Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: magnetically-coupled resonators

34 A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: A. Chinig, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. Elabdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators. Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.

Keywords: band pass filter, coupled junction, coupled stepped impedance resonators, diplexer, insertion loss, isolation

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33 Crystalline Silicon Optical Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) Resonators for Precision Measurements

Authors: Igor Bilenko, Artem Shitikov, Michael Gorodetsky

Abstract:

Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators combine very high optical quality factor (Q) with small size. Resonators made from low loss crystalline fluorites (CaF2, MgF2) may have Q as high as 1010 that make them unique devices for modern applications including ultrasensitive sensors, frequency control, and precision spectroscopy. While silicon is a promising material transparent from near infrared to terahertz frequencies, fundamental limit for Si WGM quality factor was not reached yet. In our paper, we presented experimental results on the preparation and testing of resonators at 1550 nm wavelength made from crystalline silicon grown and treated by different techniques. Q as high as 3x107 was demonstrated. Future steps need to reach a higher value and possible applications are discussed.

Keywords: optical quality factor, silicon optical losses, silicon optical resonator, whispering gallery modes

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32 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-Silicon Raman Laser, FTTH, GE-PON, Quasi-Phase-Matched Structure, resonator

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31 High Frequency Nanomechanical Oscillators Based on Synthetic Nanowires

Authors: Minjin Kim, Jihwan Kim, Bongsoo Kim, Junho Suh

Abstract:

We demonstrate nanomechanical resonators constructed with synthetic nanowires (NWs) and study their electro-mechanical properties at millikelvin temperatures. Nanomechanical resonators are fabricated using single-crystalline Au NWs and InAs NWs. The mechanical resonance signals are acquired by either magnetomotive or capacitive detection methods. The Au NWs are synthesized by chemical vapor transport method at 1100 °C, and they exhibit clean surface and single-crystallinity with little defects. Due to pristine surface quality, these Au NW mechanical resonators could provide an ideal model system for studying surface-related effects on the mechanical systems. The InAs NWs are synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy or metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. The InAs NWs show electronic conductance modulation resembling Coulomb blockade, which also manifests in the mechanical resonance signals in the form of damping and resonance frequency shift. Our result provides an evidence of strong electro-mechanical coupling in synthetic NW nanomechanical resonators.

Keywords: Au nanowire, InAs nanowire, nanomechanical resonator, synthetic nanowires

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30 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang

Abstract:

This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR

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29 A Novel Dual Band-pass filter Based On Coupling of Composite Right/Left Hand CPW and (CSRRs) Uses Ferrite Components

Authors: Mohammed Berka, Khaled Merit

Abstract:

Recent works on microwave filters show that the constituent materials such filters are very important in the design and realization. Several solutions have been proposed to improve the qualities of filtering. In this paper, we propose a new dual band-pass filter based on the coupling of a composite (CRLH) coplanar waveguide with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The (CRLH) CPW is composed of two resonators, each one has an interdigital capacitor (CID) and two short-circuited stubs parallel to top ground plane. On the lower ground plane, we use defected ground structure technology (DGS) to engrave two (CSRRs) offered with different shapes and dimensions. Between the top ground plane and the substrate, we place a ferrite layer to control the electromagnetic coupling between (CRLH) CPW and (CSRRs). The global filter that has coplanar access will have a dual band-pass behavior around the magnetic resonances of (CSRRs). Since there’s no scientific or experimental result in the literature for this kind of complicated structure, it was necessary to perform simulation using HFSS Ansoft designer.

Keywords: complementary split ring resonators, coplanar waveguide, ferrite, filter, stub.

