Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Ala A. Hussien

21 Distributed Key Management With Less Transmitted Messaged In Rekeying Process To Secure Iot Wireless Sensor Networks In Smart-Agro

Authors: Safwan Mawlood Hussien


Internet of Things (IoT) is a promising technology has received considerable attention in different fields such as health, industry, defence, and agro, etc. Due to the limitation capacity of computing, storage, and communication, IoT objects are more vulnerable to attacks. Many solutions have been proposed to solve security issues, such as key management using symmetric-key ciphers. This study provides a scalable group distribution key management based on ECcryptography; with less transmitted messages The method has been validated through simulations in OMNeT++.

Keywords: elliptic curves, Diffie–Hellman, discrete logarithm problem, secure key exchange, WSN security, IoT security, smart-agro

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20 FPGA Implementation of RSA Encryption Algorithm for E-Passport Application

Authors: Khaled Shehata, Hanady Hussien, Sara Yehia


Securing the data stored on E-passport is a very important issue. RSA encryption algorithm is suitable for such application with low data size. In this paper the design and implementation of 1024 bit-key RSA encryption and decryption module on an FPGA is presented. The module is verified through comparing the result with that obtained from MATLAB tools. The design runs at a frequency of 36.3 MHz on Virtex-5 Xilinx FPGA. The key size is designed to be 1024-bit to achieve high security for the passport information. The whole design is achieved through VHDL design entry which makes it a portable design and can be directed to any hardware platform.

Keywords: RSA, VHDL, FPGA, modular multiplication, modular exponential

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19 The Effect of Arabic Gum on Polyethersulfone Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien


In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) to the dope solutions of polyethersulfone (PES) was studied. The aim of adding AG is to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. several AG loading (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in PES/ N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) casting solutions were prepared to fabricate PES membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PES/AG membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of oil solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG to PES membranes was found to increase the permeate flux and porosity as well as reducing surface roughness and the contact angle of the membranes.

Keywords: antifouling, Arabic gum, polyethersulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

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18 Design of a Universal Wireless Battery Charger

Authors: Ahmad B. Musamih, Ahmad A. Albloushi, Ahmed H. Alshemeili, Abdulaziz Y. Alfili, Ala A. Hussien


This paper proposes a universal wireless battery charger design for portable electronic devices. As the number of portable electronics devices increases, the demand for more flexible and reliable charging techniques is becoming more urgent. A wireless battery charger differs from a traditional charger in the way the power transferred to the battery. In the latter, the power is transferred through electrical wires that connect the charger terminals to the battery terminals, while in the former; the power is transferred by induction without electrical connections. With a detection algorithm that detects the battery size and chemistry, the proposed charger will be able to accommodate a wide range of applications, and will allow a more flexible and reliable option to most of today’s portable electronics.

Keywords: efficiency, magnetically-coupled resonators, resonance frequency, wireless power transfer

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17 From Two-Way to Multi-Way: A Comparative Study for Map-Reduce Join Algorithms

Authors: Marwa Hussien Mohamed, Mohamed Helmy Khafagy


Map-Reduce is a programming model which is widely used to extract valuable information from enormous volumes of data. Map-reduce designed to support heterogeneous datasets. Apache Hadoop map-reduce used extensively to uncover hidden pattern like data mining, SQL, etc. The most important operation for data analysis is joining operation. But, map-reduce framework does not directly support join algorithm. This paper explains and compares two-way and multi-way map-reduce join algorithms for map reduce also we implement MR join Algorithms and show the performance of each phase in MR join algorithms. Our experimental results show that map side join and map merge join in two-way join algorithms has the longest time according to preprocessing step sorting data and reduce side cascade join has the longest time at Multi-Way join algorithms.

Keywords: Hadoop, MapReduce, multi-way join, two-way join, Ubuntu

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16 The Use of Arabic Gum Mixed with Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Dodecylamine to Fabricate Superior Ultrafiltration Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien


In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with dodecylamine (CNT-DDA) to the casting solutions of polysulfone (PS) was investigated. The aim of adding AG and CNT-DDA was to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. Different CNT-DDA loadings (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in 2 wt.% AG were added to PS/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) casting solutions to prepare PS membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PS/AG/CNT-DDA membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of BSA solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG and CNT-DDA to PS membranes was found to increase the hydrophilicity, porosity and hence the permeate flux of the fabricated membranes.

