Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Kebede Haile Misgina

25 A Cross-Sectional Study on Clinical Self-Efficacy of Final Year School of Nursing Students among Universities of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Awole Seid, Yosef Zenebe, Hadgu Gerensea, Kebede Haile Misgina

Abstract:

Background: Clinical competence is one of the ultimate goals of nursing education. Clinical skills are more than successfully performing tasks; it incorporates client assessment, identification of deficits and the ability to critically think to provide solutions. Assessment of clinical competence, particularly identifying gaps that need improvement and determining the educational needs of nursing students have great importance in nursing education. Thus this study aims determining clinical self-efficacy of final year school of nursing students in three universities of Tigray Region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 final year school of nursing students from department of nursing, psychiatric nursing, and midwifery on three universities of Tigray region. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was administered to generate data collected on June, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The result is described using tables and charts as required. Logistic regression was employed to test associations. Result: The mean age of students was 22.94 + 1.44. Generally, 21% of students have been graduated in the department in which they are not interested. The study demonstrated 28.6% had poor and 71.4% had good perceived clinical self-efficacy. Beside this, 43.8% of psychiatric nursing and 32.6% of comprehensive nursing students have poor clinical self-efficacy. Among the four domains, 39.3% and 37.9% have poor clinical self- efficacy with regard to ‘Professional development’ and ‘Management of care’. Place of the institution [AOR=3.480 (1.333 - 9.088), p=0.011], interest during department selection [AOR=2.202 (1.045 - 4.642), p=.038], and theory-practice gap [AOR=0.224 (0.110 - 0.457), p=0.000] were significantly associated with perceived clinical self-efficacy. Conclusion: The magnitude of students with poor clinically self efficacy was high. Place of institution, theory-practice gap, students interest to the discipline were the significant predictors of clinical self-efficacy. Students from youngest universities have good clinical self-efficacy. During department selection, student’s interest should be respected. The universities and other stakeholders should improve the capacity of surrounding affiliate teaching hospitals to set and improve care standards in order to narrow the theory-practice gap. School faculties should provide trainings to hospital staffs and monitor standards of clinical procedures.

Keywords: clinical self-efficacy, nursing students, Tigray, northern Ethiopia

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24 Innovative In-Service Training Approach to Strengthen Health Care Human Resources and Scale-Up Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Yewondwossen Tadesse, Susan Lehman, Zelalem Temesgen

Abstract:

In-service health trainings in Sub-Saharan Africa are mostly content-centered with higher disconnection with the real practice in the facility. This study intended to evaluate in-service training approach aimed to strengthen health care human resources. A combined web-based and face-to-face training was designed and piloted in Ethiopia with the diagnosis of tuberculosis. During the first part, which lasted 43 days, trainees accessed web-based material and read without leaving their work; while the second part comprised a one-day hands-on evaluation. Trainee’s competency was measured using multiple-choice questions, written-assignments, exercises and hands-on evaluation. Of 108 participants invited, 81 (75%) attended the course and 71 (88%) of them successfully completed. Of those completed, 73 (90%) scored a grade from A to C. The approach was effective to transfer knowledge and turn it into practical skills. In-service health training should transform from a passive one-time-event to a continuous behavioral change of participants and improvements on their actual work.

Keywords: Ethiopia, health care, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, training

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23 Discrimination between Defective and Non-Defective Coffee Beans Using a Laser Prism Spectrometer

Authors: A. Belay, B. Kebede

Abstract:

The concentration- and temperature-dependent refractive indices of solutions extracted from defective and non-defective coffee beans have been investigated using a He–Ne laser. The refractive index has a linear relationship with the presumed concentration of the coffee solutions in the range of 0.5–3%. Higher and lower values of refractive index were obtained for immature and non-defective coffee beans, respectively. The Refractive index of bean extracts can be successfully used to separate defective from non-defective beans.

Keywords: coffee extract, refractive index, temperature dependence

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22 A Framework for Green Use and Disposal of Information Communication Technology Devices

Authors: Frezer Alem Kebede

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The notion of viewing ICT as merely support for the business process has shifted towards viewing ICT as a critical business enabler. As such, the need for ICT devices has increased, contributing to high electronic equipment acquisition and disposal. Hence, its use and disposal must be seen in light of environmental sustainability, i.e., in terms of green use and disposal. However, there are limited studies on green Use and Disposal framework to be used as guiding lens by organizations in developing countries. And this study endeavors to address that need taking one of the largest multinational ICT intensive company in the country. The design and development of this framework passed through several stages, initially factors affecting green use and disposal were identified after quantitative and qualitative data analysis then there were multiple brainstorming sessions for the design enhancement as participative modelling was employed. Given the difference in scope and magnitude of the challenges identified, the proposed framework approaches green use and disposal in four imperatives; strategically, tactically, operationally and through continuous improvement.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green disposal, green ICT, green use, green use and disposal framework, sustainability

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21 Assessment of the New Ethiopian Investment Law in Light of Ethiopia’s Accession to the WTO: The Case of the Air Transport Sector