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28 Modulating Plasmon Induced Transparency in Terahertz Metamaterials

Authors: Gagan Kumar, Koijam M. Devi, Amarendra K. Sarma, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury

Abstract:

Research in metamaterials has been gaining momentum over the past decade owing to its ability in controlling electromagnetic wave properties through careful design at the sub-wavelength scale. The metamaterials have led to several important phenomena which are useful in a variety of applications. One such phenomenon is the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in which a narrow transparency region is created in an otherwise absorptive spectrum. In our work, we explore plasmon induced transparency (PIT) in terahertz metamaterials which is analogues to EIT effect. The PIT effect is achieved using the plasmonic metamaterials in which a unit cell is comprised of two C (2C) shaped resonators and a cut-wire (CW). When terahertz wave of a particular polarization is normally incident on the proposed metamaterials geometry, it strongly couples with the cut wire, resulting in the excitation of the bright mode. However due to the specific polarization of the incident beam, the fundamental modes of the C-shaped resonators are not excited by the incident terahertz, hence they are termed as the dark mode. The PIT effect occurs as a result of interference between the bright and the dark mode. In order to observe PIT effect, both the bright and dark modes should have similar resonant frequencies with a little deviation. We further have examined that the PIT window can be modulated by displacing the C-shaped resonators w.r.t. the cut-wire. The numerical observations for different coupling configurations can be explained through an equivalent lumped element circuit model. Moving ahead the PIT effect is further explored in a metamaterial comprising of a cross like structure and four C-shaped resonators. For such configuration, equally strong PIT effect is observed for two orthogonally polarized lights. Therefore, such metamaterials demonstrate a polarization independent PIT response w.r.t the incident terahertz radiation. The proposed study could be significant in the development of slow light devices and polarization independent sensing applications.

Keywords: terahertz, metamaterial, split ring resonator, plasmon

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27 Increasing of Gain in Unstable Thin Disk Resonator

Authors: M. Asl. Dehghan, M. H. Daemi, S. Radmard, S. H. Nabavi

Abstract:

Thin disk lasers are engineered for efficient thermal cooling and exhibit superior performance for this task. However the disk thickness and large pumped area make the use of this gain format in a resonator difficult when constructing a single-mode laser. Choosing an unstable resonator design is beneficial for this purpose. On the other hand, the low gain medium restricts the application of unstable resonators to low magnifications and therefore to a poor beam quality. A promising idea to enable the application of unstable resonators to wide aperture, low gain lasers is to couple a fraction of the out coupled radiation back into the resonator. The output coupling gets dependent on the ratio of the back reflection and can be adjusted independently from the magnification. The excitation of the converging wave can be done by the use of an external reflector. The resonator performance is numerically predicted. First of all the threshold condition of linear, V and 2V shape resonator is investigated. Results show that the maximum magnification is 1.066 that is very low for high quality purposes. Inserting an additional reflector covers the low gain. The reflectivity and the related magnification of a 350 micron Yb:YAG disk are calculated. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically by the Fox and Li algorithm. Results show that with back reflection mechanism in combination with increasing the number of beam incidents on disk, high gain and high magnification can occur.

Keywords: unstable resonators, thin disk lasers, gain, external reflector

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26 Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Forced Vibrations in Micro-Scale Microstretch Thermoelastic Simply Supported Beam

Authors: Geeta Partap, Nitika Chugh

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the flexural vibrations of homogeneous, isotropic, generalized micropolar microstretch thermoelastic thin Euler-Bernoulli beam resonators, due to Exponential time varying load. Both the axial ends of the beam are assumed to be at simply supported conditions. The governing equations have been solved analytically by using Laplace transforms technique twice with respect to time and space variables respectively. The inversion of Laplace transform in time domain has been performed by using the calculus of residues to obtain deflection.The analytical results have been numerically analyzed with the help of MATLAB software for magnesium like material. The graphical representations and interpretations have been discussed for Deflection of beam under Simply Supported boundary condition and for distinct considered values of time and space as well. The obtained results are easy to implement for engineering analysis and designs of resonators (sensors), modulators, actuators.

