Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 135

Search results for: faba bean

135 Assessment of Relationships between Agro-Morphological Traits and Cold Tolerance in Faba Bean (vicia faba l.) and Wild Relatives

Authors: Nisa Ertoy Inci, Cengiz Toker

Abstract:

Winter or autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one the most efficient ways to overcome drought since faba bean is usually grown under rainfed where drought and high-temperature stresses are the main growth constraints. The objectives of this study were assessment of (i) relationships between cold tolerance and agro-morphological traits, and (ii) the most suitable agro-morphological trait(s) under cold conditions. Three species of the genus Vicia L. includes 109 genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), three genotypes of narbon bean (V. narbonensis L.) and two genotypes of V. montbretii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Davis and Plitmann were sown in autumn at highland of Mediterranean region of Turkey. All relatives of faba bean were more cold-tolerant than the faba bean genotypes. Three faba bean genotypes, ACV-42, ACV-84 and ACV-88, were selected as sources of cold tolerance under field conditions. Path and correlation coefficients and factor and principal component analyses indicated that biological yield should be evaluated in selection for cold tolerance under cold conditions ahead of many agro-morphological traits. The seed weight should be considered for selection in early breeding generations because they had the highest heritability.

Keywords: cold tolerance, faba bean, narbon bean, selection

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134 Effect of BYMV on Faba Bean Productivity in Libya

Authors: Abdullah S. El-Ammari, Omar M. El-Sanousi, Fathi S. El-Mesmari

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One distinct virus namely bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (BYMV) was isolated from naturally infected faba bean plants and identified through the serological reaction, mechanical transmission, host range and symptomology. To study the effect of BYMV on faba bean crop productivity, the experiment was carried out in naturally infected field in a completely randomized design with two treatments (the early infected plants and the lately infected plants). T- test was used to analyze the data. plants of each treatment were harvested when the pods were fully ripened. Early infection significantly reduced the yield of broad bean crop leading to 85.04% yield loss in productivity of seeds per plant, 72.42% yield loss in number of pods per plants, 31.58% yield loss in number of seeds per pod and 18.2% yield loss in weight of seeds per plant.

Keywords: bean yellow mosaic potyvirus, faba bean, productivity, libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
133 Phenotypic and Symbiotic Characterization of Rhizobia Isolated from Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) in Moroccan Soils

Authors: Y. Hajjam, I. T. Alami, S. M. Udupa, S. Cherkaoui

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Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food legume crop in Morocco. It is mainly used as human food and feed for animals. Faba bean also plays an important role in cereal-based cropping systems, when rotated with cereals it improves soil fertility by fixing N2 in root nodules mediated by Rhizobium. Both faba bean and its biological nitrogen fixation symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium are affected by different stresses such as: salinity, drought, pH, heavy metal, and the uptake of inorganic phosphate compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenotypic diversity among the faba bean rhizobial isolates and to select the tolerant strains that can fix N2 under environmental constraints for inoculation particularly for affected soils, in order to enhance the productivity of faba bean and to improve soil fertility. Result have shown that 62% of isolates were fast growing with the ability of producing acids compounds , while 38% of isolates are slow growing with production of alkalins. Moreover, 42.5% of these isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 and the index of solubilization was ranged from 2.1 to 3.0. The resistance to extreme pH, temperature, water stress heavy metals and antibiotics lead us to classify rhizobial isolates into different clusters. Finally, the authentication test under greenhouse conditions showed that 55% of the rhizobial isolates could induce nodule formation on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under greenhouse experiment. This phenotypic characterization may contribute to improve legumes and non legumes crops especially in affected soils and also to increase agronomic yield in the dry areas.