Authors: Gidey Asgedom Haile

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The WTO, although it excludes air transportation in general, it includes some sub-services (MRO, the selling and marketing of air transport services and CRS) in its Annex on Air Transport Services (AATS). To clarify the exact scope of the AATS, the AATS reviewed twice though it is not successful yet. Ethiopia formally requested WTO accession in January 2003, though the accession process was stagnant for years until it resumed in June 2019. Be that as it may, the Ethiopian New Investment Law made some changes, including a partial liberalization of the international and domestic air transport services. However, the travel agency, travel ticket sales and maintenance repair and overhaul(MRO) are reserved for domestic investors. To this end, the author has assessed the new investment law considering Ethiopia's WTO accession using qualitative and descriptive methods. In contrast to the AATS, the New Investment Law is as restrictive as the previous Ethiopian investment law though it partly liberalized the major service of air transport. Thus, the author concluded that the air transportation under the New Investment Law could be a challenging issue to Ethiopia's negotiation team to the WTO. Finally, the Author provided some recommendations to be taken by the Ethiopian negotiation team, Ethiopian legislation, and the WTO.

Keywords: world trade organization (WTO), accession, Ethiopia, investment law, liberalization, air transportation

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20 Information Exchange Process Analysis between Authoring Design Tools and Lighting Simulation Tools

Authors: Rudan Xue, Annika Moscati, Rehel Zeleke Kebede, Peter Johansson

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Successful buildings’ simulation and analysis inevitably require information exchange between multiple building information modeling (BIM) software. The BIM infor-mation exchange based on IFC is widely used. However, Industry Foundation Classifi-cation (IFC) files are not always reliable and information can get lost when using dif-ferent software for modeling and simulations. In this research, interviews with lighting simulation experts and a case study provided by a company producing lighting devices have been the research methods used to identify the necessary steps and data for suc-cessful information exchange between lighting simulation tools and authoring design tools. Model creation, information exchange, and model simulation have been identi-fied as key aspects for the success of information exchange. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved information exchange and more reliable simulations that take all the needed parameters into consideration.

Keywords: BIM, data exchange, interoperability issues, lighting simulations

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19 Crop Water Productivity for Sunflower under Different Irrigation Regimes and Plant Spacing, at Gezira Clay Soil, Sudan

Authors: R. A. Eman Elsheikh, Bart Schultz, Abraham Mehari Haile, Hussein S. Adam

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A field experiment was conducted at Gezira research station farm during the winter season in the third week of November 2012, in WadMedani, Sudan (Lat 14.23 W, Long 33.39 E and altitude 405 m above sea level, in deep cracking alkaline heavy clay Vertisols). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of three different irrigation for 10 days (W1), 15 days (W2) and 20 days (W3) and for two rows of 30 cm (S1) and 40 cm (S2), respectively. The experimental design was split plot with three replicates. The sunflower test variety was Hysun 33 cultivar. The seasonal water applied during the study was 6898, 6647, 5256, 5435, 5214, 5416 m3/ha for W1S1, W1S2, W2S1, W2S2, W3S1 and W3S2 respectively. The seed yield obtained for the above treatment in that sequence was 4208, 5542, 5167, 4579, 2931, 2936 kg/ha. The corresponding computed water productivity was 0.61, 0.82, 0.87, 0.95, 0.54, 0.56 kg/m3. The study clearly indicated that the highest seed yield was obtained when the crop was sown at 40 cm row spacing and was irrigated every 10 days (W1S2), followed by W2S1.

Keywords: water productivity, water deficit, sunflower, plant spacing

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18 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

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17 Sequential Release of Dual Drugs Using Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Tumor Vascular Inhibition and to Enhance the Efficacy of Chemotherapy

Authors: Haile F. Darge, Hsieh C. Tsai

Abstract:

The tumor microenvironment affects the therapeutic outcomes of cancer disease. In a malignant tumor, overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) provokes the production of pathologic vascular networks. This results in a hostile tumor environment that hinders anti-cancer drug activities and profoundly fuels tumor progression. In this study, we develop a strategy of sequential sustain release of the anti-angiogenic drug: Bevacizumab(BVZ), and anti-cancer drug: Doxorubicin(DOX) which had a synergistic effect on cancer treatment. Poly (D, L-Lactide)- Poly (ethylene glycol) –Poly (D, L-Lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA) thermo-sensitive hydrogel was used as a vehicle for local delivery of drugs in a single platform. The in vitro release profiles of the drugs were investigated and confirmed a relatively rapid release of BVZ (73.56 ± 1.39%) followed by Dox (61.21 ± 0.62%) for a prolonged period. The cytotoxicity test revealed that the copolymer exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to 2.5 mg ml-1 concentration on HaCaT and HeLa cells. The in vivo study on Hela xenograft nude mice verified that hydrogel co-loaded with BVZ and DOX displayed the highest tumor suppression efficacy for up to 36 days with pronounce anti-angiogenic effect of BVZ and with no noticeable damage on vital organs. Therefore, localized co-delivery of anti-angiogenic drug and anti-cancer drugs by the hydrogel system may be a promising approach for enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment.