Keywords: microstretch, deflection, exponential load, Laplace transforms, residue theorem, simply supported

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25 Insertion Loss Improvement of a Two-Port Saw Resonator Based on AlN via Alloying with Transition Metals

Authors: Kanouni Fares

Abstract:

This paper describes application of X-doped AlN (X=Sc, Cr and Y) to wideband surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators in 200–300 MHz range. First, it is shown theoretically that Cr doped AlN thin film has the highest piezoelectric strain constant, accompanied by a lowest mechanical softening compared to Sc doped AlScN and Y doped AlN thin films for transition metals concentrations ranging from 0 to 25%. Next, the impact of transition metals (Sc, Cr and Y) concentration have been carried out for the first time, in terms of surface wave velocity, electrode reflectivity, transduction coefficient and distributed finger capacitance. Finely, the insertion loss of two-port SAW resonator based on AlXN (X=Sc, Cr and Y) deposited on sapphire substrate is obtained using P-matrix model, and it is shown that AlCrN-SAW resonator exhibit lower insertion loss compared to those based on AlScN and AlYN for metal concentrations of 25%.This finding may position Cr doped AlN as a prime piezoelectric material for low loss SAW resonators whose performance can be tuned via Cr composition.

Keywords: P-Matrix, SAW-delay line, interdigital transducer, nitride aluminum, metals transition

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24 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas

Abstract:

We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6 nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974 nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205 nm and free spectral range of about 14.9 nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54 pm/V has been achieved with negligible tunability variation in the eight channel tunable optical filter proportional to the DC voltage applied in the structure, and it is capable of tuning up to 3.45 nm in each channel with a maximum loss difference of 0.22 dB in the tuning range and out of band rejection ratio of 35 dB, with a low channel crosstalk ≤ 30 dB.

Keywords: optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer

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23 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph

Abstract:

A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant

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22 Acoustic Blood Plasmapheresis in Polymeric Resonators

Authors: Itziar Gonzalez, Pilar Carreras, Alberto Pinto, Roque Ruben Andres

Abstract:

Acoustophoretic separation of plasma from blood is based on a collection process of the blood cells, driven by an acoustic radiation force. The number of cells, their concentration, and the sample hydrodynamics are involved in these processes. However, their influence on the acoustic blood response has not yet been reported in the literature. Addressing it, this paper presents an experimental study of blood samples exposed to ultrasonic standing waves at different hematocrit levels and hydrodynamic conditions. The experiments were performed in a glass capillary (700µm-square cross section) actuated by a piezoelectric ceramic at 1MHz, hosting 2D orthogonal half-wavelength resonances transverse to the channel length, with a single-pressure-node along its central axis where cells collected driven by the acoustic radiation force. Four blood dilutions in PBS of 1:20, 1:10, 1:5, and 1:2 were tested at eight flow rate conditions Q=0:120µL/min. The 1:5 dilution (H=9%) demonstrated to be optimal for the plasmapheresis at any of the flow rates analyzed, requiring the shortest times to achieve plasma free of cells. The study opens new possibilities to optimize processes of plasmapheresis processes by ultrasounds at different hematocrit conditions in future personalized diagnoses/treatments involving blood samples.

Keywords: ultrasounds, microfluidics, flow rate, acoustophoresis, polymeric resonators

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21 Microwave Dielectric Properties and Microstructures of Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ Ceramics for Application in Wireless Gas Sensors

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yue-Xuan Du, Min-Zhe Weng

Abstract:

Carbon monoxide is a substance produced by the incomplete combustion. It is toxic even at concentrations of less than 100ppm. Since it is colorless and odorless, it is difficult to detect. CO sensors have been developed using a variety of physical mechanisms, including semiconductor oxides, solid electrolytes, and organic semiconductors. Many works have focused on using semiconducting sensors composed of sensitive layers such as ZnO, TiO₂, and NiO with high sensitivity for gases. However, these sensors working at high temperatures increased their power consumption. On the other hand, the dielectric resonator (DR) is attractive for gas detection due to its large surface area and sensitivity for external environments. Materials that are to be employed in sensing devices must have a high-quality factor. Numerous researches into the fergusonite-type structure and related ceramic systems have explored. Extensive research into RENbO₄ ceramics has explored their potential application in resonators, filters, and antennas in modern communication systems, which are operated at microwave frequencies. Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were synthesized herein using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were prepared using the conventional solid-state method. Dielectric constants (εᵣ) of 15.4-19.4 and quality factor (Q×f) of 3,600-11,100 GHz were obtained at sintering temperatures in the range 1425-1525°C for 4 h. The dielectric properties of the Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics at microwave frequencies were found to vary with the sintering temperature. For a further understanding of these microwave dielectric properties, they were analyzed by densification, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by making microstructural observations.

