Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 562

Search results for: Sirhindi scholars

562 Sirhindi Family's Islamic Movements in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Nasurullah Qureshi

Abstract:

Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi Mujadid Alif Thani (1564-1624) and his philosophy had influenced sub-continent as the whole; its rulers and nation. In his reign, he convinced the rulers toward Islamic way of life and succeed in his goal. After his death in 1624, his family consecutively produced prominent scholars to present. Some of them moved to Afghanistan and Pakistan's cities i.e., Jalalabad, Qandhar, Peshawar, Queta, Shikarpur, Hyderabad, and Sehwan. They played a vital role in their areas and transmitted spiritual and legal Islamic teachings to people. This research is aimed to elaborate efforts of the family's Sindh settled branch from 1898-present in fields of politics and Islamic education. Their link with Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi will be provided in the introduction. After that, the work will explain their scholarly published work briefly in different fields of Islamic studies such as Quran exegeses and its translation in Sindhi language, Hadith and its sciences, Islamic Jurisprudence, Sufism and etc. In addition, their political role will be briefly discussed in the research throughout the period, especially their noticeable role in the separate homeland for Muslims in the subcontinent. Furthermore, the impact of their scholarly work, political influence and spirituality will be enlightened. Lastly, the research will present the critical viewpoint on their struggle.

Keywords: Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Sirhindi scholars, Sindh, Sufism

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561 Tracing the Concept of Equivalence in Translation Theories from the Linguistics Oriented Era to Present

Authors: Fatma Ülkü Kavruk

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The comparison of the old and new approaches reveals that the concept of equivalence has been interpreted and categorized in different ways by different scholars throughout the history. The aim of this study is to trace the concept of equivalence in translation theories from the linguistics-oriented era to present, referring to various translation scholars and to provide a critical evaluation of the nature and applicability of the concept of equivalence in today’s world of translation studies. Within the study, various interpretations of equivalence proposed by international scholars in translation studies are to be presented. In order to find out the reflections of these scholars’ approaches to the Turkish scholars’ research, the interpretations of equivalence by various Turkish scholars are to be examined. At the end of the paper, the applicability of the concept of equivalence in real life is to be discussed in light of these approaches.

Keywords: translation studies, equivalence, translation theories, evaluation

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560 Impacts of International Training Program in Pedagogy in Higher Education in the United States on Visiting Scholars in China

Authors: Yuliang Liu, Thomas Lavallee, Mary Weishaar, Gretchen Fricke, Huaibo Xin

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The longitudinal study was designed to investigate the impacts of the International Training Program in Pedagogy (ITPP) at a midwestern institution in the United States on the visiting scholars from China from 2012-18. The study used the survey research method and involved 48 visiting scholars from Northwest Normal University in China in those eight ITPP cohorts. The results of both quantitative and qualitative data were critically examined and indicated both types of data sources revealed similar findings. It was found that the ITPP has significantly affected all scholars' instruction in China. International implications resulted from the study.

Keywords: international training program in pedagogy, visiting scholars, survey research method, International implications

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559 Modern Nahwu's View about the Theory of Amil

Authors: Kisno Umbar

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Arabic grammar (nahwu) is one of the most important disciplines to learn about the Islamic literature (kitab al-turats). In the last century, learning Arabic grammar was difficult for both the Arabian or non-Arabian native. Most of the traditional nahwu scholars viewed that the theory of amil is a major problem. The views had influenced large number of modern nahwu scholars, and some of them refuse the theory of amil to simplify Arabic grammar to make it easier. The aim of the study is to compare many views of the modern nahwu scholars about the theory of amil including their reasons. In addition, the study is to reveal whether they follow classic scholars or give a view. The author uses literature study approach to get data of modern nahwu scholars from their books as a primary resource. As a secondary resource, the author uses the updated relevant researches from journals about the theory of amil. Besides, the author put on several resources from the traditional nahwu scholars to compare the views. The analysis showed the contrasting views about the theory of amil. Most of the scholars refuse the amil because it isn’t originally derived from Arabic tradition, but it is influenced by Aristotelian philosophy. The others persistently use the amil inasmuch as it is one of the characteristics that differ Arabic language and other languages.

Keywords: Arabic grammar, Amil, Arabic tradition, Aristotelian philosophy

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558 Education, Technology and Geopolitics: The Arab World as an Instance

Authors: Abdulrahman Al Lily

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This article spans the domains of education, technology and geo-politics. It uses as an instance the Arab scholarship of education and technology, viewing its scholarly community through the geographical lens of regionalism. It enquires into the power relations among scholars in the Arab region and between scholars in the Arab region and their fellows from outside the region. It addresses the research question: to what extent have region-informed factors affected the scholarly community of education and technology in the Arab region? This question was answered by both qualitative and numerical enquiry, analysing documents, interviews and a survey of native Arabic-speaking scholars. Having analysed the data using the grounded theory approach, two categories of power relations among scholars were identified: power relations within a particular region and power relations across regions. Considering these two categories, a theoretical proposition could be posited that there could be power relationships among scholars that exist on a regional basis. The recommendation is therefore that research should further shed light upon the regionalistic (and thus geographically informed political) dynamics of scholarly communities.