Keywords: rhizobia, vicia faba, phenotypic characterization, nodule formation, environmental constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
132 Impact of Zinc on Heavy Metals Content, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Faba Bean in Milk Ripeness

Authors: M. Timoracká, A. Vollmannová., D.S. Ismael, J. Musilová

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We investigated the effect of targeted contaminated soil by Zn model conditions. The soil used in the pot trial was uncontaminated. Faba beans (cvs Saturn, Zobor) were harvested in milk ripeness. With increased doses applied into the soil the strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and Zn amount in seeds of both of faba bean cultivars was confirmed. Despite the high Zn doses applied into the soil in model conditions, in all variants the determined Zn amount in faba bean cv. Saturn was just below the maximal allowed content in foodstuffs given by the legislative. In cv. Zobor the determined Zn content was higher than maximal allowed amount (by 2% and 12%, respectively). Faba bean cvs. Saturn and Zobor accumulated (in all variants higher than hygienic limits) high amounts of Pb and Cd. The contents of all other heavy metals were lower than hygienic limits. With increased Zn doses applied into the soil the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity determined in seeds of both cultivars Saturn and Zobor were increased. The strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity in seeds of faba bean cultivars was confirmed.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, faba bean, polyphenols, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
131 The Effect of Salinity and Bentonite on the Hydrous Behaviors and Sodium Content of the Broad Bean Vicia faba var. Semilla violeta

Authors: T. Nouri, Y. H. A. Reguieg, A. Latigui, A. Ouaini

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Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic factor. It limits growth and productivity of plants and degrades agricultural soils and ecosystem in arid and semi arid area. The study was conducted on Vicia faba L.’Semilla violeta’. Sowing was realized in plastic pots containing sandy substrates of bentonite 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10% associated with abiotic stresses of salinity corresponding to doses of NaCl, MgCl2 and MgSO4 20, 40, and 60 mmol/l respectively. The purpose of this work is to study the combined effect of salinity and of bentonite on a plant commonly cultivated in Algeria the broad bean Vicia faba has through the chemical and hydrous parameter. The results show that the combined action of strong concentration salt (40 and 60 mmol/l) and of bentonite a reduction of the relative content water reveals, against an increase in the content of hydrous deficit and of sodium. The growth of broad bean is significant in the substrate amended to 5 % of bentonite.

Keywords: salinity, bentonite, Vicia faba L, sodium content, hydrous parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
130 Study of Pseudomonas as Biofertiliser in Salt-Affected Soils of the Northwestern Algeria: Solubilisation of Calcium Phosphate and Growth Promoting of Broad Bean (Vcia faba)

Authors: A. Djoudi, R. Djibaou, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

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Our study focuses on the study of a bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas solubilizing tricalcium phosphate. They were isolated from rhizosphere of a variety of broad bean grown in salt-affected soils (electrical conductivity between 4 and 8 mmhos/cm) of the irrigated perimeter of Mina in northwestern Algeria. Isolates which have advantageous results in the calcium phosphate solubilization index test were subjected to identification using API20 then used to re-inoculate the same soil in pots experimentation to assess the effects of inoculation on the growth of the broad bean (Vicia faba). Based on the results obtained from the in-vitro tests, two isolates P5 and P8 showed a significant effect on the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate with an index I estimated at 314% and 283% sequentially. According to the results of in-vivo tests, the inoculation of the soil with P5 and P8 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the broad bean. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the broad bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and stem dry weight of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively. Inoculation with strain P8 has fostered the growth of the broad bean stem fresh weight of 112.47%. The effect of Pseudomonas on the development of Vicia faba is considered as an interesting process by which PGPR can increase biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Vicia faba, promoting of plant growth, solubilization tricalcium phosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
129 Density Interaction in Determinate and Indeterminate Faba Bean Types