Keywords: dielectric constant, dielectric resonators, sensors, quality factor

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20 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi

Abstract:

Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines, ultra-wideband

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19 On-Chip Ku-Band Bandpass Filter with Compact Size and Wide Stopband

Authors: Jyh Sheen, Yang-Hung Cheng

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of a microstrip bandpass filter with a compact size and wide stopband by using 0.15-μm GaAs pHEMT process. The wide stop band is achieved by suppressing the first and second harmonic resonance frequencies. The slow-wave coupling stepped impedance resonator with cross coupled structure is adopted to design the bandpass filter. A two-resonator filter was fabricated with 13.5GHz center frequency and 11% bandwidth was achieved. The devices are simulated using the ADS design software. This device has shown a compact size and very low insertion loss of 2.6 dB. Microstrip planar bandpass filters have been widely adopted in various communication applications due to the attractive features of compact size and ease of fabricating. Various planar resonator structures have been suggested. In order to reach a wide stopband to reduce the interference outside the passing band, various designs of planar resonators have also been submitted to suppress the higher order harmonic frequencies of the designed center frequency. Various modifications to the traditional hairpin structure have been introduced to reduce large design area of hairpin designs. The stepped-impedance, slow-wave open-loop, and cross-coupled resonator structures have been studied to miniaturize the hairpin resonators. In this study, to suppress the spurious harmonic bands and further reduce the filter size, a modified hairpin-line bandpass filter with cross coupled structure is suggested by introducing the stepped impedance resonator design as well as the slow-wave open-loop resonator structure. In this way, very compact circuit size as well as very wide upper stopband can be achieved and realized in a Roger 4003C substrate. On the other hand, filters constructed with integrated circuit technology become more attractive for enabling the integration of the microwave system on a single chip (SOC). To examine the performance of this design structure at the integrated circuit, the filter is fabricated by the 0.15 μm pHEMT GaAs integrated circuit process. This pHEMT process can also provide a much better circuit performance for high frequency designs than those made on a PCB board. The design example was implemented in GaAs with center frequency at 13.5 GHz to examine the performance in higher frequency in detail. The occupied area is only about 1.09×0.97 mm2. The ADS software is used to design those modified filters to suppress the first and second harmonics.

Keywords: microstrip resonator, bandpass filter, harmonic suppression, GaAs

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18 Design of a Universal Wireless Battery Charger

Authors: Ahmad B. Musamih, Ahmad A. Albloushi, Ahmed H. Alshemeili, Abdulaziz Y. Alfili, Ala A. Hussien

Abstract:

This paper proposes a universal wireless battery charger design for portable electronic devices. As the number of portable electronics devices increases, the demand for more flexible and reliable charging techniques is becoming more urgent. A wireless battery charger differs from a traditional charger in the way the power transferred to the battery. In the latter, the power is transferred through electrical wires that connect the charger terminals to the battery terminals, while in the former; the power is transferred by induction without electrical connections. With a detection algorithm that detects the battery size and chemistry, the proposed charger will be able to accommodate a wide range of applications, and will allow a more flexible and reliable option to most of today’s portable electronics.

Keywords: efficiency, magnetically-coupled resonators, resonance frequency, wireless power transfer

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17 Mutual Coupling Reduction between Patch Antenna Array Elements Using Metamaterial Z Shaped Resonators

Authors: Oossama Tabbabi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David

Abstract:

Modern wireless communication systems require compact design, low cost and simple structure antennas to insure reliability, agility, and high efficiency characteristics. This paper presents a microstrip antenna array designed for 8 GHz applications. To reduce the mutual coupling effects, a Z shape metamaterial structure was imprinted in the microstrip antenna array composed of two elements. Simulation results show the improvement of mutual coupling by adding Z shape metamaterial structure to the antenna substrate. The proposed structure reduces mutual coupling by 19 dB. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS simulator.