Keywords: education, technology, politics, geography, regionalism, Arab

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557 The Cross-cultural Adaptation Experience of Foreign Scholars in China

Authors: Jiexiu Chen

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This research aims to examine several vital issues relating to the foreign scholars’ cross-cultural adaptation in China, including how they perceive about the adaptation process, what the affecting factors are in the adaptation, and which strategies they will apply to deal with perceived cultural differences. The target population of this research is academics regularly working or long-term visiting in these joint colleges, and semi-structured interviews are used in data collection. Moreover, the theoretical perspectives mainly include Ward’s sociocultural and psychological adaptation theory, Berry’s adaptation strategies and Black and his colleague’s expatriate’s adjustment model. This research offers an in-depth profile as well as theory-based analysis about this unique group, and the results of this research are profound in offering directory suggestions for foreign scholars to facilitate their adaptation in China better and for the Chinese universities to eliminate intercultural obstacles, and optimize the international cooperation programs in China.

Keywords: cross-cultural adaptation, foreign scholars, expatriates

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556 Timbuktu Pattern of Islamic Education: A Role Model for the Establishment of Islamic Educational System in Sokoto Caliphate

Authors: A. M. Gada, H. U. Malami

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Timbuktu is one of the eight regions in the present day the Republic of Mali. It flourished as one of the earliest centres of Islamic learning in West Africa in the eleventh century CE. The famous Islamic centre in Timbuktu is situated in the Sankore mosque, which is known to be one of the earliest established Islamic University. This centre produced scholars who were zealous in disseminating Islamic education to different parts of West Africa and beyond. As a result, most of these centres adopted the Timbuktu pattern of learning. Some of the beneficiaries of this noble activity are Muslim scholars which are responsible for the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate in the early nineteenth century. This paper intends to reflect on the pattern of Islamic education of the Timbuktu scholars and see how it impacted on the Islamic centres of learning established by these Jihad-scholars who were successful in the establishment of an Islamic state known as the Sokoto Caliphate.

Keywords: Timbuktu, Sankore, Islamic educational system, Sokoto Caliphate, centres of Islamic learning

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555 Electronic Resources and Information Literacy in Higher Education Library

Authors: Nirmal Singh, Rajesh Kumar

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Abstract- Information literacy aims to develop both critical understanding and active participation in scholars. It enables scholars to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information sources, and it also enables them to become producers of information in their own right, and thereby to become more powerful participants in society. Information literacy is about developing people‘s critical and creative abilities. Digital media – and particularly the Internet – significantly increase the potential for such active participation of the individual, provided scholars have the means and training to effectively access and use them. This paper provides definition, standards and importance of information literacy (IL). Keywords: Information literacy, Digital Media, Training, Communications Technologies.

Keywords: Information literacy, Digital Media, Training, , Communications Technologies

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554 Transformative Concept of Logic to Islamic Science: Reflections on Al-Ghazālī's Influence

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir

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Before al-Ghazālī, Islamic scholars perceived logic as an intrusive knowledge. The knowledge therefore, did not receive ample attention among scholars on how it should be adapted into Islamic sciences. General scholarship in that period rejects logic as an instrumental knowledge. This attitude became unquestionable to the scholars from different perspectives with diversification of suggestions in the pre-al-Ghazālī’s period. However, al-Ghazālī proclaimed with new perspective that transform Logic from ‘intrusive knowledge’ to a useful tool for Islamic sciences. This study explores the contributions of al-Ghazālī to epistemology regarding the use and the relevance of Logic. The study applies qualitative research methodology dealing strictly with secondary data from medieval age and contemporary sources. The study concludes that al-Ghazālī’s contributions which supported the transformation of Logic to useful tool in the Muslim world were drawn from his experience within Islamic tradition. He succeeded in reconciling Islamic tradition with the wisdom of Greek sciences.