Keywords: anti-angiogenesis, chemotherapy, controlled release, thermo-sensitive hydrogel

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16 Marketing of Non Timber Forest Products and Forest Management in Kaffa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia

Authors: Amleset Haile

Abstract:

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are harvested for both subsistence and commercial use and play a key role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Ethiopia, Kaffa as a source of household income. market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to getther information on elements of marketing system–products, product differentiation, value addition, pricing, promotion, distribution, and marketing chains. The study, therefore, was conducted in Kaffa Biosphere reserve of southwest Ethiopia with the main objective of assessing and analyzing the contribution of NTFPs to rural livelihood and to the conservation of the biosphere reserve and to identify factors influencing in the marketing of the NTFP. Five villages were selected based on their proximity gradient from Bonga town and availability of NTFP. Formal survey was carried out on rural households selected using stratified random sampling. The results indicate that Local people practice diverse livelihood activities mainly crops cultivation (cereals and cash crops) and livestock husbandry, gather forest products and off-farm/off-forest activities for surviva. NTFP trade is not a common phenomenon in southwest Ethiopia. The greatest opportunity exists for local level marketing of spices and other non timber forest products. Very little local value addition takes place within the region,and as a result local market players have little control. Policy interventions arc required to enhance the returns to local collectors, which will also contribute to sustainable management of forest resources in Kaffa biosphere reserve.

Keywords: forest management, biosphere reserve, marketing, local people

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15 A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Virological Non-Suppression among HIV-Positive Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Woliso Town, Oromia, Ethiopia

Authors: Teka Haile, Behailu Hawulte, Solomon Alemayehu

Abstract:

Background: HIV virological failure still remains a problem in HV/AIDS treatment and care. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and identify the factors associated with viral non-suppression among HIV-positive adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in Woliso Town, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 424 HIV-positive patient’s attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Woliso Town during the period from August 25, 2020 to August 30, 2020. Data collected from patient medical records were entered into Epi Info version 2.3.2.1 and exported to SPSS version 21.0 for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with viral load non-suppression, and statistical significance of odds ratios were declared using 95% confidence interval and p-value < 0.05. Results: A total of 424 patients were included in this study. The mean age (± SD) of the study participants was 39.88 (± 9.995) years. The prevalence of HIV viral load non-suppression was 55 (13.0%) with 95% CI (9.9-16.5). Second-line ART treatment regimen (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 8.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.64, 30.58) and routine viral load testing (AOR = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.02) were significantly associated with virological non-suppression. Conclusion: Virological non-suppression was high, which hinders the achievement of the third global 95 target. The second-line regimen and routine viral load testing were significantly associated with virological non-suppression. It suggests the need to assess the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs for epidemic control. It also clearly shows the need to decentralize third-line ART treatment for those patients in need.

Keywords: virological non-suppression, HIV-positive, ART, Woliso town, Ethiopia

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14 AquaCrop Model Simulation for Water Productivity of Teff (Eragrostic tef): A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Yenesew Mengiste Yihun, Abraham Mehari Haile, Teklu Erkossa, Bart Schultz

Abstract:

Teff (Eragrostic tef) is a staple food in Ethiopia. The local and international demand for the crop is ever increasing pushing the current price five times compared with that in 2006. To meet this escalating demand increasing production including using irrigation is imperative. Optimum application of irrigation water, especially in semi-arid areas is profoundly important. AquaCrop model application in irrigation water scheduling and simulation of water productivity helps both irrigation planners and agricultural water managers. This paper presents simulation and evaluation of AquaCrop model in optimizing the yield and biomass response to variation in timing and rate of irrigation water application. Canopy expansion, canopy senescence and harvest index are the key physiological processes sensitive to water stress. For full irrigation water application treatment there was a strong relationship between the measured and simulated canopy and biomass with r2 and d values of 0.87 and 0.96 for canopy and 0.97 and 0.74 for biomass, respectively. However, the model under estimated the simulated yield and biomass for higher water stress level. For treatment receiving full irrigation the harvest index value obtained were 29%. The harvest index value shows generally a decreasing trend under water stress condition. AquaCrop model calibration and validation using the dry season field experiments of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 shows that AquaCrop adequately simulated the yield response to different irrigation water scenarios. We conclude that the AquaCrop model can be used in irrigation water scheduling and optimizing water productivity of Teff grown under water scarce semi-arid conditions.