Keywords: antenna array, compact design, modern wireless communication, mutual coupling effects

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16 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Microcantilever Based Resonator

Authors: Manjula Sutagundar, B. G. Sheeparamatti, D. S. Jangamshetti

Abstract:

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) resonators have shown the potential of replacing quartz crystal technology for sensing and high frequency signal processing applications because of inherent advantages like small size, high quality factor, low cost, compatibility with integrated circuit chips. This paper presents the optimization and modelling and simulation of the optimized micro cantilever resonator. The objective of the work is to optimize the dimensions of a micro cantilever resonator for a specified range of resonant frequency and specific quality factor. Optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is implemented using MATLAB. The micro cantilever resonator is modelled in CoventorWare using the optimized dimensions obtained from genetic algorithm. The modeled cantilever is analysed for resonance frequency.

Keywords: MEMS resonator, genetic algorithm, modelling and simulation, optimization

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15 Generative Acoustic Design: A Cross-Platform Design and Optimization Workflow for the Integration of Absorber and Diffuser Geometry with Embedded Coupled Helmholtz-Resonators for Large-Scale Additive

Authors: Saqib Aziz, Brad Alexander, Max Weber, Stefan Weinzierl, Christoph Gengnagel

Abstract:

This paper explores a generative design, simulation, and optimization workflow for the integration of an acoustical diffuser and/or absorber geometry with embedded coupled Helmholtz-resonators for full-scale 3D printed building components. Large-scale additive manufacturing in conjunction with algorithmic CAD design tools enables a vast amount of control when creating geometry. This can also be advantageous regarding the increasing demands of comfort standards for indoor spaces and the use of more resourceful and sustainable construction methods and materials. The presented methodology aims to highlight these new technological advancements and offers a multimodal and integrative design solution with the potential for an immediate application in the AEC-Industry. Although this methodology can be applied to a large array of additive manufacturing processes, the presented work will investigate a case study based on a structurally optimised waffle or two-way joist slab. The goal is to create permanent formwork that serves as molds during the fabrication process on-site and to integrate or program acoustical absorption and diffusion qualities to them. For this, a hybrid validation strategy using a digital and cross-platform simulation environment that is audited with physical prototyping is investigated. The iterative workflow starts with the generation of a parametric design model for the acoustical geometry using the algorithmic visual scripting editor grasshopper3D inside the Building Information Model-ing (BIM) software Revit. Various geometric attributes (bottleneck and cavity dimensions) of the resonator are parameterized and a custom numerical optimizer was able to modify the geometry with the goal of increasing absorption at resonance and increasing the bandwidth of the effective absorption range. The generative model was then dynamically imported into the simulation environment COMSOL Multiphysics where the geometry was further modified and prepared for simulation in a semi-automated process. The incident and scattered pressure fields were simulated from which the surface normal absorption coefficients were calculated. This reciprocal process was repeated a few times to further optimize the geometric parameters. Subsequently, the numerical models were compared with a set of 3D concrete printed physical twin models which were tested in a .25 x .25 m impedance tube. The empirical results served to improve the starting parameter settings of the initial numerical model. The geometry resulting from the numerical optimization was finally returned to grasshopper for further implementation in an interdisciplinary study.

