (BCG) vaccine. These were reports from all pharmacovigilance centers in the world from the time they joined the WHO drug monitoring program. Results: After a thorough search in VigiAccess, there were 9,062 measles vaccine AEFIs, 185,829 OPV AEFIs, 24,577 yellow fever vaccine AEFIs, 317,208 pneumococcal vaccine AEFIs, 73,513 rotavirus vaccine AEFIs, 145,447 meningococcal vaccine AEFIs, 22,781 tetanus vaccine AEFIs and 35,556 BCG vaccine AEFIs. Conclusion: The study revealed that out of the eight vaccines studied, pneumococcal vaccines are associated with the highest number of AEFIs whilst measles vaccines were associated with the least AEFIs.

Keywords: vaccines, adverse reactions, VigiAccess, adverse event reporting

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50 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak

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Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, tuberculosis, immunization, new-borns, coverage rate

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49 Direct Assessment of Cellular Immune Responses to Ovalbumin with a Secreted Luciferase Transgenic Reporter Mouse Strain IFNγ-Lucia

Authors: Martyna Chotomska, Aleksandra Studzinska, Marta Lisowska, Justyna Szubert, Aleksandra Tabis, Jacek Bania, Arkadiusz Miazek

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Objectives: Assessing antigen-specific T cell responses is of utmost importance for the pre-clinical testing of prototype vaccines against intracellular pathogens and tumor antigens. Mainly two types of in vitro assays are used for this purpose 1) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) and 2) intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Both are time-consuming, relatively expensive, and require manual dexterity. Here, we assess if a straightforward detection of luciferase activity in blood samples of transgenic reporter mice expressing a secreted Lucia luciferase under the transcriptional control of IFN-γ promoter parallels the sensitivity of IFNγ ELISpot assay. Methods: IFN-γ-LUCIA mouse strain carrying multiple copies of Lucia luciferase transgene under the transcriptional control of IFNγ minimal promoter were generated by pronuclear injection of linear DNA. The specificity of transgene expression and mobilization was assessed in vitro using transgenic splenocytes exposed to various mitogens. The IFN-γ-LUCIA mice were immunized with 50mg of ovalbumin (OVA) emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant three times every two weeks by subcutaneous injections. Blood samples were collected before and five days after each immunization. Luciferase activity was assessed in blood serum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and assessed for frequencies of OVA-specific IFNγ-secreting T cells. Results: We show that in vitro cultured splenocytes of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice respond by 2 and 3 fold increase in secreted luciferase activity to T cell mitogens concanavalin A and phorbol myristate acetate, respectively but fail to respond to B cell-stimulating E.coli lipopolysaccharide. Immunization of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice with OVA leads to over 4 fold increase in luciferase activity in blood serum five days post-immunization with a barely detectable increase in OVA-specific, IFNγ-secreting T cells by ELISpot. Second and third immunizations, further increase the luciferase activity and coincidently also increase the frequencies of OVA-specific T cells by ELISpot. Conclusions: We conclude that minimally invasive monitoring of luciferase secretions in blood serum of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice constitutes a sensitive method for evaluating primary and memory Th1 responses to protein antigens. As such, this method may complement existing methods for rapid immunogenicity assessment of prototype vaccines.

Keywords: ELISpot, immunogenicity, interferon-gamma, reporter mice, vaccines

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48 Pathogenic Effects of IgG and IgM Apoptotic Cell-Reactive Monoclonal Auto-Antibodies on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Lupus

Authors: Monika Malik, Pooja Arora, Ruchi Sachdeva, Vishnampettai G. Ramachandran, Rahul Pal