Keywords: AquaCrop, climate smart agriculture, simulation, teff, water security, water stress regions

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13 Magnetized Cellulose Nanofiber Extracted from Natural Resources for the Application of Hexavalent Chromium Removal Using the Adsorption Method

Authors: Kebede Gamo Sebehanie, Olu Emmanuel Femi, Alberto Velázquez Del Rosario, Abubeker Yimam Ali, Gudeta Jafo Muleta

Abstract:

Water pollution is one of the most serious worldwide issues today. Among water pollution, heavy metals are becoming a concern to the environment and human health due to their non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation. In this study, a magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite derived from renewable resources is employed for hexavalent chromium elimination by adsorption. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized directly from iron ore using solvent extraction and co-precipitation technique. Cellulose nanofiber was extracted from sugarcane bagasse using the alkaline treatment and acid hydrolysis method. Before and after the adsorption process, the MNPs-CNF composites were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Vibrator sample magnetometer (VSM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The impacts of several parameters such as pH, contact time, initial pollutant concentration, and adsorbent dose on adsorption efficiency and capacity were examined. The kinetic and isotherm adsorption of Cr (VI) was also studied. The highest removal was obtained at pH 3, and it took 80 minutes to establish adsorption equilibrium. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used, and the experimental data fit well with the Langmuir model, which has a maximum adsorption capacity of 8.27 mg/g. The kinetic study of the adsorption process using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations revealed that the pseudo-second-order equation was more suited for representing the adsorption kinetic data. Based on the findings, pure MNPs and MNPs-CNF nanocomposites could be used as effective adsorbents for the removal of Cr (VI) from wastewater.

Keywords: magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite, hexavalent chromium, adsorption, sugarcane bagasse

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12 Establishment of Reference Interval for Serum Protein Electrophoresis of Apparently Healthy Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Demiraw Bikila, Tadesse Lejisa, Yosef Tolcha, Chala Bashea, Mehari Meles Tigist Getahun Genet Ashebir, Wossene Habtu, Feyissa Challa, Ousman Mohammed, Melkitu Kassaw, Adisu Kebede, Letebrhan G. Egzeabher, Endalkachew Befekadu, Mistire Wolde, Aster Tsegaye

Abstract:

Background: Even though several factors affect reference intervals (RIs), the company-derived values are currently in use in many laboratories worldwide. However, little or no data is available regarding serum protein RIs, mainly in resource-limited setting countries like Ethiopia. Objective: To establish a reference interval for serum protein electrophoresis of apparently healthy adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 297 apparently healthy adults from April-October 2019 in four selected sub-cities (Akaki, Kirkos, Arada, Yeka) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Laboratory analysis of collected samples was performed using Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyzer, while statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and med-cal software. Mann-Whitney test was used to check Partitions. Non-parametric method of reference range establishment was performed as per CLSI guideline EP28A3C. Result: The established RIs were: Albumin 53.83-64.59%, 52.24-63.55%; Alpha-1 globulin 3.04-5.40%, 3.44-5.60%; Alpha-2 globulin 8.0-12.67%, 8.44-12.87%; and Beta-1 globulin 5.01-7.38%, 5.14-7.86%. Moreover, Albumin to globulin ratio was 1.16-1.8, 1.09-1.74 for males and females, respectively. The combined RIs for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin were 2.54-4.90% and 12.40-21.66%, respectively. Conclusion: The established reference interval for serum protein fractions revealed gender-specific differences except for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin.

Keywords: serum protein electrophoresis, reference interval, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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11 The Endocrinology of Obesity and Dejenerative Joint Disease

Authors: Kebret Kebede, Anthony Scinta

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Obesity is the most prevalent global problem that continues to rise at alarming rates both in the industrialized and developing countries. Adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue that secretes numerous chemical signals, hormones, lipids, cytokines and coagulation factors as well as prompting insulin resistance which is a primary contributor to Type II Diabetes- one of its most common adverse effects on health. Other hormones whose levels are linked to obesity and nutritional state are leptin, IGF-1, and adiponectin. Several studies indicate that obesity is the leading cause of high levels of cholesterol that leads to fatty liver disease, gallstones, hypertension, increased risk for cancer and degenerative joint disease that primarily affects the weight bearing joints of the lower extremities. The activation of inflammatory pathways promotes synovial pathology that results in accelerated degeneration of the joints. The study examines the prevalence of obesity in the US female population in comparison to that of the developing world and its emergence as a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in degenerative disease of the hip and knee joints that has resulted in staggering healthcare cost. Studies have shown that as the prevalence of obesity rises, we continue to see a rise in degenerative joint disease. The percentage of arthritis cases linked directly to obesity has risen from 3 percent in 1971 to 18 percent in 2002. A person with obesity is around 60 percent more likely to develop arthritis than someone of normal body weight. In women, obesity is associated with increased mortality from breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer that may accompany debilitating joint diseases and restricted mobility.