Keywords: Al-Ghazālī, classical logic, epistemology, Islamdom and Islamic sciences

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553 Neighbourhood Research in the Global South: An Insight from Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Gideon Baffoe

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Recent evidence shows that neighbourhood research is largely under the hegemony of global north scholars. The current situation is a reflection of a privileged world of rich-country academics studying ‘first world’ built environment and varied social problems. The most difficult, dangerous and urgent neighbourhood problems, however, are found in the global south cities. The north orientation highlights a major knowledge gap in the south, which is a wakeup call for urban scholars. Until now, it remains unclear how the neighbourhood has been studied in the global south. This study aims to review the state of neighbourhood scholarship in developing countries. In particular, the study brings to the fore the scholarship growth pattern, main research focus areas, key players and methodological approaches that scholars have adopted. The review provides a direction which can form the bases for future neighbourhood research in the global south, particularly in Africa and Asia.

Keywords: neighbourhood, global south, bibliometric analysis, scholarship

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552 The Roles of Muslims Scholars in Minifying Religious Extremism for Religious Tolerance and Peace Building in Nigeria

Authors: Mukhtar Sarkin-Kebbi

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Insurgency, religious extremism and other related religious crises become hydra-headed in Nigeria, which caused destruction of human lives and properties worth of billions naira. As result, millions people were displaced and million children were out of school most of whom from Muslims community. The wrong teaching and misinterpretation of Islam by some Muslim community fuel the spread of extremist ideology hatred among Muslim sects, non-Muslims and emergency of extremist groups, like Boko Haram. A multi-religious country like Nigeria to realise its development in all human aspects, there must be unity and religious tolerance. Many agreed that changing the ideologies of insurgents and religious extremism will require intellectual role with vigorous campaign. Muslim scholars can play a vital role in promoting social reform and peaceful coexistence. This paper discusses the importance of unity among Muslim community and religious tolerance in light of the Qur’an and the Hadith. The paper also reviews the relationship between Muslims and non Muslims during the life time the Prophet (S.A.W.) in order to serve as exemplary model. Contemporary issues such as religious extremism, sectarians, intolerance and their consequences were examined. To minify religious intolerance and extremism,the paper identifies the roles to be played by Muslim scholars with references from Qur’an and Sunnah. The paper concludes that to realise overall human development and eternal salvation, Muslim should shun away from any religious crises and embrace unity and religious tolerance. Finally the paper recommends among others that only pious and learned scholars should be allowed to preach in any religious gathering, Muslim should exercise patience, tolerance in dealing with Muslims and non Muslims. Muslims should leave by example from the teaching of Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W.).

Keywords: Muslim scholars, peace building, religious extremism, religious tolerance

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551 A Historical Analysis of The Concept of Equivalence from Different Theoretical Perspectives in Translation Studies

Authors: Amenador Kate Benedicta, Wang Zhiwei

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Since the later parts of the 20th century, the notion of equivalence continues to be a central and critical concept in the development of translation theory. After decades of arguments over word-for-word and free translations methods, scholars attempting to develop more systematic and efficient translation theories began to focus on fundamental translation concepts such as equivalence. Although the concept of equivalence has piqued the interest of many scholars, its definition, scope, and applicability have sparked contentious arguments within the discipline. As a result, several distinct theories and explanations on the concept of equivalence have been put forward over the last half-century. Thus, this study explores and discusses the evolution of the critical concept of equivalence in translation studies through a bibliometric method of investigation of manual and digital books and articles by analyzing different scholars' key contributions and limitations on equivalence from various theoretical perspectives. While analyzing them, emphasis is placed on the innovations that each theory has brought to the comprehension of equivalence. In order to achieve the aim of the study, the article began by discussing the contributions of linguistically motivated theories to the notion of equivalence in translation, followed by functionalist-oriented contributions, before moving on to more recent advancements in translation studies on the concept. Because equivalence is such a broad notion, it is impossible to discuss each researcher in depth. As a result, the most well-known names and their equivalent theories are compared and contrasted in this research. The study emphasizes the developmental progression in our comprehension of the equivalence concept and equivalent effect. It concluded that the various theoretical perspective's contributions to the notion of equivalence rather complement and make up for the limitations of each other. The study also highlighted how troublesome the equivalent concept might become in terms of identifying the nature of translation and how central and unavoidable the concept is in every translation action, despite its limitations. The significance of the study lies in its synthesis of the different contributions and limitations of the various theories offered by scholars on the notion of equivalence, lending literature to both student and scholars in the field, and providing insight on future theoretical development

Keywords: equivalence, functionalist translation theories, linguistic translation approaches, translation theories, Skopos

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550 Fiqh Al Aqalliyat (Jurisprude for Muslim Minorities): An Emerging Discourse for Western Minorities