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Apoptotic debris is believed to be the antigenic trigger in lupus. Whether such debris and autoantibodies induced in lupus-prone mice which specifically recognize its constituents can mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in such mice was assessed. The influence of apoptotic blebs and apoptotic cell-reactive monoclonal antibodies on phenotypic markers expressed on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and secreted cytokines were evaluated. Sera from lupus-prone and healthy mice immunized with the antibodies were analyzed for anti-self reactivity. Apoptotic blebs, as well as somatically-mutated IgG and non-mutated IgM apoptotic-cell reactive monoclonal antibodies, induced the preferential maturation of BMDCs derived from lupus-prone mice relative to BMDCs derived from healthy mice; antibody specificity and cell genotype both influenced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Immunization of lupus-prone mice with IgM and IgG antibodies led to hypergammaglobulinemia; elicited antibodies were self-reactive, and exhibited enhanced recognition of lupus-associated autoantigens (dsDNA, Ro60, RNP68, and Sm) in comparison with adjuvant-induced sera. While ‘natural’ IgM antibodies are believed to contribute to immune homeostasis, this study reveals that apoptotic cell-reactive IgM antibodies can promote inflammation and drive anti-self responses in lupus. Only in lupus-prone mice did immunization with IgG auto-antibodies enhance the kinetics of humoral anti-self responses, resulting in advanced-onset glomerulosclerosis. This study reveals that preferential innate and humoral recognition of the products of cell death in an autoimmune milieu influences the indices associated with lupus pathology.

Keywords: antigen spreading, apoptotic cell-reactive pathogenic IgG, and IgM autoantibodies, glomerulosclerosis, lupus

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47 Factors Associated with Seroconversion of Oral Polio Vaccine among the Children under 5 Year in District Mirpurkhas, Pakistan 2015

Authors: Muhammad Asif Syed, Mirza Amir Baig

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Background: Pakistan is one of the two remaining polio-endemic countries, posing a significant public health challenge for global polio eradication due to failure to interrupt polio transmission. Country specific seroprevalence studies help in the evaluation of immunization program performance, the susceptibility of population against polio virus and identification of existing level of immunity with factors that affect seroconversion of the oral polio vaccine (OPV). The objective of the study was to find out factors associated with seroconversion of the OPV among children 6-59 months in Pakistan. Methods: A Hospital based cross-sectional serosurvey was undertaken in May-June 2015 at District Mirpurkhas, Sindh-Pakistan. Total 180 children aged 6–59 months were selected by using systematic random sampling from Muhammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas. Demographic, vaccination history and risk factors information were collected from the parents/guardian. Blood sample was collected and tested for the detection of poliovirus IgG antibodies by using ELISA Kit. The IgG titer <10 IU/ml, 50 to <150 IU/ml and >150 IU/ml was defined as negative, weak positive and positive immunity respectively. Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the difference in seroprevalence in univariate analysis. Results: A total of 180 subjects were enrolled mean age was 23 months (7 -59 months). Off these 160 (89%) children were well and 18 (10%) partially protected against polio virus. Two (1.1%) children had no protection against polio virus as they had <10 IU/ml poliovirus IgG antibodies titer. Both negative cases belong from the female gender, age group 12-23 months, urban area and BMI <50 percentile. There was a difference between normal and the wasting children; it did attain statistical significance (χ2= 35.5, p=0.00). The difference in seroconversion was also observed in relation to the gender (χ2=6.23, p=0.04), duration of breast feeding (χ2=18.6, p=0.04), history of diarrheal disease before polio vaccine administration (χ2=7.7, p=0.02), and stunting (χ2= 114, p=0.00). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that near 90% children achieve seroconversion of OPV and well protected against polio virus. There is an urgent need to focus on factors like duration of breast feeding, diarrheal diseases and malnutrition (acute and chronic) among the children as an immunization strategy.

Keywords: seroconversion, oral polio vaccine, Polio, Pakistan

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46 Assessing Diagnostic and Evaluation Tools for Use in Urban Immunisation Programming: A Critical Narrative Review and Proposed Framework