Keywords: obesity, endocrine, degenerative, mortality, joint diseases, cancer, debilitating, mobility

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10 Determinants of Cessation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Ankesha Guagusa Woreda, Awi Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Tebikew Yeneabat, Tefera Belachew, Muluneh Haile

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Background: Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is the practice of feeding only breast milk (including expressed breast milk) during the first six months and no other liquids and solid foods except medications. The time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding, however, is different in different countries depending on different factors. Studies showed the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality is higher among none exclusive breast-feeding infants, common during starting other foods. However, there is no study that evaluated the time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding in the study area. The aim of this study was to show time to cessation of EBF and its predictors among mothers of index infants less than twelve months old. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study from February 13 to March 3, 2012 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This study included a total of 592 mothers of index infant using multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Results: Cessation of exclusive breast-feeding occurred in 392 (69.63%) cases. Among these, 224 (57.1%) happened before six months, while 145 (37.0%) and 23 (5.9%) occurred at six months and after six months of age of the index infant respectively. The median time for infants to stay on exclusive breast-feeding was 6.36 months in rural and 5.13 months in urban, and this difference was statistically significant on a Log rank (Cox-mantel) test. Maternal and paternal occupation, place of residence, postnatal counseling on exclusive breast-feeding, mode of delivery, and birth order of the index infant were significant predictors of cessation of exclusive breast-feeding. Conclusion: Providing postnatal care counseling on EBF, routine follow-up and support of those mothers having infants stressing for working mothers can bring about implementation of national strategy on infant and young child feeding.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, cessation, median duration, Ankesha Guagusa Woreda

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9 Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Pelleted or Non-Pelleted Diets, Containing Graded Levels of Raw Full-Fat Soybean

Authors: G. Berhane, F. Kebede

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A feeding trial was conducted to enhance the utilization of locally produced full-fat soybean by the broiler industry. The study had three phases such as starter (1-14d), grower (15–28d), and finisher (29–49d) phases. A completely randomized design (CRD) was used in the starter phase with three treatments (commercial soybean meal (SBM) was replaced by raw full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 0, 10, or 20%), and each was replicated eight times. A total of 408 unsexed one-day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to replicates. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was used in both second (grower) and third (finisher) phase trials, which had six experimental diets. These six treatments were formed by dividing the original three diets (containing 0, 10, or 20% of RFSB into two and then by pelleting anyone from each respective group and leaving the other as mash. Every treatment had four replications and 17 birds in each. Chemical compositions of feed ingredients were analyzed, and data on the initial body weight of chicks, feed offered, feed leftover, body weight (BW) of chickens, and mortality were collected. At the end of the experiment, two birds (one male and one female) per replicate were randomly selected and humanly slaughtered. Weights of dressed, eviscerated, cut parts of the carcass and visceral organs were weighed and recorded. Results indicated that feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), BW, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were not significantly affected (P=0.05) by supplementation of a leveled RFSB on diets at starter, grower, and finisher phases. The FI at the finisher stage was also significantly (P=0.05) influenced by the feed forms. However, weights of dressed, eviscerated, cut parts of the carcass and visceral organs were not significantly (P=0.05) affected by both RFSB supplementation, up to 20%, and feed forms. It is concluded that commercial SBM can be replaced by locally produced RFSB up to 20% without pelleting the diets.

Keywords: broilers, carcass characteristics, raw full-fat soybean, weight gain

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8 Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6-59 Months at Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa, Oromia Regional State

Authors: Kebede Mengistu, Kassahun Alemu, Bikes Destaw

Abstract:

Introduction: Malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is the most important risk factor for the burden of diseases. It causes about 300, 000 deaths per year and responsible for more than half of all deaths in children. In Ethiopia, child malnutrition rate is one of the most serious public health problem and the highest in the world. High malnutrition rates in the country pose a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. Objective: To assess prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at Hidabu Abote district, North shewa, Oromia. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted on 820 children aged 6-59 months from September 8-23, 2012 at Hidabu Abote district. Multistage sampling method was used to select households. Children were selected from each kebeles by simple random sampling. Anthropometric measurements and structured questioners were used. Data was processed using EPi-info soft ware and exported to SPSS for analysis. Then after, sex, age, months, height, and weight transferred with HHs number to ENA for SMART 2007software to convert nutritional data into Z-scores of the indices; H/A, W/H and W/A. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of malnutrition. Results: The analysis this study revealed that, 47.6%, 30.9% and 16.7% of children were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. The main associated factors of stunting were found to be child age, family monthly income, children were received butter as pre-lacteal feeding and family planning. Underweight was associated with number of children HHs and children were received butter as per-lacteal feeding but un treatment of water in HHs only associated with wasting. Conclusion and recommendation: From the findings of this study, it is concluded that malnutrition is still an important problem among children aged 6-59 months. Therefore, especial attention should be given on intervention of malnutrition.

Keywords: children, Hidabu Abote district, malnutrition, public health

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7 Model Organic Ranikin Cycle Power Plant for Waste Heat Recovery in Olkaria-I Geothermal Power Plant