Keywords: Arabic gum, hydrophilicity, polysulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

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15 Effectiveness of a Traits Cooperative Learning on Developing Writing Achievement and Composition among Teacher Candidates

Authors: Abdelaziz Hussien


This article reports investigations of a study into the effectiveness of a traits cooperative learning (TCL) on teacher candidates’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach and small group learning. Mixed methodologies were used with the participants in a repeated measures quasi-experimental design. Forty-two class teacher candidates, enrolled in the Bahrain Teachers College, completed the pre and post author-developed measures. The results suggest that TCL has a positive effect on the participants’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach, but not on the attitudes towards small group learning. Further implications to teacher education are presented.

Keywords: trait-based language education, cooperative learning, writing achievement, writing composition, traits of writing, teacher education

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14 Tax Avoidance and Leadership Replacement: Moderating Influence of Ownership and Political Connections

Authors: Radwan Hussien Alkebsee


Under the argument that reputational costs deter firms from engaging in tax avoidance activities, this paper investigates the relationship between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover. This study is based on a broad sample of Chinese listed companies spanning the period 2011 to 2018. The findings reveal that tax avoidance is positively associated with forced CEO turnover. This suggests that firms that engage in tax avoidance experience a high rate of leadership replacement. The findings also reveal that the positive association between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover is pronounced for state-owned firms, firms with no political connections, and firms located in “more developed” regions with extensive tax enforcement action, while it is not for private firms, firms with political connections, and firms located in “less developed” regions with weak tax enforcement actions. The baseline results remain consistent and robust for endogeneity concerns.

Keywords: tax avoidance, CEO turnover, political connections, regional tax enforcement, China

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13 Multiphase Flow Model for 3D Numerical Model Using ANSYS for Flow over Stepped Cascade with End Sill

Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Hanan Hussien Abood


Stepped cascade has been utilized as a hydraulic structure for years. It has proven to be the least costly aeration system in replenishing dissolved oxygen. Numerical modeling of stepped cascade with end sill is very complicated and challenging because of the high roughness and velocity re circulation regions. Volume of fluid multiphase flow model (VOF) is used .The realizable k-ξ model is chosen to simulate turbulence. The computational results are compared with lab-scale stepped cascade data. The lab –scale model was constructed in the hydraulic laboratory, Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq. The stepped cascade was 0.23 m wide and consisted of 3 steps each 0.2m high and 0.6 m long with variable end sill. The discharge was varied from 1 to 4 l/s. ANSYS has been employed to simulate the experimental data and their related results. This study shows that ANSYS is able to predict results almost the same as experimental findings in some regions of the structure.

Keywords: stepped cascade weir, aeration, multiphase flow model, ansys

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12 Risk Management in Islamic Banks: A Case Study of the Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Saad Ahmed Hussien


This paper discusses the risk management in Islamic banks and aims to determine the difference in the practices and methods of risk management in those banks compared to the conventional banks, and to make a case study of the biggest Islamic bank in Egypt (Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt) to identify the most important financial risks faced and how to manage those risks. It was found that Islamic banks face two types of risks. The first type is similar to the risks in conventional banks; the second type is the additional risks which facing the Islamic banks only as a result of some Islamic modes of financing. With regard to the risk management, Islamic banks such as conventional banks applied the regulatory rules issued by the Central Banks and the Basel Committee; Islamic banks also applied the instructions and procedures issued by the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB). Also, Islamic banks are similar to the conventional banks in the practices and methods which they use to manage the risks. And there are some factors that may affect the risk management in Islamic banks, such as the size of the bank and the efficiency of the administration and the staff of the bank.

Keywords: conventional banks, Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt, Islamic banks, risk management

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11 The Impact of Funders on the Media Industry in the Kurdistan Region Iraqi

Authors: Abdulsamad Qadir Hussien


This paper examines the impact of funders on the media industry in the Kurdistan Region Iraqi (henceforth KRI). The key objectives of the study are also looking at: how the media industry funder influences the media organization and journalists’ practices in the Kurdish community; how the media organizations attempt to utilize the available capabilities to serve the goals of the funded entities, whether they are parties, NGOs, governments, commercial companies or have individual ownership of media institutes. Further, the research project seeks to discover the influence and role of the funder on the media content and determine the prioritizing that will broadcast on the media. Furthermore, the project tries to understand to what extent the media organizations have a commitment to achieve the public interest and public affairs by following the key ethical principles. The study also attempts to explain the situation of the public service media. These variables are measured through a survey questionnaire distributed among a sample of 108 journalists and media practitioners. This research project, therefore, explores a new topic for study in the Kurdish community regarding the media industry, funding, and financial support. This article adopted surveys (n=108) as data collection tools by using a statistical method (SPSS 21). The data of the study have been tabulated, coded, and presented in a descriptive form.