Authors: M. Abd El Hamid Ezzat

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Two field trials were conducted to study the effect of plant densities i.e., 190, 222, 266, 330 and 440 10³ plants ha⁻¹ on morphological characters, physiological and yield attributes of two faba bean types viz. determinate (FLIP-87 -117 strain) and indeterminate (c.v. Giza-461). The results showed that the indeterminate plants significantly surpassed the determinate plants in plant height at 75 and 90 days from sowing, number of leaves at all growth stages and dry matter accumulation at 45 and 90 days from sowing. Determinate plants possessed greater number of side branches than that of the indeterminate plants, but it was only significant at 90 days from sowing. Greater number of flowers were produced by the indeterminate plants than that of the determinate plants at 75 and 90 days from sowing, and although shedding was obvious in both types, it was greater in the determinate plants as compared with the indeterminate one at 90 days from sowing. Increasing plant density resulted in reductions in number of leaves, branches flowers and dry matter accumulation per plant of both faba bean types. However, plant height criteria took a reversible magnitude. Moreover, under all rates of plant densities the indeterminate type plants surpassed the determinate plants in all growth characters studied except for number of branches per plant at 90 days from sowing. The indeterminate plant leaves significantly contained greater concentrations of photosynthetic pigments i.e., chl. a, b and carotenoids than those found in the determinate plant leaves. Also, the data showed significant reduction in photosynthetic pigments concentration as planting density increases. Light extinction coefficient (K) values reached their maximum level at 60 days from sowing, then it declined sharply at 75 days from sowing. The data showed that the illumination inside the determinate faba bean canopies was better than the indeterminate plants. (K) values tended to increase as planting density increases, meanwhile, significant interactions were reported between faba bean type as planting density on (K) at all growth stages. Both of determinate and indeterminate faba bean plant leaves reached their maximum expansion at 75 days from sowing reflecting the highest LAI values, then their declined in the subsequent growth stage. The indeterminate faba bean plants significantly surpassed the determinate plants in LAI up to 75 days from sowing. Growth analysis showed that NAR, RGR and CGR reached their maximum rates at (60-75 days growth stage). Faba bean types did not differ significantly in NAR at the early growth stage. The indeterminate plants were able to grow faster with significant CGR values than the determinate plants. The indeterminate faba bean plants surpassed the determinate ones in number of seeds/pod and per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and per hectare at all rates of plant density. Seed yield increased with increasing plant densities of both types. The highest seed yield was attained for both types 440 103 plants ha⁻¹.

Keywords: determinate, indeterminate faba bean, Physiological attributes, yield attributes

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
128 Genotypic Response Differences among Faba Bean Accessions under Regular Deficit Irrigation (RDI)

Authors: M. Afzal, Salem Safer Alghamdi, Awais Ahmad

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Limited amount of irrigation water is an alarming threat to arid and semiarid agriculture. However, genotypic response differences to water deficit conditions within species have been reported frequently. Present study was conducted in order to measure the genotypic differences among faba bean accessions under Regular Deficit Irrigation (RDI). Five seeds from each accession were sown in 135 silt filled pots (30 x 24 cm). Experiment was planned under split plot arrangement and replicated thrice. Treatments consisted of three RDI levels (100% (control), 60% and 40% of the field capacity) and fifteen faba bean accessions (two local accessions as reference while thirteen from different sources around the world). Irrigation treatment was started from the very first day of sowing. Plant height, shoot dry weight, stomatal conductance and total chlorophyll contents (SPAD reading) were measured one month after germination. Irrigation, faba bean accessions and the all possible interactions has stood significantly high for all studied parameters. Regular deficient irrigation has hampered the plant growth and associated parameters in decreasing order (100% < 60% < 40%). Accessions have responded differently under regular deficient irrigation and some of them are even better than local accession. A highly significant correlation among all parameters has also been observed. It was concluded from results that above parameters could be used as markers to identify the genotypic differences for water deficit stress response. This outcome encouraged the use of superior faba bean genotypes in breeding programs for improved varieties to enhance water use efficiency under stress conditions.

Keywords: accessions, stomatal conductance, total chlorophyll contents, RDI, regular deficient irrigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
127 The Biofertilizer Effect of Pseudomonas of Salt Soils of the North-West Algerian, Study of Comportment of Bean (Vicia Faba)

Authors: Djoudi Abdelhak, Djibaoui Rachid, Reguieg Yassaad Houcine

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Our study focuses on the identification of some species of Pseudomonas (P4, P5, P7 and P8) isolated from saline soils in northwestern Algeria and the effect of their metabolites on the growth of Alternaria alternata the causative agent of the blight of the bean disease (Vicia faba). We are also interested in stimulating the growth of this plant species in saline conditions (60 mM/l NaCl) and the absence of salts. The analysis focuses on rates of inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata strain and the rate of growth of plants inoculated with strains of Pseudomonas expressed by biometrics. According to the results of the in-vitro test, P5 and P8 species and their metabolites showed a significant effect on mycelia growth and production of spores of Alternaria alternata. The in-vivo test shows that the species P8 and P5 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the bean in saline and salt-free condition. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and dry weight of stems of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively, in the presence of salt Inoculation with strain P5 has fostered the growth of the bean stem fresh weight of 112.47% in the presence of salt The effect of Pseudomonas species on the development of Vicia faba and the growth of Alternaria alternata is considering new techniques and methods of biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: pseudomonas, vicia faba, alternaria alternata, promoting of plant growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
126 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