Authors: Tim Crocker-Buque, Sandra Mounier-Jack, Natasha Howard

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Background: Due to both the increasing scale and speed of urbanisation, urban areas in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) host increasingly large populations of under-immunized children, with the additional associated risks of rapid disease transmission in high-density living environments. Multiple interdependent factors are associated with these coverage disparities in urban areas and most evidence comes from relatively few countries, e.g., predominantly India, Kenya, Nigeria, and some from Pakistan, Iran, and Brazil. This study aimed to identify, describe, and assess the main tools used to measure or improve coverage of immunisation services in poor urban areas. Methods: Authors used a qualitative review design, including academic and non-academic literature, to identify tools used to improve coverage of public health interventions in urban areas. Authors selected and extracted sources that provided good examples of specific tools, or categories of tools, used in a context relevant to urban immunization. Diagnostic (e.g., for data collection, analysis, and insight generation) and programme tools (e.g., for investigating or improving ongoing programmes) and interventions (e.g., multi-component or stand-alone with evidence) were selected for inclusion to provide a range of type and availability of relevant tools. These were then prioritised using a decision-analysis framework and a tool selection guide for programme managers developed. Results: Authors reviewed tools used in urban immunisation contexts and tools designed for (i) non-immunization and/or non-health interventions in urban areas, and (ii) immunisation in rural contexts that had relevance for urban areas (e.g., Reaching every District/Child/ Zone). Many approaches combined several tools and methods, which authors categorised as diagnostic, programme, and intervention. The most common diagnostic tools were cross-sectional surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, secondary analysis of routine data, and geographical mapping of outcomes, resources, and services. Programme tools involved multiple stages of data collection, analysis, insight generation, and intervention planning and included guidance documents from WHO (World Health Organisation), UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund), USAID (United States Agency for International Development), and governments, and articles reporting on diagnostics, interventions, and/or evaluations to improve urban immunisation. Interventions involved service improvement, education, reminder/recall, incentives, outreach, mass-media, or were multi-component. The main gaps in existing tools were an assessment of macro/policy-level factors, exploration of effective immunization communication channels, and measuring in/out-migration. The proposed framework uses a problem tree approach to suggest tools to address five common challenges (i.e. identifying populations, understanding communities, issues with service access and use, improving services, improving coverage) based on context and available data. Conclusion: This study identified many tools relevant to evaluating urban LMIC immunisation programmes, including significant crossover between tools. This was encouraging in terms of supporting the identification of common areas, but problematic as data volumes, instructions, and activities could overwhelm managers and tools are not always suitably applied to suitable contexts. Further research is needed on how best to combine tools and methods to suit local contexts. Authors’ initial framework can be tested and developed further.

Keywords: health equity, immunisation, low and middle-income countries, poverty, urban health

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45 Consumer Cognitive Models of Vaccine Attitudes: Behavioral Informed Strategies Promoting Vaccination Policy in Greece

Authors: Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Gkintoni Evgenia, Antonopoulou Hera

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Immunization appears to be an essential part of health care service in times of pandemics such as covid-19 and aims not only to protect the health of the population but also the health and sustainability of the economies of the countries affected. It is reported that more than 3.44 billion doses have been administered so far, which accounts for 45 doses for 100 people. Vaccination programs in various countries have been promoted and accepted by people differently and therefore they proceeded in different ways and speed; most countries directing them towards people with vulnerable chronic or recent health statuses. Large scale restriction measures or lockdown, personal protection measures such as masks and gloves and a decrease in leisure and sports activities were also implemented around the world as part of the protection health strategies against the covid-19 pandemic. This research aims to present an analysis based on variations on people’s attitudes towards vaccination based on demographic, social and epidemiological characteristics, and health status on the one hand and perception of health, health satisfaction, pain, and quality of life on the other hand. 1500 Greek e-consumers participated in the research, mainly through social media who took part in an online-based survey voluntarily. The questionnaires included demographic, social and medical characteristics of the participants, and questions asking people’s willingness to be vaccinated and their opinion on whether there should be a vaccine against covid-19. Other stressor factors were also reported in the questionnaires and participants’ loss of someone close due to covid-19, or staying at home quarantine due to being infected from covid-19. WHOQUOL-BREF and GLOBAL PSYCHOTRAUMA SCREEN- GPS were used with kind permission from WHO and from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in this study. Attitudes towards vaccination varied significantly related to aging, level of education, health status and consumer behavior. Health professionals’ attitudes also varied in relation to age, level of education, profession, health status and consumer needs. Vaccines have been the most common technological aid of human civilization so far in the fight against viruses. The results of this study can be used for health managers and digital marketers of pharmaceutical companies and also other staff involved in vaccination programs and for designing health policy immunization strategies during pandemics in order to achieve positive attitudes towards vaccination and larger populations being vaccinated in shorter periods of time after the break out of pandemic. Health staff needs to be trained, aided and supervised to go through with vaccination programs and to be protected through vaccination programs themselves. Feedback in each country’s vaccination program, short backs, deficiencies and delays should be addressed and worked out.