Keywords: acoustical design, computational design, multimodal optimization, additive manufacturing, generation design, cross-platform interoperability

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14 Sensitivity Improvement of Optical Ring Resonator for Strain Analysis with the Direction of Strain Recognition Possibility

Authors: Tayebeh Sahraeibelverdi, Ahmad Shirazi Hadi Veladi, Mazdak Radmalekshah

Abstract:

Optical sensors became attractive due to preciseness, low power consumption, and intrinsic electromagnetic interference-free characteristic. Among the waveguide optical sensors, cavity-based ones attended for the high Q-factor. Micro ring resonators as a potential platform have been investigated for various applications as biosensors to pressure sensors thanks to their sensitive ring structure responding to any small change in the refractive index. Furthermore, these small micron size structures can come in an array, bringing the opportunity to have any of the resonance in a specific wavelength and be addressed in this way. Another exciting application is applying a strain to the ring and making them an optical strain gauge where the traditional ones are based on the piezoelectric material. Making them in arrays needs electrical wiring and about fifty times bigger in size. Any physical element that impacts the waveguide cross-section, Waveguide elastic-optic property change, or ring circumference can play a role. In comparison, ring size change has a larger effect than others. Here an engineered ring structure is investigated to study the strain effect on the ring resonance wavelength shift and its potential for more sensitive strain devices. At the same time, these devices can measure any strain by mounting on the surface of interest. The idea is to change the" O" shape ring to a "C" shape ring with a small opening starting from 2π/360 or one degree. We used the Mode solution of Lumbrical software to investigate the effect of changing the ring's opening and the shift induced by applied strain. The designed ring radius is a three Micron silicon on isolator ring which can be fabricated by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micromachining. The measured wavelength shifts from1-degree opening of the ring to a 6-degree opening have been investigated. Opening the ring for 1-degree affects the ring's quality factor from 3000 to 300, showing an order of magnitude Q-factor reduction. Assuming a strain making the ring-opening from 1 degree to 6 degrees, our simulation results showing negligible Q-factor reduction from 300 to 280. A ring resonator quality factor can reach up to 108 where an order of magnitude reduction is negligible. The resonance wavelength shift showed a blue shift and was obtained to be 1581, 1579,1578,1575nm for 1-, 2-, 4- and 6-degree ring-opening, respectively. This design can find the direction of the strain-induced by applying the opening on different parts of the ring. Moreover, by addressing the specified wavelength, we can precisely find the direction. We can open a significant opportunity to find cracks and any surface mechanical property very specifically and precisely. This idea can be implemented on polymer ring resonators while they can come with a flexible substrate and can be very sensitive to any strain making the two ends of the ring in the slit part come closer or further.

Keywords: optical ring resonator, strain gauge, strain sensor, surface mechanical property analysis

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13 Improvement and Miniaturization RFID Patch Antenna by Inclusion the Complementary Metamaterials

Authors: Seif Naoui, Lassaad Latrach, Ali Gharsallah

Abstract:

This paper is specialized to highlight the method of miniaturization and improvement the patch antenna by using the complementary metamaterial. This method is presented by a simple technique is composed a structure of patch antenna integrated in its surface a cell of complementary split ring resonator. This resonator is placed at the middle of the radiating patch in parallel with the transmission line and with a variable angle of orientation. The objective is to find the ultimate angle where the best results are obtained on improving the characteristics of the considered antenna. This motif widespread at the traceability applications by wireless communication for RFID technology at the operation frequency 2.45 GHz. Our contribution is based on studies empirical often presented in this article. All simulation results were made by the CST Microwave Studio.

Keywords: complimentary split ring resonators, computer simulation technology microwave studio, metamaterials patch antennas, microstrip patch antenna, radio frequency identification

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12 Study and Design of Novel Structure of Circularly Polarized Dual Band Microstrip Antenna Fed by Hybrid Coupler for RFID Applications

Authors: M. Taouzari, A. Sardi, J. El Aoufi, Ahmed Mouhsen

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to design a reader antenna fed by 90° hybrid coupler that would ensure a tag which is detected regardless of its orientation for the radio frequency identification system covering the UHF and ISM bands frequencies. Based on this idea, the proposed work is dividing in two parts, first part is about study and design hybrid coupler using the resonators planar called T-and Pi networks operating in commercial bands. In the second part, the proposed antenna fed by the hybrid coupler is designed on FR4 substrate with dielectric permittivity 4.4, thickness dielectric 1.6mm and loss tangent 0.025. The T-slot is inserted in patch of the proposed antenna fed by the hybrid coupler is first designed, optimized and simulated using electromagnetic simulator ADS and then simulated in a full wave simulation software CST Microwave Studio. The simulated antenna by the both softwares achieves the expected performances in terms of matching, pattern radiation, phase shifting, gain and size.