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The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: broad bean, lead, stress, physiological parameters, phytotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
125 The Effect of Salinity on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa and Faba Bean

Authors: Mouffok Ahlem, Belhamra Mohamed, Mouffok Sihem

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The use of nitrogen fertilizers inevitable consequence, the increase in the nitrate content of water, which may contribute to the production of nitrite and the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The nitrogen fertilizer may also affect the structure and function of the microbial community. And the fight against eutrophication of aquatic environments represents a cost to the student statements. The agronomic, ecological and economic legumes such as faba beans and alfalfa are not demonstrated, especially in the case of semi-arid and arid areas. Osmotic stress due to drought and / or salinity deficit, nutritional deficiencies is the major factors limiting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and productivity of pulses. To study the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the region of Biskra, we used soil samples collected from 30 locations. This work has identified several issues of ecological and agronomic interest. Evaluation of symbiotic potential of soils in the region of Biskra; by trapping technique, show different levels of susceptibility to rhizobial microflora. The effectiveness of the rhizobial symbiosis in both legumes indicates that air dry biomass and the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial part, depends mainly on the rate of nodulation and regardless of the species and locality. The correlation between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and some physico-chemical properties of soils shows that symbiotic nitrogen fixation in both legumes is strongly related to soil conditions of the soil. Salinity disrupts the physiological process of growth, development and more particularly that of the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Against by phosphorus promotes rhizobial symbiosis.

Keywords: rhizobia, faba bean, alfalfa, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
124 How Does Vicia faba-rhizobia Symbiosis Improve Its Performance under Low Phosphorus Availability?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, M. Mouradi, A. Kabbadj, M. Farissi, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam

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This work focuses on the responses of Vicia fabarhizobia symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency and their contribution to tolerate this constraint. The study was carried out on four faba bean varieties, Aguadulce, Alfia, Luz Otono, and Reina Mora submitted to two phosphorus treatments, deficient and sufficient and cultivated under field and greenhouse hydroaeroponic culture. Plants were harvested at flowering stage for growth, nodulation and phosphorus content assessment. Phosphatases in nodules and rhizospheric soil were analyzed. The impact of phosphorus deficiency on yield component was assessed at maturity stage. Under field conditions, phosphorus deficiency affected negatively nodule biomass and nodule phosphorus content with Alfia and Reina Mora showing the highest biomass reduction. The phosphatase activities in nodules and rhizospheric soil were increased under phosphorus deficiency. At maturity stage, under soil low available phosphorus, the pods number and 100 seeds weight were reduced. The genotypic variation was evident for almost all tested parameters.

Keywords: faba bean, phosphorus, rhizobia, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
123 Spectrophotometric Determination of L-Dopa in Germinated and Non-Germinated Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) and Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.)

Authors: Wissame Gouigah, Amina Medellel, Mahmoud Trachi, Djedjiga Benamara, Salem Benamara

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The purpose of this work is to investigate, by UV/VIS spectrophotometry, the distribution of L-dopa, known as precursor of dopamine which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in broad beans (Vicia faba) (Vf) and chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.) (CA). In the case of Vf, the different organs were analyzed separately: 1) First, in the fresh state: pod (GF), cotyledons (CF), green shell (EF) and placenta (PF) which is the organ through which the seed is attached to the pod, 2) in the dry state (S): peel of the dry seed (ES) and cotyledons (CS), and 3) in the germinated state: peel (EGe), cotyledons (CGe) and germ (GeVf). Results showed that the content of L-dopa is unevenly distributed between different parts of fresh Vf. But the most important result concerns the predominance of L-dopa in placenta with an L-dopa content (~ 60 mg/g of wet weight, ww) sometimes 7-fold higher (p≤0.05) than those of other considered parts of fresh Vf. In the case of CA, the L-dopa concentration in germinated gains was higher than those found in all analyzed Vf organs, excepted PF.