Authors: Haile Araya Nigusse, Hiram M. Ndiritu, Robert Kiplimo

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Energy consumption is an indispensable component for the continued development of the human population. The global energy demand increases with development and population rise. The increase in energy demand, high cost of fossil fuels and the link between energy utilization and environmental impacts have resulted in the need for a sustainable approach to the utilization of the low grade energy resources. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant is an advantageous technology that can be applied in generation of power from low temperature brine of geothermal reservoirs. The power plant utilizes a low boiling organic working fluid such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon. Researches indicated that the performance of ORC power plant is highly dependent upon factors such as proper organic working fluid selection, types of heat exchangers (condenser and evaporator) and turbine used. Despite a high pressure drop, shell-tube heat exchangers have satisfactory performance for ORC power plants. This study involved the design, fabrication and performance assessment of the components of a model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant to utilize the low grade geothermal brine. Two shell and tube heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and a single stage impulse turbine have been designed, fabricated and the performance assessment of each component has been conducted. Pentane was used as a working fluid and hot water simulating the geothermal brine. The results of the experiment indicated that the increase in mass flow rate of hot water by 0.08 kg/s caused a rise in overall heat transfer coefficient of the evaporator by 17.33% and the heat transferred was increased by 6.74%. In the condenser, the increase of cooling water flow rate from 0.15 kg/s to 0.35 kg/s increased the overall heat transfer coefficient by 1.21% and heat transferred was increased by 4.26%. The shaft speed varied from 1585 to 4590 rpm as inlet pressure was varied from 0.5 to 5.0 bar and power generated was varying from 4.34 to 14.46W. The results of the experiments indicated that the performance of each component of the model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant operating at low temperature heat resources was satisfactory.

Keywords: brine, heat exchanger, ORC, turbine

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6 Extreme Heat and Workforce Health in Southern Nevada

Authors: Erick R. Bandala, Kebret Kebede, Nicole Johnson, Rebecca Murray, Destiny Green, John Mejia, Polioptro Martinez-Austria

Abstract:

Summertemperature data from Clark County was collected and used to estimate two different heat-related indexes: the heat index (HI) and excess heat factor (EHF). These two indexes were used jointly with data of health-related deaths in Clark County to assess the effect of extreme heat on the exposed population. The trends of the heat indexes were then analyzed for the 2007-2016 decadeandthe correlation between heat wave episodes and the number of heat-related deaths in the area was estimated. The HI showed that this value has increased significantly in June, July, and August over the last ten years. The same trend was found for the EHF, which showed a clear increase in the severity and number of these events per year. The number of heat wave episodes increased from 1.4 per year during the 1980-2016 period to 1.66 per yearduring the 2007-2016 period. However, a different trend was found for heat-wave-event duration, which decreasedfrom an average of 20.4 days during the trans-decadal period (1980-2016) to 18.1 days during the most recent decade(2007-2016). The number of heat-related deaths was also found to increase from 2007 to 2016, with 2016 with the highest number of heat-related deaths. Both HI and the number of deaths showeda normal-like distribution for June, July, and August, with the peak values reached in late July and early August. The average maximum HI values better correlated with the number of deaths registered in Clark County than the EHF, probably because HI uses the maximum temperature and humidity in its estimation,whereas EHF uses the average medium temperature. However, it is worth testing the EHF of the study zone because it was reported to fit properly in the case of heat-related morbidity. For the overall period, 437 heat-related deaths were registered in Clark County, with 20% of the deaths occurring in June, 52% occurring in July, 18% occurring in August,and the remaining 10% occurring in the other months of the year. The most vulnerable subpopulation was people over 50 years old, for which 76% of the heat-related deaths were registered.Most of the cases were associated with heart disease preconditions. The second most vulnerable subpopulation was young adults (20-50), which accounted for 23% of the heat-related deaths. These deathswere associated with alcoholic/illegal drug intoxication.

Keywords: heat, health, hazards, workforce

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5 Entomopathogenic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents: Review Paper

Authors: Tadesse Kebede Dabsu

Abstract:

Insect pest is one the major limiting factor for sustainable food production. To overtake insect pest problem, since Second World War, producers have used excessive insecticide for insect pest management. However, in the era of 21st Century, the excessive use of insecticide caused insect resistant, insecticide bioaccumulation, insecticide hazard to environment, human health problem, and the like. Due to these problems, research efforts have been focused on the development of environmental free sustainable insect pest management method. To minimize all above mentioned risk utilizing of biological control such as entomopathogenicmicroorganism include bacteria, virus, fungus, and their productsare the best option for suppress insect population below certain density level. The objective of this review was to review the updated available studies and recent developments on the entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB) as biological control of insect pest and challenge of using them for control of insect pest. EPB’s mechanisms of insecticidal activities, type, taxonomy, and history are included in this paper body. EPB has been successfully used for the suppression of populations of insect pests. Controlling of harmful insect by entomopathogenic bacteria is an effective, low bioaccumulation in environment and food, very specific, reduce resistance risk in insect pest, economically and sustainable method of major insect pest management method. Identified and reported as potential major common type of entomopathogenic bacteria include Bacillus thuringiensis, Photorhabdus sp., Xenorhabdus spp.Walbachiaspp, Actinomycetesspp.etc. These bacteria being enter into insect body through natural opening or by vector release toxin protein inside of insect and disrupt the cell’s content cause natural mortality under natural condition. As per reported by different scientists, insect orders like Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Dipterahave been successful controlled by entomopathogenic bacteria. As per coming across in different scientific research journals, much of the work was emphasised on Bacillus thuringiensisbsp. Therefore, for commercial production like Bacillus thuringiensi, detail research should be done on other bacteria species. The efficacy and practical application of EPB are restricted to some crops and greenhouse area, but their field application at farmers’ level very less. So still much work needs to be done to the practical application of the EPB at widely application. Their efficacy, pathogenicity, and host range test should be tested under environmental condition.