Keywords: funding, journalists’ practices, Kurdish media industry, public services media

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10 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan


Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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9 Utilization of Two Kind of Recycling Greywater in Irrigation of Syngonium SP. Plants Grown Under Different Water Regime

Authors: Sami Ali Metwally, Bedour Helmy Abou-Leila, Hussien I.Abdel-Shafy


The work was carried out at the greenhouse of National Research Centre, Pot experiment was carried out during of 2020 and 2021 seasons aimed to study the effect of two types of water (two recycling gray water treatments((SMR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) and MBR(Membrane Biology Reactor) and three watering intervals 15, 20 and 25 days on Syangonium plants growth. Examination of data cleared that, (MBR) recorded increase in vegetative growth parameters, osmotic pressure, transpiration rate chlorophyll a,b,carotenoids and carbohydrate)in compared with SBR.As for water, intervalsthe highest values of most growth parameters were obtained from plants irrigated with after (20 days) compared with other treatments.15 days irrigation intervals recorded significantly increased in osmotic pressure, transpiration rate and photosynthetic pigments, while carbohydrate values recorded decreased. Interaction between water type and water intervals(SBR) recorded the highest values of most growth parameters by irrigation after 20 days. While the treatment (MBR)and irrigated after 25 days showed the highest values on leaf area and leaves fresh weight compared with other treatments.

Keywords: grey water, water intervals, Syngonium plant, recycling water, vegetative growth

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8 Adsorption of Basic Dyes Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Date Palm Fibre

Authors: Riham Hazzaa , Mohamed Hussien Abd El Megid


Dyes are toxic and cause severe problems to aquatic environment. The use of agricultural solid wastes is considered as low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents for removing dyes from waste water. Date palm fibre, an abundant agricultural by-product in Egypt was used to prepare activated carbon by physical activation method. This study investigates the use of date palm fiber (DPF) and activated carbon (DPFAC) for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB) from simulated waste water. The effects of temperature, pH of solution, initial dye (concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time were studied. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin, Radushkevich and Harkins–Jura isotherms. Adsorption kinetics data were modeled using the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order and Elvoich equations. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. The results revealed that as the initial dye concentration , amount of adsorbent and temperature increased, the percentage of dye removal increased. The optimum pH required for maximum removal was found to be 6. The adsorption of methylene blue dye was better described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Results indicated that DPFAC and DPF could be an alternative for more costly adsorbents used for dye removal.

Keywords: adsorption, basic dye, palm fiber, activated carbon

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7 Livable City as a New Approach for Sustainable Urban Planning

Authors: Nora Mohammed Rehan Hussien


Cities all over the world face daunting urban challenges that have increased in scope in recent years. The biggest challenge includes issues of urban planning, housing, safety aspects, scarcity of land for development and traffic congestion. So every city in the world aspires to adopt the strategy of ‘Livable City’ which guarantees the cities urbanization manner that preserves the environment, and achieve the greatest benefit from the resources and achieve a good standard of living. Essentially, a livable city should possess basic yet unique attributes to welcome people from all strata of society without marginalizing any particular group. Most of these cities began to move towards sustainability and livability to enhance quality and performance of urban services, to reduce costs and resources consumption, to engage more affectivity and actively with its citizens, and to describe the quality of life and the characteristics of cities that make them livable. From here came the idea of the research which is creating ‘A framework of livable and sustainable city’ as a sustainable approach that must follow to achieve the principle of sustainable livability. From this point of view the research deals with one of the most successful case studies all over the world in’ livable cities system’ (Vienna) to know how to explore and understand the issues and challenges in becoming a full- livable and creative city through analyzing the criteria, principles and strategy of livable city then deducing the framework towards this concept. Finally, it suggests a set of recommendations help for applying the concept of livable city.