Keywords: consumer behavior, cognitive models, vaccination policy, pandemic, Covid-19, Greece

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44 Hepatitis B Vaccination Status and Its Determinants among Primary Health Care Workers in Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rubina Qasim

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We assessed Hepatitis B vaccination and its determinants among health care workers (HCW) in Northwest Pakistan. HCWs from both public and private clinics were interviewed about hepatitis B vaccination, socio-demographic, hepatitis B virus transmission modes, disease threat and benefits of vaccination. Logistic regression was performed. Hepatitis B vaccination was 40% (Qualified Physicians: 86% and non-qualified Dispensers:16%). Being Qualified Physician (Adj. OR 26.6; 95%CI 9.3-73.2), Non-qualified Physician (Adj.OR 1.9; 95%CI 0.8-4.6), qualified Dispensers (Adj. OR 3.6; 95%CI 1.3-9.5) compared to non-qualified Dispensers, working in public clinics (Adj. OR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1-5.7) compared to private, perceived disease threat after exposure to blood and body fluids (Adj. OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.1-1.2) and perceived benefits of vaccination (Adj. OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.1-1.2) were significant predictors of hepatitis B vaccination. Improved perception of disease threat and benefits of vaccination and qualification of HCWs are associated with hepatitis B vaccination.

Keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine, immunization, healthcare workers, primary health

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43 Mathematical Model of Corporate Bond Portfolio and Effective Border Preview

Authors: Sergey Podluzhnyy

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One of the most important tasks of investment and pension fund management is building decision support system which helps to make right decision on corporate bond portfolio formation. Today there are several basic methods of bond portfolio management. They are duration management, immunization and convexity management. Identified methods have serious disadvantage: they do not take into account credit risk or insolvency risk of issuer. So, identified methods can be applied only for management and evaluation of high-quality sovereign bonds. Applying article proposes mathematical model for building an optimal in case of risk and yield corporate bond portfolio. Proposed model takes into account the default probability in formula of assessment of bonds which results to more correct evaluation of bonds prices. Moreover, applied model provides tools for visualization of the efficient frontier of corporate bonds portfolio taking into account the exposure to credit risk, which will increase the quality of the investment decisions of portfolio managers.

Keywords: corporate bond portfolio, default probability, effective boundary, portfolio optimization task

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42 Evaluation of Two DNA Vaccine Constructs in Labeo rohita against Edwardsiella tarda

Authors: Ranjeeta Kumari, Makesh M, Gayatri Tripathi, K V Rajendran, Megha Bedekar

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A comparative study on DNA immunization with recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) construct of Edwardsiella tarda (pGPD group) and a bicistronic construct expressing GAPDH plus IFN-γ of Labeo rohita as adjuvant (pGPD+IFN group) was undertaken in Labeo rohita along with the control animals. Successful co-expression of two genes that is GAPDH and IFN-γ was confirmed in SSN-1 cells line by RT-qPCR and western blot. The protective immune response of host to DNA vaccine construct was determined by RPS and specific antibody production. Fishes immunized with plasmids via intramuscular injection (I/M) exhibited a considerable relative percentage survivability of 66.66% in pGPD+IFN immunized group and 53.34% in pGPD immunized group after challenge with E. tarda. Antibody response was also significantly high in pGPD+IFN group at all time points under study. This was analysed by competitive ELISA, using anti GAPDH monoclonal antibodies. The experiment revealed that the GAPDH gene of E. tarda is one of the ideal candidates for generating protective immune response in L. rohita. Further addition of Interferon gamma to DNA vaccine construct can enhance the immune response in host.

Keywords: DNA vaccine, Edwardsiella tarda, Labeo rohita, zoonosis, immune response

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