Authors: Sana Tahzeeb

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Role of Muslim minority in a democratic state has been the most debatable as well as attractive issue in the writings of the contemporary Muslim scholars, never discussed in the classical Islamic literature of history. Islam as a dominant religion has been the issue of academic discussions in the entire classical literature of Islamic jurisprudence the division of world into Dar al-Islam (abode of Islam), Dar al-Harb (abode of war) has been the main division on the basis of which Islam’s relation with the remaining world were defined and formulated. Now living in a global society the classical division of territories seems to be irrelevant. The new division of the same became necessary in the present situation particularly in view of the pluralistic society and need of power sharing in non-Muslim countries. It is important to note that a number of Muslim scholars of modern period examined this problem and other issues of Muslim minorities from legal point of view. Fiqh al-Aqalliyat is a newly developed discipline of Islamic jurisprudence. The rationale for this development is that there are so many issues of the Muslim minorities particularly in the European countries which are required to be discussed and examined juridically by Muslim jurists and scholars. There was also need for reinterpreting the term Dar al-Harb and relevance of its applicability to the west. The present paper shed a light on these emerging trends in Islamic world.

Keywords: fiqh al Aqalliyat, Muslim minorities, Europe, Islam

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549 Misconception on Multilingualism in Glorious Quran

Authors: Muhammed Unais

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The holy Quran is a pure Arabic book completely ensured the absence of non Arabic term. If it was revealed in a multilingual way including various foreign languages besides the Arabic, it can be easily misunderstood that the Arabs became helpless to compile such a work positively responding to the challenge of Allah due to their lack of knowledge in other languages in which the Quran is compiled. As based on the presence of some non Arabic terms in Quran like Istabrq, Saradiq, Rabbaniyyoon, etc. some oriental scholars argued that the holy Quran is not a book revealed in Arabic. We can see some Muslim scholars who either support or deny the presence of foreign terms in Quran but all of them agree that the roots of these words suspected as non Arabic are from foreign languages and are assimilated to the Arabic and using as same in that foreign language. After this linguistic assimilation was occurred and the assimilated non Arabic words became familiar among the Arabs, the Quran revealed as using these words in such a way stating that all words it contains are Arabic either pure or assimilated. Hence the two of opinions around the authenticity and reliability of etymology of these words are right. Those who argue the presence of foreign words he is right by the way of the roots of that words are from foreign and those who argue its absence he is right for that are assimilated and changed as the pure Arabic. The possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book is logically negative but its significance is being changed according to time and place. The problem of multilingualism in Quran is the misconception raised by some oriental scholars that the Arabs became helpless to compile a book equal to Quran not because of their weakness in Arabic but because the Quran is revealed in languages they are ignorant on them. Really, the Quran was revealed in pure Arabic, the most literate language of the Arabs, and the whole words and its meaning were familiar among them. If one become positively aware of the linguistic and cultural assimilation ever found in whole civilizations and cultural sets he will have not any question in this respect. In this paper the researcher intends to shed light on the possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book and debates among scholars in this issue, foreign terms in Quran and the logical justifications along with the exclusive features of Quran.

Keywords: Quran, foreign Terms, multilingualism, language

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548 Compilation of Islamic Law as Law Applied Religious Courts in Indonesia (Responding to Changes in Religious Courts Authority)

Authors: Hamdan Arief Hanif, Rahmat Sidiq

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Indonesia is a country of law, the legal system adopted by Indonesia is a civil law system. A major feature of the civil law is the codified legislation. Meanwhile the majority of society Indonesia are Muslims, whilst Islamic law itself having the sources written in Qur'an, Sunnah and the opinion of Muslim scholars, generally not codified in book form of legislation that is easy on the set as a reference. in Indonesia, many scholars have different opinions in decisions so that there is no legal certainty in Muslim civil cases, so the need for legal codification, which, as the source of the judges in deciding a case, especially a case in religious courts. This paper raised the topic of discussion which offers a solution to the application of the codification of the Islamic Law which became the core resources in delivering a verdict against Islamic civil related issue; codification usually called a compilation of Islamic Law. Compilation of Islamic Law is highly recommended as a core reference for the judges in religious courts in Indonesia. This compilation which includes a collection of large number of opinions scholars (book of fiqh) that existed previously and are ripened in deduce in order to unify the existing differences. This paper also discusses how the early formation of the compilation and as the right solution in order to create legal certainty and justice especially for the muslim community in Indonesia.