Keywords: quality of life, livability & livable city, sustainability, sustainable city

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6 Greywater Reuse for Sunflower Irrigation Previously Radiated with Helium-Neon Laser: Evaluation of Growth, Flowering, and Chemical Constituents

Authors: Sami Ali Metwally, Bedour Helmy Abou-Leila, Hussien Ibrahim Abdel-Shafy


This study was carried out at the pilot plant area in the National Research Centre during the two successive seasons, 2020 and 2022. The aim is to investigate the response of vegetative growth and chemical constituents of sunflowers plants irrigated by two types of wastewater, namely: black wastewater W1 (Bathroom) and grey wastewater W1, under irradiation conditions of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser. The examined data indicated that irrigation of W1 significantly increased the growth and flowering parameters (plant height, leaves number, leaves area, leaves fresh and dry weight, flower diameter, flower stem length, flower stem thickness, number of days to flower, and total chlorophyll). Treated sunflower plants with 0 to 10 min. recorded an increase in the fresh weight and dry weight of leaves. However, the superiority of increasing vase life and delaying flowers were recorded by prolonging exposure time by up to 10 min. Regarding the effect of interaction treatments, the data indicated that the highest values on almost growth parameters were obtained from plants treated with W1+0 laser followed by W2+10 min. laser, compared with all interaction treatments. As for flowering parameters, the interactions between W2+2 min. time exposure, W1+0 time, w1+10 min., and w1+2 min. exposures recorded the highest values on flower diameter, flower stem length, flower stem thickness, vase life, and delaying flowering.

Keywords: greywater, sunflower plant, water reuse, vegetative growth, laser radiation

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5 Assessing the Impact of Adopting Climate Smart Agriculture on Food Security and Multidimensional Poverty: Case of Rural Farm Households in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Hussien Ali, Mesfin Menza, Fitsum Hagos, Amare Haileslassie


Climate change has perverse effects on agricultural productivity and natural resource base, negatively affecting the well-being of the households and communities. The government and NGOs promote climate smart agricultural (CSA) practices to help farmers adapt to and mitigate the negative effects of climate change. This study aims to identify widely available CSA practices and examine their impacts on food security and multi-dimensional poverty of rural farm households in the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Using three-stage proportional to size sampling procedure, the study randomly selected 278 households from two kebeles from four districts each. A cross-sectional data of 2020/21 cropping season was collected using structured and pretested survey questionnaire. Food consumption score, dietary diversity score, food insecurity experience scale, and multidimensional poverty index were calculated to measure households’ welfare indicators. Multinomial endogenous switching regression model was used to assess average treatment effects of CSA on these outcome indicators on adopter and non-adopter households. The results indicate that the widely adopted CSA practices in the area are conservation agriculture, soil fertility management, crop diversification, and small-scale irrigation. Adopter households have, on average, statistically higher food consumption score, dietary diversity score and lower food insecurity access scale than non-adopters. Moreover, adopter households, on average, have lower deprivation score in multidimensional poverty compared to non-adopter households. Up scaling the adoption of CSA practices through the improvement of households’ implementation capacity and better information, technical advice, and innovative financing mechanisms is advised. Up scaling CSA practices can further promote achieving global goals such as SDG 1, SDG 2, and SDG 13 targets, aimed to end poverty and hunger and mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change, respectively.

Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, food security, multidimensional poverty, upscaling CSA, Ethiopia

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4 The Role of Citizen Journalism on the Rising of Public Awareness in the Kurdistan Region Government-Iraq