Keywords: insect pest, entomopathogenic bacteria, biological control, agent

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4 Evaluation of the Pathogenicity Test of Some Entomopathogenic Fungus Isolates against Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick) Larvae [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae])

Authors: Tadesse Kebede, Orkun Baris Kovanci

Abstract:

Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta) is one of the most economically important insect pest in tomatoes production. The use of biological control such as entomopathogen fungi isolates would be a long-term and cost-effective solution to control insects pest. Therefore, identifying the most virulent and pathogenic entomopathogen fungi is one of the basic requirements for effective management options to combat Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta). Furthermore, the pathogenicity and virulence difference among entomopathogenfungus strains is not widely well investıgated. The current study was therefore initiated to test the pathogenicity of some entomopathogenic fungus isolates against Tutaabsoluta. The experiment was conducted at Bursa Uludag University, Agiculutre faculty, horticulture department glasshouse in 2020/2021. Tutabasoluta adult were collected, and masslarvae were reared in a growth chamber. Then, ten third instar larvae were inoculated with four entomopathogen fungi isolates (Beuaveriabassania Ak-10, Beuaveriabassania Ak-14, Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11, and Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-12) with different inoculum suspension (0, 1x10⁶, 1x10⁷,,4 × 10⁸, 4× 10⁹ and 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml) in a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with three replication. Mortality data assessment was done on the 3rd, 5thand 7th days after treatment and analyzed. The analysis of variance for mortality rate revealed significant variations (p<0.05) among entomoptahogen fungi isolates and conidia concentrations. The results revealed thatMetarhziumanisoplai Ak-12was found to show the lowest mortality percentage80.77%, highest LC50 2.3x108, and the longest incubation period, LT50, 4.9 and LT90, 9.9daysand considered to be less pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Beuaveriabassania Ak-10 isolate showed the highest mortality percentage, 91%, and the lowest LT50, 4, and LT90, 7.6 values at 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml, followed by Beuaveriabassania Ak-14 and being considered as the most aggressive bio-agent. Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11 was determined as moderately virulent, having a mortality rate 27-81%. Results also revealed that among conidia concentrations, 1x10⁹ and 1x10¹⁰ suspensions is the most effective, while 1x10⁶ conidia/ml concentration is the least effective. Hence, results indicated that EPF tested were effective against T. absoluta larvae. As the current work revealed the potential variation among entomopathogen fungi isolates and concentration against third instar larvae.

Keywords: tuta absoluta, tomato, metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, biological control

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3 Adapting Cyber Physical Production Systems to Small and Mid-Size Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Yohannes Haile, Dipo Onipede, Jr., Omar Ashour

Abstract:

The main thrust of our research is to determine Industry 4.0 readiness of small and mid-size manufacturing companies in our region and assist them to implement Cyber Physical Production System (CPPS) capabilities. Adopting CPPS capabilities will help organizations realize improved quality, order delivery, throughput, new value creation, and reduced idle time of machines and work centers of their manufacturing operations. The key metrics for the assessment include the level of intelligence, internal and external connections, responsiveness to internal and external environmental changes, capabilities for customization of products with reference to cost, level of additive manufacturing, automation, and robotics integration, and capabilities to manufacture hybrid products in the near term, where near term is defined as 0 to 18 months. In our initial evaluation of several manufacturing firms which are profitable and successful in what they do, we found low level of Physical-Digital-Physical (PDP) loop in their manufacturing operations, whereas 100% of the firms included in this research have specialized manufacturing core competencies that have differentiated them from their competitors. The level of automation and robotics integration is low to medium range, where low is defined as less than 30%, and medium is defined as 30 to 70% of manufacturing operation to include automation and robotics. However, there is a significant drive to include these capabilities at the present time. As it pertains to intelligence and connection of manufacturing systems, it is observed to be low with significant variance in tying manufacturing operations management to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Furthermore, it is observed that the integration of additive manufacturing in general, 3D printing, in particular, to be low, but with significant upside of integrating it in their manufacturing operations in the near future. To hasten the readiness of the local and regional manufacturing companies to Industry 4.0 and transitions towards CPPS capabilities, our working group (ADMAR Working Group) in partnership with our university have been engaged with the local and regional manufacturing companies. The goal is to increase awareness, share know-how and capabilities, initiate joint projects, and investigate the possibility of establishing the Center for Cyber Physical Production Systems Innovation (C2P2SI). The center is intended to support the local and regional university-industry research of implementing intelligent factories, enhance new value creation through disruptive innovations, the development of hybrid and data enhanced products, and the creation of digital manufacturing enterprises. All these efforts will enhance local and regional economic development and educate students that have well developed knowledge and applications of cyber physical manufacturing systems and Industry 4.0.