Keywords: dual band antenna, RFID, hybrid coupler, polarization, radiation pattern

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11 Modelling and Simulation of Single Mode Optical Fiber Directional Coupler for Medical Application

Authors: Shilpa Kulkarni, Sujata Patrikar

Abstract:

A single-mode fiber directional coupler is modeled and simulated for its application in medical field. Various fiber devices based on evanescent field absorption, interferometry, couplers, resonators, tip coated fibers, etc, have been developed so far, suitable for medical application. This work focuses on the possibility of sensing by single mode fiber directional coupler. In the preset work, a fiber directional coupler is modeled to detect the changes taking place in the surrounding medium optoelectronically. In this work, waveguiding characteristics of the fiber are studied in depth. The sensor is modeled and simulated by finding photocurrent, sensitivity and detection limit by varying various parameters of the directional coupler. The device is optimized for the best possible output. It is found that the directional coupler shows measurable photocurrents and good sensitivity with coupling length in micrometers. It is thus a miniature device, hence, suitable for medical applications.

Keywords: single mode fiber directional coupler, modeling and simulation of fiber directional coupler sensor, biomolecular sensing, medical sensor device

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10 Overview of the Various Factors Affecting the Properties of Microwave and Millimeterwave Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Abdul Manan

Abstract:

Dielectric Resonators (DRs) have revolutionized the microwave wireless communication industry globally. There are three directions for research in ceramics for application in telecommunication industry Three key properties of ceramic dielectrics that determine their functionality at microwave and millimetrewave frequencies include relative permittivity (εr), unloaded quality factor Qu- the inverse of the dielectric loss (tanδ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf). Each direction requires specific properties. These dielectric properties are affected by a number of factors. These includes tolerance factor, onset of structural phase transitions, dark core formation, processing conditions, raw materials and impurities, order/disorder behavior, compositional ordering, porosity, humidity, grain size, orientation of the crystallites, and grain boundaries. The data related to these factors is scattered. The main purpose of this review is to bring these together and present the effects of these factors on the microwave dielectric properties. Control of these factors is important for improvement in the microwave properties. This review would be very helpful to the novice researchers and technologists in the field.

Keywords: order disorder, sintering, defect, porosity, grain boundaries

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9 Improving the Frequency Response of a Circular Dual-Mode Resonator with a Reconfigurable Bandwidth

Authors: Muhammad Haitham Albahnassi, Adnan Malki, Shokri Almekdad

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for reconfiguring bandwidth in a circular dual-mode resonator is presented. The method concerns the optimized geometry of a structure that may be used to host the tuning elements, which are typically RF (Radio Frequency) switches. The tuning elements themselves, and their performance during tuning, are not the focus of this paper. The designed resonator is able to reconfigure its fractional bandwidth by adjusting the inter-coupling level between the degenerate modes, while at the same time improving its response by adjusting the external-coupling level and keeping the center frequency fixed. The inter-coupling level has been adjusted by changing the dimensions of the perturbation element, while the external-coupling level has been adjusted by changing one of the feeder dimensions. The design was arrived at via optimization. Agreeing simulation and measurement results of the designed and implemented filters showed good improvements in return loss values and the stability of the center frequency.