Authors: Abdulsamad Qadir Hussien


The development of new technology in recent years has offered ordinary people various online digital platform tools and internet access to provide news stories, information, and subjects of public interest in the Kurdistan Region Government-Iraq (KRI). This shifting aspect has offered more chances for ordinary people to engage with other individuals on many issues in order to discuss and argue matters relating to their everyday lives. The key purpose of this research project will examine the role of citizen journalism in the increase of public awareness in the Kurdish community in the KRi; particularly, citizen journalism provides a new opportunity for ordinary people to raise their voices about problems and public matters in the KRI. The sample of this research project encompasses ordinary people who use social media platforms as sources of information and news concerning the KRI government policy. In the research project, the focus is on the ordinary people who are interacting with the blogs, posts, and footage that are produced by citizen journalism. The questionnaire was sent to more than 1,000 participants in the Kurdish community; this aspect produces statistically acceptable numbers to obtain a significant result for this research project. The sampling process is mainly based on the survey method in this study. The online questionnaire form includes many sections, which are divided into four key sections. The first section contains socio-demographic questions, including gender, age, and level of education. The research project applied the survey method in order to gather data and information surrounding the role of citizen journalism in increasing awareness of individuals in the Kurdish community. For this purpose, the researcher designed a questionnaire as the primary tool for the data collection process from ordinary people who use social media as a source of news and information. During the research project, online questionnaires were mailed in two ways – via Facebook and email – to participants in the Kurdish community, and this questionnaire looked for answers to questions from ordinary people, such as to what extent citizen journalism helps users to obtain information and news about public affairs and government policy. The research project found that citizen journalism has an essential role in increasing awareness of the Kurdish community, especially mainstream journalism has helped ordinary people to raise their voices in the KRI. Furthermore, citizen journalism carries more advantages as digital sources of news, footage, and information related to public affairs. This study provides useful tools to fore the news stories that are unreachable to professional journalists in the KRI.

Keywords: citizen journalism, public awareness, demonstration and democracy, social media news

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3 Application of Nanoparticles on Surface of Commercial Carbon-Based Adsorbent for Removal of Contaminants from Water

Authors: Ahmad Kayvani Fard, Gordon Mckay, Muataz Hussien


Adsorption/sorption is believed to be one of the optimal processes for the removal of heavy metals from water due to its low operational and capital cost as well as its high removal efficiency. Different materials have been reported in literature as adsorbent for heavy metal removal in waste water such as natural sorbents, organic polymers (synthetic) and mineral materials (inorganic). The selection of adsorbents and development of new functional materials that can achieve good removal of heavy metals from water is an important practice and depends on many factors, such as the availability of the material, cost of material, and material safety and etc. In this study we reported the synthesis of doped Activated carbon and Carbon nanotube (CNT) with different loading of metal oxide nanoparticles such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles and their application in removal of heavy metals, hydrocarbon, and organics from waste water. Commercial AC and CNT with different loadings of mentioned nanoparticle were prepared and effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption kinetic, and concentration effects are studied and optimum condition for removal of heavy metals from water is reported. The prepared composite sorbent is characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption technique, and Zeta potential. The composite materials showed higher removal efficiency and superior adsorption capacity compared to commercially available carbon based adsorbent. The specific surface area of AC increased by 50% reaching up to 2000 m2/g while the CNT specific surface area of CNT increased by more than 8 times reaching value of 890 m2/g. The increased surface area is one of the key parameters along with surface charge of the material determining the removal efficiency and removal efficiency. Moreover, the surface charge density of the impregnated CNT and AC have enhanced significantly where can benefit the adsorption process. The nanoparticles also enhance the catalytic activity of material and reduce the agglomeration and aggregation of material which provides more active site for adsorbing the contaminant from water. Some of the results for treating wastewater includes 100% removal of BTEX, arsenic, strontium, barium, phenolic compounds, and oil from water. The results obtained are promising for the use of AC and CNT loaded with metal oxide nanoparticle in treatment and pretreatment of waste water and produced water before desalination process. Adsorption can be very efficient with low energy consumption and economic feasibility.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, activated carbon, adsorption, heavy metal, water treatment

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2 Histological and Ultrastructural Study on the Effect