Keywords: broad bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.), L-dopa, Parkinson disease, placenta

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
122 Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana R. B. Figueiredo, Paula M. R. Correia, Fernando J. Gonçalves

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The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial analysis that revealed that the bean, apple and cinnamon jam was globally better accepted. However, with this study, the consumers determined that the bean and carrot jam had the most attractive color and the bean and apple jam the better consistency. Additionally, it was possible to analyze the jams for their chemical components, namely fat, fiber, protein, sugars and antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed that the bean and carrot jam had the highest lipid content, while the bean, apple and cinnamon jam had the highest fiber content, when compared to the other two jams. Regarding the sugar content, both jams with apple revealed similar sugar values, which were higher than the sugar content of the bean and carrot jam. The antioxidant activity was on average 10 mg TE/g.

Keywords: Bean jam, chemical composition, sensorial analysis, product acceptability

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
121 Comparative Analysis of White Bean Cake and Soybean Cake through Sensory Evaluation

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu, Linda Ojeyokan

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This study produced and compared the acceptability of white bean cake (akara) and soy bean cake (akara) through sensory evaluation. Two varieties of beans were used; white (haricot) beans and soy beans; processed in the wet (paste) form and dry (flour) form. They were all used in the production of samples of bean cake (akara) under the same condition. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the products; 100% white beans cake paste was labeled (A1), 50% white bean and 50% soya bean cake paste was (B1), 100% white bean cake flour was (A2); 50% white bean cake flour and 50% soya bean cake flour (B2). A five (5) point hedonic scale rating, very good (5), good (4), fair (3), poor (2) and very poor (1) was administered on the ten panel of judge. 40 questionnaires were administered to the general public to access their knowledge of soya beans akara. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine which product is more acceptable. Table, percentages and mean score were methods employed in analyzing data collected. The analysis revealed that soya bean (akara) is generally acceptable except for sample B1 that was rated poor with 2 points, white beans cake was rated very well with 5 points. It was recommended that the hospitality industry could introduce soya bean cakes in the breakfast menu. Families can also include these products in their breakfast.

Keywords: akara, bean cake, soybean, white bean

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
120 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer

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The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
119 Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis Method to Assess Rumen Microbial Diversity of Ruminant

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa, N. Purnomo, A. R. Egan, B. J. Leury

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Rumen degradation characteristic of feedstuff is one of the prominent factors affecting microbial population in rumen of animal. High rumen degradation rate of faba bean protein may lead to inconstant rumen conditions that could have a prominent impact on rumen microbial diversity. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) is utilized to monitor diversity of rumen microbes on sheep fed low quality forage supplemented by faba beans. Four mature merino sheep with existing rumen cannula were used in this study according to 4 x 4 Latin square design. The results of study indicated that there were 37 different ARDRA types identified out of 136 clones examined. Among those clones, five main clone types existed across the treatments with different percentages. In conclusion, the ARDRA method is potential to be used as a routine tool to assess the temporary changes in the rumen community as a result of different feeding strategies.

Keywords: ARDRA method, cattle, genomic diversity, rumen microbes

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
118 Comparison of Chlorophyll Contents in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Runner Bean (P. coccineous L.) Genotypes

Authors: Huseyin Canci

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Chlorophylls are green photosynthetic pigment in plants. Therefore, photosynthesis in plants occurs in the leaves. Roles of chlorophylls help plants to get energy from light. The aim of the present study is to compare of chlorophyll contents in some bean species including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner bean (P. coccineous L.) and genotypes. This research was carried out in fields of Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University in Antalya. Species and genotypes were grown in 2 m single row and 50 cm row spacing. A randomized blocks design was used with two replications. Totally, 124 beans species and genotypes which 122 common beans and 2 runner beans were sown on February, 17th 2014 by hand. Chlorophyll a + b (SPAD values) were determined seedling stage, days to flowering 50% and pod setting stage on bean genotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences for genotypes, stages and interaction of genotypes X stages. There was statistically significant relationships between yield and chlorophyll content of bean species and genotypes.

Keywords: bean, chlorophyll, Phaseolus, SPAD values

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
117 Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments

Authors: Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Ahlem Ayadi, Ammar Ben Brahim

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Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.