Keywords: Islamic law, compilation, law applied core, religious court

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547 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

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Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: digital discourse, digital rhetoric, Facebook, social media

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546 Linguistic Analysis of Holy Scriptures: A Comparative Study of Islamic Jurisprudence and the Western Hermeneutical Tradition

Authors: Sana Ammad

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The tradition of linguistic analysis in Islam and Christianity has developed independently of each other in lieu of the social developments specific to their historical context. However, recently increasing number of Muslim academics educated in the West have tried to apply the Western tradition of linguistic interpretation to the Qur’anic text while completely disregarding the Islamic linguistic tradition used and developed by the traditional scholars over the centuries. The aim of the paper is to outline the linguistic tools and methods used by the traditional Islamic scholars for the purpose of interpretating the Holy Qur’an and shed light on how they contribute towards a better understanding of the text compared to their Western counterparts. This paper carries out a descriptive-comparative study of the linguistic tools developed and perfected by the traditional scholars in Islam for the purpose of textual analysis of the Qur’an as they have been described in the authentic works of Usul Al Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and the principles of textual analysis employed by the Western hermeneutical tradition for the study of the Bible. First, it briefly outlines the independent historical development of the two traditions emphasizing the final normative shape that they have taken. Then it draws a comparison of the two traditions highlighting the similarities and the differences existing between them. In the end, the paper demonstrates the level of academic excellence achieved by the traditional linguistic scholars in their efforts to develop appropriate tools of textual interpretation and how these tools are more suitable for interpreting the Qur’an compared to the Western principles. Since the aim of interpreters of both the traditions is to try and attain an objective understanding of the Scriptures, the emphasis of the paper shall be to highlight how well the Islamic method of linguistic interpretation contributes to an objective understanding of the Qur’anic text. The paper concludes with the following findings: The Western hermeneutical tradition of linguistic analysis developed within the Western historical context. However, the Islamic method of linguistic analysis is much more highly developed and complex and serves better the purpose of objective understanding of the Holy text.

Keywords: Islamic jurisprudence, linguistic analysis, textual interpretation, western hermeneutics

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545 Communicative and Artistic Machines: A Survey of Models and Experiments on Artificial Agents

Authors: Artur Matuck, Guilherme F. Nobre

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Machines can be either tool, media, or social agents. Advances in technology have been delivering machines capable of autonomous expression, both through communication and art. This paper deals with models (theoretical approach) and experiments (applied approach) related to artificial agents. On one hand it traces how social sciences' scholars have worked with topics such as text automatization, man-machine writing cooperation, and communication. On the other hand it covers how computer sciences' scholars have built communicative and artistic machines, including the programming of creativity. The aim is to present a brief survey on artificially intelligent communicators and artificially creative writers, and provide the basis to understand the meta-authorship and also to new and further man-machine co-authorship.

Keywords: artificial communication, artificial creativity, artificial writers, meta-authorship, robotic art

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544 The Need for Interdisciplinary Approach in Studying Archaeology: An Evolving Cultural Science

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

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Archaeology being the study of mans past using the materials he left behind has been argued to be classified under sciences while some scholars are of the opinion that it does not deserve the status of being referred to as ‘science’. However divergent the opinions of scholars may be on the classification of Archaeology as a science or in the humanities, the discipline has no doubt, greatly aided in shaping the history of man’s past. Through the different stages that the discipline has transgressed, it has encountered some challenges. This paper therefore, attempts to highlight the need for the inclusion of branches of other disciplines when using Archaeology in reconstructing man’s history. The objective of course, is to add to the existing body of knowledge but specifically to expose the incomparable importance of archaeology as a discipline and to place it on such a high scale that it will not be regulated to the background as is done in some Nigerian Universities. The paper attempts a clarification of some conceptual terms and discusses the developmental stages of archaeology. It further describes the present state of the discipline and concludes with the disciplines that need to be imbibed in the use of Archaeology which is an evolving cultural science to obtain the aforementioned interdisciplinary approach.

Keywords: archaeology, cultural, evolution, interdisciplinary, science

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543 Challenges of Integrating Islamic Education with Contemporary Secular System in Igaland, Kogi State Of Nigeria

Authors: Yunusa Odiba

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Islam, from its root is a divine religion and it does not exercise anything except within the scope of its divinity-its culture, tradition morality, and the like. The damage done to the legacies, traditions, culture, morality, viability, continued existence and relevance of the Islamic religious way of life by the prevalent western secular education system in the Muslim world has become a thing of interest to many scholars especially, the Muslim scholars, hence, advocating the integration of Islamic education with the western circular educational system. The aim is to produce a new generation of dedicated Muslims whose education has prepared them for the challenges of contemporary materialistic circulation alongside real Islamic knowledge. This paper, however, examines the process of integrating Islamic schools with the contemporary western based schools that would under-take the unification which should function as basic organ of Muslim ideological revivalism, cultural retention, identity formation, socio-economic development, and scientific and ecological inventiveness.