Authors: Olfat Mohamed Hussien Yousef


Tamoxifen (TM) is a synthetic non-steroidal antiestrogen. It is one of the most effective drugs for treatment of estrogen-dependent cancer by binding to estrogen receptors, suppressing of epithelial proliferation and as a chemotherapeutic agent. Recently, more attention has been paid to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against toxicities induced by anti-cancer drugs involving free radical-mediated oxidative stress and tissue injury. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that has the ability to scavenge factors causing free radical formation in animals receiving tamoxifen. The present study aims at pinpointing the TM-induced histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the kidneys and to assess the possible chemoprotective role of vitamin C against such TM-induced microscopic changes. Thirty adult male CD-1 mice, 25-30 g in weight and 3 months old, were divided into three groups. The first group served as control. The second group received the therapeutic dose of TM at daily oral dose of 40 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. The third group received the therapeutic dose of vitamin C at a daily dose of 500 mg/kg body weight simultaneously with the therapeutic dose of TM used in group two for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed and kidney samples were obtained and processed for histological and ultrastructural examination. Histological changes induced by TM included damage of the renal corpuscles including obliteration of the subcapsular space, congestion of the glomerular blood capillaries, segmental mesangial cell proliferation with matrix expansion, capsular adhesions with the glomerular tuft especially at the urinary pole of the corpuscles. Moreover, some proximal and distal tubules suffered various degrees of degeneration in some lining cells. Haemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration were also observed in the intertubular spaces. Ultrastructural observations revealed damage of the parietal epithelium of Bowman’s capsule, fusion and destruction of the foot processes of podocytes and great increase of mesangial cells and mesangial matrix. The cells of the proximal convoluted tubules displayed marked destruction of the microvilli constituting the brush borders and degeneration of the mitochondria; besides, abundant lysosomes, numerous vacuoles and pyknotic nuclei were observed. The distal convoluted tubules displayed marked distruction of both the basal infolding and the mitochondria in some areas. Histological and ultrastructural results revealed that treatment of male mice with TM simultaneously with vitamin C led to apparent repair of the injured renal tissue. This might suggest that vitamin C (an antioxidant agent) can minimize the toxic effects of TM (an antiestrogen).

Keywords: tamoxifen, vitamin c, mammalian kidney, histology, ultrastructure

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1 Sensitivity and Specificity of Some Serological Tests Used for Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Egypt on Bacteriological and Molecular Basis

Authors: Hosein I. Hosein, Ragab Azzam, Ahmed M. S. Menshawy, Sherin Rouby, Khaled Hendy, Ayman Mahrous, Hany Hussien


Brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial zoonotic disease of a worldwide spread and has different names; Infectious or enzootic abortion and Bang's disease in animals; and Mediterranean or Malta fever, Undulant Fever and Rock fever in humans. It is caused by the different species of genus Brucella which is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming, facultative intracellular bacterium. Brucella affects a wide range of mammals including bovines, small ruminants, pigs, equines, rodents, marine mammals as well as human resulting in serious economic losses in animal populations. In human, Brucella causes a severe illness representing a great public health problem. The disease was reported in Egypt for the first time in 1939; since then the disease remained endemic at high levels among cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat and is still representing a public health hazard. The annual economic losses due to brucellosis were estimated to be about 60 million Egyptian pounds yearly, but actual estimates are still missing despite almost 30 years of implementation of the Egyptian control programme. Despite being the gold standard, bacterial isolation has been reported to show poor sensitivity for samples with low-level of Brucella and is impractical for regular screening of large populations. Thus, serological tests still remain the corner stone for routine diagnosis of brucellosis, especially in developing countries. In the present study, a total of 1533 cows (256 from Beni-Suef Governorate, 445 from Al-Fayoum Governorate and 832 from Damietta Governorate), were employed for estimation of relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of buffered acidified plate antigen test (BPAT), rose bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis revealed (19.63%). Relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of BPAT,RBT and CFT were estimated as, (96.27 %, 96.76 %, 87.65 % and 99.10 %), (93.42 %, 96.27 %, 90.16 % and 98.35%) and (89.30 %, 98.60 %, 94.35 %and 97.24 %) respectively. BPAT showed the highest sensitivity among the three employed serological tests. RBT was less specific than BPAT. CFT showed the least sensitivity 89.30 % among the three employed serological tests but showed the highest specificity. Different tissues specimens of 22 seropositive cows (spleen, retropharyngeal udder, and supra-mammary lymph nodes) were subjected for bacteriological studies for isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 12 (54.55%) cows. Bacteriological examinations failed to classify 10 cases (45.45%) and were culture negative. Bruce-ladder PCR was carried out for molecular identification of the 12 Brucella isolates at the species level. Three fragments of 587 bp, 1071 bp and 1682 bp sizes were amplified indicating Brucella melitensis. The results indicated the importance of using several procedures to overcome the problem of escaping of some infected animals from diagnosis.Bruce-ladder PCR is an important tool for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of Brucella spp.

Keywords: brucellosis, relative sensitivity, relative specificity, Bruce-ladder, Egypt

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