Keywords: dual-mode resonators, perturbation theory, reconfigurable filters, software defined radio, cognitine radio

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8 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based on Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M'Hamed Boulakroune, Mouloud Challal, Hassiba Louazene, Saida Fentiz

Abstract:

This paper presents a new ultra wideband (UWB) microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The second structure is a tunable bandpass filters using planar patch resonators based on diode varactor. This filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactors are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz, the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses, and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: defected ground structure, diode varactor, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator

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7 Fano-Resonance-Based Wideband Acoustic Metamaterials with Highly Efficient Ventilation

Authors: Xi-Wen Xiao, Tzy-Rong Lin, Chien-Hao Liu

Abstract:

Ventilated acoustic metamaterials have attracted considerable research attention due to their low-frequency absorptions and efficient fluid ventilations. In this research, a wideband acoustic metamaterial with auditory filtering ability and efficient ventilation capacity were proposed. In contrast to a conventional Fano-like resonator, a Fano-like resonator composed of a resonant unit and two nonresonant units with a large opening area of 68% for fluid passages was developed. In addition, the coupling mechanism to improve the narrow bandwidths of conventional Fano-resonance-based meta-materials was included. With a suitable design, the output sound waves of the resonant and nonresonant states were out of phase to achieve sound absorptions in the far fields. Therefore, three-element and five-element coupled Fano-like metamaterials were designed and simulated with the help of the finite element software to obtain the filtering fractional bandwidths of 42.5% and 61.8%, respectively. The proposed approach can be extended to multiple coupled resonators for obtaining ultra-wide bandwidths and can be implemented with 3D printing for practical applications. The research results are expected to be beneficial for sound filtering or noise reductions in duct applications and limited-volume spaces.

Keywords: fano resonance, noise reduction, resonant coupling, sound filtering, ventilated acoustic metamaterial

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6 A Compact Ultra-Wide Band Antenna with C-Shaped Slot for WLAN Notching

Authors: Maryam Rasool, Farhan Munir, Fahad Nawaz, Saad Ahmad

Abstract:

A patch antenna operating in the Ultra-Wide Band of frequency (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) is designed with enhanced security from interference from other applications by incorporating the notching technique. Patch antennas in the Ultra-Wide Band are becoming widely famous due to their low power, light weight and high data rate capability. Micro strip patch antenna’s patch can be altered to increase its bandwidth and introduce UWB character in it. The designed antenna is a patch antenna consisting of a conductive sheet of metal mounted over a large sheet of metal called the ground plane with a substrate separating the two. Notched bands are public safety WLAN, WLAN and FSS. Different techniques used to implement the UWB antenna were individually implemented and there results were examined. V shaped patch was then chosen and modified to an arrow shaped patch to give the optimized results operating on the entire UWB region with considerable return loss. The frequency notch prevents the operation of the antenna at a particular range of frequency, hence minimizing interference from other systems. There are countless techniques for introducing the notch but we have used inverted C-shaped slots in the UWB patch to get the notch characteristics as output and also wavelength resonators to introduce notch in UWB band. The designed antenna is simulated in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) 13.0 by Ansoft.

Keywords: HFSS, Notch, UWB, WLAN

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5 An Approach for Vocal Register Recognition Based on Spectral Analysis of Singing

Authors: Aleksandra Zysk, Pawel Badura

Abstract:

Recognizing and controlling vocal registers during singing is a difficult task for beginner vocalist. It requires among others identifying which part of natural resonators is being used when a sound propagates through the body. Thus, an application has been designed allowing for sound recording, automatic vocal register recognition (VRR), and a graphical user interface providing real-time visualization of the signal and recognition results. Six spectral features are determined for each time frame and passed to the support vector machine classifier yielding a binary decision on the head or chest register assignment of the segment. The classification training and testing data have been recorded by ten professional female singers (soprano, aged 19-29) performing sounds for both chest and head register. The classification accuracy exceeded 93% in each of various validation schemes. Apart from a hard two-class clustering, the support vector classifier returns also information on the distance between particular feature vector and the discrimination hyperplane in a feature space. Such an information reflects the level of certainty of the vocal register classification in a fuzzy way. Thus, the designed recognition and training application is able to assess and visualize the continuous trend in singing in a user-friendly graphical mode providing an easy way to control the vocal emission.

Keywords: classification, singing, spectral analysis, vocal emission, vocal register

Procedia PDF Downloads 205