Keywords: challenges, integrating, Islamic education, secular system, Igalaland

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542 Regional Trade Agreements versus the WTO: A Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Mohsen Qasemi

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In the international economic order multilateral trading system which established by General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947 (GATT) was dominant until about two decades ago. Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have changed this order and become an important phenomenon. One of the main objectives of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a central institution of multilateral trading system is raising standards of living. There are many scholars who suggest that WTO should take steps to protect human rights in its activities. Although it has always been opposing views who declare that since WTO has no explicit rule for human rights, it has no human rights related obligations. At the time that the WTO was established, member states began to join RTAs and since then, the escalating growth of these agreements and their effects on multilateral trading system has been controversial. There are some aspects of RTAs that have received too little attention from scholars. It is important to take a different view and evaluate the RTAs based on non-commercial aspects. The present paper seeks to answer this question: which system could be more useful in protecting human rights, RTAs or WTO?

Keywords: WTO, RTAs, human rights, multilateral trading system, non discrimination

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541 Education and Development: An Overview of Islam

Authors: Rasheed Sanusi Adeleke

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Several attempts have been made by scholars, both medieval and contemporary on the impact of Islam on scientific discovery. Lesser attention, however, is always accorded to the historical antecedents of the earlier Muslim scholars, who made frantic efforts towards the discoveries. Islam as a divine religion places high premium on the acquisition of knowledge especially that of sciences. It considers knowledge as a comprehensive whole, which covers both spiritual and material aspects of human life. Islam torches every aspect of human life for the growth, development and advancement of society. Acquisition of knowledge of humanity, social sciences as well as the pure and applied sciences is comprehensively expressed in Islamic education. Not only this, the history portrays the leading indelible roles played by the early Muslims on these various fields of knowledge. That is why Islam has declared acquisition of knowledge compulsory for all Muslims. This paper therefore analyses the contributions of Islam to civilization with particular reference to sciences. It also affirms that Islam is beyond the religion of prayers and rituals. The work is historic, analytic and explorative in nature. Recommendations are also also put forward as suggestions for the present generation cum posterity in general and Muslims in particular.

Keywords: education, development, Islam, development and Islam

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540 West African Islamic Civilization: Sokoto Caliphate and Science Education

Authors: Hassan Attahiru Gwandu

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This study aims at surveying and analyzing the contribution of Sokoto scholars or Sokoto Caliphate in the development of science and technology in West Africa. Today, it is generally accepted that the 19th century Islamic revivalism in Hausaland was a very important revolution in the history of Hausa society and beyond. It is therefore, as a result of this movement or Jihad; the Hausaland (West Africa in general) witnessed several changes and transformations. These changes were in different sectors of life from politics, economy to social and religious aspect. It is these changes especially on religion that will be given considerations in this paper. The jihad resulted is the establishment of an Islamic state of Sokoto Caliphate, the revival Islam and development of learning and scholarship. During the existence of this Caliphate, a great deal of scholarship on Islamic laws were revived, written and documented by mostly, the three Jihad leaders; Usmanu Danfodiyo, his brother Abdullahi Fodiyo and his son Muhammad Bello. The trio had written more than one thousand books and made several verdicts on Islamic medicine. This study therefore, seeks to find out the contributions of these scholars or the Sokoto caliphate in the development of science in West Africa.

Keywords: Sokoto caliphate, scholarship, science and technology, West Africa

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539 Translation and Ideology: New Perspectives

Authors: Hamza Salih

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Since translation is no longer viewed as a mere replacement of linguistic codes from one language to another, it has increasingly been considered, especially with the advent of the cultural turn in the late 70's, in relation to the broader external context in which it takes place. According to scholars in the field, the translation process is determined by the political, economic and cultural values which exert external pressures on the translator. Correspondingly, the relationship between translation as an act of re-writing the original text and ideology has already been established. This paper addresses the issue of how ideology comes into play in the translational process and what strategies the translator adopts to foreground or circumvent ideological constraints. Along with this, the paper will touch upon the notions of censorship, manipulation, subversion and domestication which are deemed of relevance to this very topic. In fact, after the domination of the empirically-oriented linguistic approaches in translation studies, the relationship between translation and ideology has to be foregrounded to draw attention to the fact that the translation process is not a mere text-to-text linguistic transfer, but, on the contrary, takes place in the midst of economic, political, cultural and religious variables, which some scholars subsume under the category ideology.