Keywords: microwave treatment, power density, carotenoid, polyphenol, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
116 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ambient Particle Industrial Complex Upon Vegetation Near Settling at El-Fatyah,Libya

Authors: Ashraf M. S. Soliman, Mohsen Elhasadi

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of ambient particles emitted from an industrial complex located at El-Fatyah on growth, phytomass partitioning and accumulation, pigment content and nutrient uptake of two economically important crop species; barley (Hordeum vulgare L.Family: Poaceae) and broad bean (Vicia faba L. Family: Fabaceae) growing in the region. It was obvious from the present investigation that chlorophyll and carotenoid content showed significant responses to the industrial dust. Generally, the total pigment content of the two investigated crops in the two locations continually increased till the plant age reached 70 days after sowing then begins to decrease till the end of the growing season..The total uptake of N, P and K in the two studied species decreased in response to industrial dust in the study area compared to control location. In conclusion, barley and broad bean are very sensitive to air pollutants, and may consider as bioindicators for atmospheric pollution. Pollutants caused damage of their leaves, impair plant growth, hindered nutrient uptake and consequently limit primary productivity.

Keywords: Effect of Industrial Complex on barley and broad bean

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
115 Agro Morphological Characterization of Vicia faba L. Accessions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zia Amjad, Salem Safar Alghamdi

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This experiment was carried out at student educational farm College of Food and Agriculture, KSU, kingdom of Saudi Arabia; in order to characterize 154 Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity. Icia faba L. accessions were based on ipove and ibpgr descriptors. 24 agro-morphological characters including 11 quantitative and 13 qualitative were observed for genetic variation. All the results were analyzed using multivariate analysis i.e. principle component analysis. First 6 principle components with eigenvalue greater than one; accounted for 72% of available Vicia faba genetic diversity. However, first three components revealed more than 10% of genetic diversity each i.e. 22.36%, 15.86%, and 10.89% respectively. PCA distributed the V. faba accessions into different groups based on their performance for the characters under observation. PC-1 which represented 22.36% of the genetic diversity was positively associated with stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks, pod degree of curvature and to some extent with 100 seed weight. PC-2 covered 15.86 of the genetic diversity and showed positive association for average seed weight per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks (same as in PC-1), and to some extent for pod degree of curvature and number of pods per plant. PC-3 revealed 10.89% of genetic diversity and expressed positive association for number of pods per plant and number of leaflets per plant.

Keywords: Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
114 Which Mechanisms are Involved by Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis to Increase Its Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Low Phosphorus Level?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, A. Bargaz, M. Mouradi, M. Farissi, A. Kabbaj, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam

Abstract:

Legume species are able to establish a nitrogen fixing symbiosis with soil rhizobia that allows them, when it operates normally, to ensure their necessary nitrogen nutrition. This biological process needs high phosphorus (P) supply and consequently it is limited under low phosphorus availability. To overcome this constraint, legume-rhizobia symbiosis develops many mechanisms to increase P availability in the rhizosphere and also the efficiency of P fertilizers. The objectives of our research works are to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms implemented by legume-rhizobia symbiosis to increase its P use efficiency (PUE) in order to select legume genotypes-rhizobia strains combination more performing for BNF under P deficiency. Our studies were carried out on two grain legume species, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) tested in farmers’ fields and in experimental station fewer than two soil phosphorus levels. Under field conditions, the P deficiency caused a significant decrease of Plant and nodule biomasses in all of the tested varieties with a difference between them. This P limitation increased the contents of available P in the rhizospheric soils that was positively correlated with the increase of phosphatases activities in the nodules and the rhizospheric soil. Some legume genotypes showed a significant increase of their P use efficiency under P deficiency. The P solubilization test showed that some rhizobia strains isolated from Haouz region presented an important capacity to grow on solid and liquid media with tricalcium phosphate as the only P source and their P solubilizing activity was confirmed by the assay of the released P in the liquid medium. Also, this P solubilizing activity was correlated with medium acidification and the excretion of acid phosphatases and phytases in the medium. Thus, we concluded that medium acidification and excretion of phosphatases in the rhizosphere are the prominent reactions for legume-rhizobia symbiosis to improve its P nutrition.