Keywords: automation, cyber-physical production system, digital manufacturing enterprises, disruptive innovation, new value creation, physical-digital-physical loop

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2 Comparing Remote Sensing and in Situ Analyses of Test Wheat Plants as Means for Optimizing Data Collection in Precision Agriculture

Authors: Endalkachew Abebe Kebede, Bojin Bojinov, Andon Vasilev Andonov, Orhan Dengiz

Abstract:

Remote sensing has a potential application in assessing and monitoring the plants' biophysical properties using the spectral responses of plants and soils within the electromagnetic spectrum. However, only a few reports compare the performance of different remote sensing sensors against in-situ field spectral measurement. The current study assessed the potential applications of open data source satellite images (Sentinel 2 and Landsat 9) in estimating the biophysical properties of the wheat crop on a study farm found in the village of OvchaMogila. A Landsat 9 (30 m resolution) and Sentinel-2 (10 m resolution) satellite images with less than 10% cloud cover have been extracted from the open data sources for the period of December 2021 to April 2022. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used to capture the spectral response of plant leaves. In addition, SpectraVue 710s Leaf Spectrometer was used to measure the spectral response of the crop in April at five different locations within the same field. The ten most common vegetation indices have been selected and calculated based on the reflectance wavelength range of remote sensing tools used. The soil samples have been collected in eight different locations within the farm plot. The different physicochemical properties of the soil (pH, texture, N, P₂O₅, and K₂O) have been analyzed in the laboratory. The finer resolution images from the UAV and the Leaf Spectrometer have been used to validate the satellite images. The performance of different sensors has been compared based on the measured leaf spectral response and the extracted vegetation indices using the five sampling points. A scatter plot with the coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the correlation (r) matrix prepared using the corr and heatmap python libraries have been used for comparing the performance of Sentinel 2 and Landsat 9 VIs compared to the drone and SpectraVue 710s spectrophotometer. The soil analysis revealed the study farm plot is slightly alkaline (8.4 to 8.52). The soil texture of the study farm is dominantly Clay and Clay Loam.The vegetation indices (VIs) increased linearly with the growth of the plant. Both the scatter plot and the correlation matrix showed that Sentinel 2 vegetation indices have a relatively better correlation with the vegetation indices of the Buteo dronecompared to the Landsat 9. The Landsat 9 vegetation indices somewhat align better with the leaf spectrometer. Generally, the Sentinel 2 showed a better performance than the Landsat 9. Further study with enough field spectral sampling and repeated UAV imaging is required to improve the quality of the current study.

Keywords: landsat 9, leaf spectrometer, sentinel 2, UAV

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1 Reducing Road Traffic Accident: Rapid Evidence Synthesis for Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Tesfaye Dagne, Dagmawit Solomon, Firmaye Bogale, Yosef Gebreyohannes, Samson Mideksa, Mamuye Hadis, Desalegn Ararso, Ermias Woldie, Tsegaye Getachew, Sabit Ababor, Zelalem Kebede

Abstract:

Globally, road traffic accident (RTA) is causing millions of deaths and injuries every year. It is one of the leading causes of death among people of all age groups and the problem is worse among young reproductive age group. Moreover the problem is increasing with an increasing number of vehicles. The majority of the problem happen in low and middle income countries (LMIC), even if the number of vehicles in these countries is low compared to their population. So, the objective of this paper is to summarize the best available evidence on interventions that can reduce road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Method: A rapid evidence synthesis approach adapted from the SURE Rapid Response Service was applied to search, appraise and summarize the best available evidence on effective intervention in reducing road traffic injury. To answer the question under review, we searched for relevant studies from databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, TRANSPORT, Health system evidence, Epistemonikos, and SUPPORT summary. The following key terms were used for searching: Road traffic accident, RTA, Injury, Reduc*, Prevent*, Minimiz*, “Low and middle-income country”, LMIC. We found 18 articles through a search of different databases mentioned above. After screening for the titles and abstracts of the articles, four of them which satisfy the inclusion criteria were included in the final review. Then we appraised and graded the methodological quality of systematic reviews that are deemed to be highly relevant using AMSTAR. Finding: The identified interventions to reduce road traffic accidents were legislation and enforcement, public awareness/education, speed control/ rumble strips, road improvement, mandatory motorcycle helmet, graduated driver license, street lighting. Legislation and Enforcement: Legislation focusing on mandatory motorcycle helmet usage, banning cellular phone usage when driving, seat belt laws, decreasing the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) level from 0.06 g/L to 0.02 g/L bring the best result where enforcement is there. Public Awareness/Education: focusing on seat belt use, child restraint use, educational training in health centers and schools/universities, and public awareness with media through the distribution of videos, posters/souvenirs, and pamphlets are effective in the short run. Speed Control: through traffic calming bumps, or speed bumps, rumbled strips are effective in reducing accidents and fatality. Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet: is associated with reduction in mortality. Graduated driver’s license (GDL): reduce road traffic injury by 19%. Street lighting: is a low-cost intervention which may reduce road traffic accidents.

Keywords: evidence synthesis, injury, rapid review, reducing, road traffic accident

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