Keywords: translation, language, ideology, subversion, censorship and manipulation

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538 Axiomatic Design and Organization Design: Opportunities and Challenges in Transferring Axiomatic Design to the Social Sciences

Authors: Nicolay Worren, Christopher A. Brown

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Axiomatic design (AD) has mainly been applied to support the design of physical products and software solutions. However, it was intended as a general design approach that would also be applicable to the design of social systems, including organizations (i.e., organization design). In this article, we consider how AD may be successfully transferred to the field of organizational design. On the one hand, it provides a much-needed pragmatic approach that can help leaders clarify the link between the purpose and structure of their organizations, identify ineffective organizational structures, and increase the chance of achieving strategic goals. On the other hand, there are four conceptual challenges that may create uncertainty and resistance among scholars and practitioners educated in the social sciences: 1) The exclusive focus in AD on negative interdependencies ('coupling'); 2) No obvious way of representing the need for integration across design parameters (DPs); 3) A lack of principles for handling control processes that seem to require 'deliberate coupling' of FRs; and 4) A lack of principles for handling situations where conflicting FRs (i.e., coupling) might require integration rather than separation. We discuss alternative options for handling these challenges so that scholars and practitioners can make use of AD for organization design.

Keywords: axiomatic design, organization design, social systems, concept definitions

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537 Perception of Reproductive Age Group Females of a Central University in India about Body Image

Authors: Rajani Vishal, C. P. Mishra

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Background: Self-perception of an individual about own body has a strong influence on their food preference and thereby on their nutritional status. Body image is gaining importance in social theory. Globally, women in particular seem to be favour of one ideal body type (Viz A slim, tall and perfectly proportionate body). Beauty and body image ideals among research scholars can play a significant influence on their own actions. Objectives: 1) To assess perception of study subjects about body image; 2)To analyze the relationship between body image and residential status of study subjects. Material and Method: 176 female research scholars of Banaras Hindu University were selected through multistage sampling. They were interviewed with pre designed and pre-tested proforma about area of residence and perception about body image. Result: As much as 86.4% subjects were happy with the way they looked whereas 83.0% subjects considered themselves as attractive. In case of 13.6%, 27.3%, 31.8%, 14.2% and 13.1% subjects, best-described body shapes were thin, normal, curvy, athletic and overweight, respectively. Area of residence was significantly (p< o.o5) associated with perception of attractiveness and description of body shape. Conclusion: In spite of varied description of body image, majority of subjects had positive perception about their body image.

Keywords: attractiveness, body image, body shape, nutritional status

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536 Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Postgraduate Students of Kohat University of Science and Technology, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Saeed Ullah Jan, Muhammad Ali, Misbah Ullah Awan

Abstract:

Purpose: This study investigated the information needs and seeking behaviour, and hurdles to information seeking of Post Graduate students of Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It focused on the information requirements of the post-graduate students of the university, the pattern they use for seeking information, and the difficulties they face while seeking information. Design/Methodology/approach: This study used a quantitative approach, adapting a survey questionnaire method for data collection. The population of this study was composed of M.Phil. and Ph.D. students of 2019 and 2020 in the faculties of Physical and Numerical Sciences, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biological Sciences, and Social Sciences of KUST. The sample size was 260. Students were selected randomly. The study response rate was 77%, and data were analyzed through SPSS (22 versions). Key findings: The study revealed that Most students' information needs were for study and research activities, new knowledge, and career development. To fulfill these needs, the scholars use various sources and resources. The sources they used for information needs were journal articles, textbooks, and research projects commonly. For the information-seeking purpose, often, students prefer books that have some importance. The other factors that played an essential role in selecting material were topical relevance, Novelty, Recommended by colleagues, and publisher's reputation. Most of the students thought that Book Exhibitions, Open Access systems in the Library, and the Display of new arrivals could enhance the students' information-seeking. The main problem seeking information was faced by them was a shortage of printed information resources. Overall they wanted more facilities, enhancement in the library collection, and better services. Delimitations of the study: This study has not included 1) BS and M.Sc. Students of KUST; 2) The colleges and institutions affiliated with KUST; 3) This study was delimited only to the Post Graduate students of KUST. Practical implication(s): The findings of the study motivate the policymakers and authorities of KUST to restructure the information literacy programs to fulfill the scholars' information needs. It may inform the policymakers to know the difficulties faced by scholars during information seeking. Contribution to the knowledge: No significant work has been done on the students' information needs and seeking behaviour at KUST. The study analyzed the information needs and seeking behaviour of post graduate students. It brought a clear picture of information needs and seeking behaviour of scholars and addressed the problems faced by them during the seeking process.