Keywords: legume, phosphorus deficiency, rhizobia, rhizospheric soil

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113 Activities of Processors in Domestication/Conservation and Processing of Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) in Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Authors: Iwuchukwu J. C., Mbah C.

Abstract:

There seems to be dearth on information on how oil bean is being exploited, processed and conserved locally. This gap stifles initiatives on the evaluation of the suitability of the methods used and the invention of new and better methods. The study; therefore, assesses activities of processors in domestication/conservation and processing of oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Enugu State, South East Nigeria. Three agricultural zones, three blocks, nine circles and seventy-two respondents that were purposively selected made up the sample for the study. Data were presented in percentage, chart and mean score. The result shows that processors of oil bean in the area were middle-aged, married with relatively large household size and long years of experience in processing. They sourced oil bean they processed from people’s farmland and sourced information on processing of oil bean from friends and relatives. Activities involved in processing of oil bean were boiling, dehulling, washing, sieving, slicing, wrapping. However, the sequence of these activities varies among these processors. Little or nothing was done by the processors towards the conservation of the crop while poor storage and processing facilities and lack of knowledge on modern preservation technique were major constraints to processing of oil bean in the area. The study concluded that efforts should be made by governments and processors through cooperative group in provision of processing and storage facility for oil bean while research institute should conserve and generate improved specie of the crop to arouse interest of the farmers and processors on the crop which will invariably increase productivity.

Keywords: conservation, domestication, oil bean, processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
112 Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming

Authors: Yilmaz Bayhan, Emin Güzel, Ömer Barış Özlüoymak, Ahmet İnce, Abdullah Sessiz

Abstract:

In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.

Keywords: green bean, soil tillage, yield, vegetative

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111 The Effect of Fermentation and Germination on the Nutrient and Antinutrient Composition of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Flour

Authors: P. N. Okeke

Abstract:

Fermentation and germination of legumes have been an ancient practice. In this study, the influence of fermentation and germination on the chemical properties of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) flour were evaluated. The flours were analyzed for their proximate and mineral composition, using the standard assay methods. The result showed that fermentation and germination increased the moisture, protein and ash content of the flours while fiber, fat and carbohydrate were decreased. The protein level of fermented and germinated lima bean increased from 21.06–26.60%. The minerals: iron, copper, zinc, and phosphorous increased due to germination and fermentation. The phytate and tannin levels were drastically reduced in both the fermented and germinated flours. The result of this study revealed that fermentation and germination makes the nutrient in lima beans more accessible as it reduces the anti-nutrients. It is therefore recommended that lima bean be process accordingly for richer and more bio-availability of the nutrients.

Keywords: nutrient, anti-nutrient, fermented, germinated, lima bean flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
110 Effects of Beeswax Coating on the Properties of Cocoa Bean Shell Based Papers

Authors: Sri Rejeki, Tamrin Tamrin, RH. F. Faradilla, Muhammad N. Ibrahim, Mariana M., Irnawati Irnawati

Abstract:

Cocoa bean shells, despite their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, are still considered as an underutilized agricultural waste. The functional properties and their lignocelluloses content make cocoa bean shells a potential material for paper-based food packaging. In our previous research, we have successfully produced papers from cocoa bean shells that had antioxidant and antibacterial activities. However, the hydrophilic nature of the lignocelluloses of cocoa bean shells hinders the application of the paper to be used as a food packaging. In this research, we aimed to study the effects of beeswax coating on the wettability and mechanical properties of the paper. The coating was done by dipping the papers in beeswax solution several times and in three different beeswax concentrations. The number of dipping and beeswax concentration significantly (p<0.05) affected the water contact angle of the papers. Results show that the water contact angle increases dramatically due to the coating treatment. The control paper or uncoated paper had a contact angle of 40.50o, while the contact angle of the best-coated paper (D3B3: 3x dipping, 3g/10mL beeswax) reached 96.93o. Both tensile strength and percent elongation were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the coating treatment. This showed that beeswax was a potential organic material to improve the hydrophobicity of paper from cocoa bean shells without any undesirable effects on the mechanical properties of the paper.