Keywords: information needs of Pakistan, information-seeking behaviors, postgraduate students, university libraries, Kohat university of science and technology, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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535 Modern Human and His Needy to the Prophecy (Case Study of AyatuAllah Mottahari Views)

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei, Mohammad Molavi

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Muslim scholars for a long time have tried to prove the necessity of prophecy through the Qur'an verses, Hadith's concepts, and rational arguments. According to them, the human being cannot find his welfare way based on wisdom only. They emphasize that divine teaching of the prophets accompanied by wisdom (reason) helps people to find the best way of life and consequently they achieve perfection. In contrast, some believe that mentioned necessity is helpful for primitive and ancient societies, and, matured man in the modern era has flourished his wisdom and reached the peak of maturity. Hence, the modern human can recognize good and evil rely on the individual and social wisdom and as a result they can reach to the perfection without revelation and prophetic teaching. The essay via descriptive-analytical method has attempted to analyze and critic this thought through the study of Mottahari's works as a modern prominent scholars. Findings show that AyatuAllah Mottahari believes that not only modern human intellectual development is not needless of prophecy, but also they need religion and revelation teaching exactly like primitive and ancient societies. Wisdom inherent limitations common between primitive and modern human are the main reason of AyatuAllah Mottahari.

Keywords: wisdom, modernity, prophecy, AyatuAllah Mottahari

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534 Meiji Centennial as a Media Event: Ideas for Upcoming Turkish Republic Centennial

Authors: Hasan Topacoglu

Abstract:

The Meiji Restoration was a chain of events that restored Japan in 1868 and considered as the beginning of Japanese Modernization by many scholars. In 1968, to honor its modern incarnation, Japan celebrated Meiji Centennial as one of the biggest Media Events in the country after the World War II. It was celebrated all around the country throughout the year following with a central event in Tokyo. Meanwhile, Japanese scholars started an opposition movement and claimed that Government was using this event to raise nationalism, pointing at Government’s statement on the meaning of Meiji. Most of the scholars, unfortunately, were hooked into the ideological problem of the Government’s way of planning and evaluated it as a failure. However, scholars missed out an important point that apart from the central event in Tokyo, each city planned its own event and celebrated it on a different date, also with a different theme. For example, Kyoto showed a regional characteristic and focused on Kyoto’s own culture, tradition etc., and highlighted a further past than 100 years. This was mainly because some areas/cities had a different ‘memory’ for Meiji Restoration than Tokyo which was reflected through the way they celebrated Meiji Centennial. On the other hand, 2023 will be the year of Turkish Republic Centennial. A year which will be marked by national and maybe even international events. Although an official committee has not been announced yet, The 2023 Vision, a list of goals has been released by the Government to coincide with the centenary of the Republic of Turkey in 2023 and there are some ongoing projects that are planned to be completed by then. By looking at the content of these projects, it is possible to say that Government is aiming to focus on Modernization through the Centennial. However, some of the projects are already showing some interesting characteristics such as the Istanbul New Airport whose design is inspired by Selimiye Mosque’s Islamic-Ottoman figure. It is true that Turkey and Japan have different historical backgrounds and the timeline of the Meiji Restoration and Foundation of Turkish Republic are different. Therefore, a particular comparison between these two events is not justified. However, they may have more in common than we are up to think because, each country marked the start of a new nation conceived on modern principles. For that reason, it is important to understand the similarities or differences between Meiji Centennial and Turkish Republic Centennial as a media event. This study introduces Meiji Centennial as a media event and analyses opposition movement along with the meaning of Meiji Centennial. Additionally, it explains regional characteristic differences and gives Kyoto as an example. Moreover, it introduces some of the ongoing Centennial projects in Turkey and analyses the meaning of the Turkish Republic Centennial through these projects. Without comparing Japan and Turkey, it explains the case of Japan but the discussion centers on deepening our understanding of Centennial as a Media Event and remarks some important aspects for Turkey’s upcoming Centennial events.

Keywords: media events, Meiji centennial, the 2023 vision, Turkish republic centennial

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533 An Analysis of the Contemporary Western Academic Works in the Genre of Quranic Studies: a Case Study of Encyclopaedia of the Quran

Authors: Iffat Batool

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An extensive body of literature produced by the contemporary Western academia is an indication of their grave interest in the field of Qur’ānic studies. What increases its significance is the writings of the western scholars that underscore the element of objectivity and impartiality in the recent western academic works on the Qur’ān. Moreover, the participation of some Muslim scholars in the western academia is also highlighted by western thinkers to ensure the objectivity of western Qur’ānic scholarship. More specifically, with the publication of ‘Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān by Brill’ the western academia seems to assign these elements to this work vigorously. Being the foremost work of its nature, ‘Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān’ has attracted the academicians from across the world yet, with multiple receptions. The present study aims at locating the status of this work in the recent Western scholarship and its contribution towards the subject of Qur’ānic Studies. Through a critical analysis of articles, various features of this work are highlighted. This work concludes that although Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān presents wide-ranging and extensive study, yet, it lacks a perfect, rigorous and thorough scholarship of the Qur’ān. Besides, this work argues that because of the marginal contribution of Muslim researchers, the majority conclusions of this anthology are in contrast to the traditional Muslim standpoint

Keywords: academic, encyclopeadia, objectivity, quran

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