Keywords: cocoa bean shell, paper, beeswax, coating, contact angle

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109 Eco-Ethology of Bees Visitors on Vicia faba L. var. Major (Fabaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, S. Doumandji, K. Louadi, S. Iserbyt, F. Acheuk

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Due to their ecological key position and diversity, plant-bee relationships constitute excellent models to understand the processes of food specialisation. The purpose of this study is to define and identify the most important species of bees foraging broadbean flowers, we estimated morphological, phonological and behavioural features. We discuss the results by considering the food specialisation level of the visitor. In the studied populations (Algiers, Algeria), visiting bees belong to four different genus: Apis, Andrena, Eucera and Xylocopa. Eucera is foraging broad beans flowers during months of April, May. The genus Andrena and Xylocopa were found on weeds after the flowering period of beans. The two species have not a preferred type of vegetation compared to Eucera. The main pollinators were generalist bees such as Apis mellifera L. and Xylocopa pubescens Spinola (Apidae), and specialist bees such Eucera numida Lep. (Apidae). The results show that no one of the studied species, neither the specialist, nor the generalist ones, share adaptative morphological or behavioural features that may improve foraging on Vicia faba. However, there is a narrow synchronisation between the daily and yearly phenologies of Eucera numida and those of V. faba. This could be an adaptation of the specialist bee to its host plant. Thus, the food specialisation of Eucera numida, as for most specialist bees, would be more linked to its adapted phenology than to an adapted morphology.

Keywords: Vicia faba, bees, pollinators, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
108 Physicochemical and Antioxidative Characteristics of Black Bean Protein Hydrolysates Obtained from Different Enzymes

Authors: Zhaojun Zheng, Yuanfa Liu, Jiaxin Li, Jinwei Li, Yong-jiang Xu, Chen Cao

Abstract:

Black bean is an excellent protein source for preparing hydrolysates, which attract much attention due to their biological activity. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black bean protein, hydrolyzed by ficin, bromelain or alcalase until 300 min of hydrolysis. Results showed that bromelain and alcalase hydrolysates possessed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than that of ficin, thereby presenting different ultraviolet absorption, fluorescence intensity, and circular dichroism. Moreover, all hydrolysates possessed the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical with the lowest IC₅₀ of 21.11 µg/mL, as well as to chelate ferrous ion (Fe²⁺) with the IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.82 to 30.68 µg/mL. Intriguingly, the oxidation of linoleic acid, sunflower oil, and sunflower oil-in-water emulsion was remarkedly retarded by the three selected protein hydrolysates, especially by bromelain-treated protein hydrolysate, which might attribute to their high hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties. These findings can provide strong support for black bean protein hydrolysates to be employed in food products acting as natural antioxidant alternatives.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, black bean protein hydrolysate, emulsion physicochemical properties, sunflower oil

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107 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPases

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106 The Influence of Addition of Asparagus Bean Powder (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) on Gonad Maturity of Nilem Carp (Osteochilus hasselti) at the Floating Net Cage of Cirata Reservoir

Authors: Rita Rostika, Junianto, Zulfiqar W. Ibrahim, Iskandar, Lantun P. Dewanti

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of asparagus bean powder and its most effective administration dose to improve the gonad maturity of nilem carp (Osteochilus hasselti). The research is conducted in October-July 2017 located at Cirata Reservoir and Aquaculture Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The research employs an experimental method using a Complete Random Design (RAL) with six treatments and three repetitions. The treatments include the addition of asparagus bean powder by 0% (Control), 4% per kg of feed, 5% per kg of feed, 6% per kg of feed, 7% per kg of feed, as well as the addition of vitamin E essential as the control. The results show that the addition of asparagus bean powder to the feed may influence the gonad maturity of nilem carp shown by its Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) parameter, fecundity, egg diameter and egg reaching its maturity phase or GVBD (Germinal Vesicle Breakdown). The best administration dose influencing nilem carp is the addition of asparagus bean powder by 7% per kg of feed with the average GSI of 15.02%, relative fecundity of 137 eggs/g of fish parent weight, egg diameter of 1,263 mm, and egg reaching its maturity phase (GVBD) of 78.15%.

Keywords: asparagus bean powder, nilem carp, gonad maturity, Cirata reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 87