Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Aster Tsegaye

40 Selection of Appropriate Classification Technique for Lithological Mapping of Gali Jagir Area, Pakistan

Authors: Khunsa Fatima, Umar K. Khattak, Allah Bakhsh Kausar


Satellite images interpretation and analysis assist geologists by providing valuable information about geology and minerals of an area to be surveyed. A test site in Fatejang of district Attock has been studied using Landsat ETM+ and ASTER satellite images for lithological mapping. Five different supervised image classification techniques namely maximum likelihood, parallelepiped, minimum distance to mean, mahalanobis distance and spectral angle mapper have been performed on both satellite data images to find out the suitable classification technique for lithological mapping in the study area. Results of these five image classification techniques were compared with the geological map produced by Geological Survey of Pakistan. The result of maximum likelihood classification technique applied on ASTER satellite image has the highest correlation of 0.66 with the geological map. Field observations and XRD spectra of field samples also verified the results. A lithological map was then prepared based on the maximum likelihood classification of ASTER satellite image.

Keywords: ASTER, Landsat-ETM+, satellite, image classification

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39 Combining ASTER Thermal Data and Spatial-Based Insolation Model for Identification of Geothermal Active Areas

Authors: Khalid Hussein, Waleed Abdalati, Pakorn Petchprayoon, Khaula Alkaabi


In this study, we integrated ASTER thermal data with an area-based spatial insolation model to identify and delineate geothermally active areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Two pairs of L1B ASTER day- and nighttime scenes were used to calculate land surface temperature. We employed the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm which separates temperature from emissivity to calculate surface temperature. We calculated the incoming solar radiation for the area covered by each of the four ASTER scenes using an insolation model and used this information to compute temperature due to solar radiation. We then identified the statistical thermal anomalies using land surface temperature and the residuals calculated from modeled temperatures and ASTER-derived surface temperatures. Areas that had temperatures or temperature residuals greater than 2σ and between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER-modeled thermal anomalies. The areas identified as thermal anomalies were in strong agreement with the thermal areas obtained from the YNP GIS database. Also the YNP hot springs and geysers were located within areas identified as anomalous thermal areas. The consistency between our results and known geothermally active areas indicate that thermal remote sensing data, integrated with a spatial-based insolation model, provides an effective means for identifying and locating areas of geothermal activities over large areas and rough terrain.

Keywords: thermal remote sensing, insolation model, land surface temperature, geothermal anomalies

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38 Mapping of Alteration Zones in Mineral Rich Belt of South-East Rajasthan Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Mrinmoy Dhara, Vivek K. Sengar, Shovan L. Chattoraj, Soumiya Bhattacharjee


Remote sensing techniques have emerged as an asset for various geological studies. Satellite images obtained by different sensors contain plenty of information related to the terrain. Digital image processing further helps in customized ways for the prospecting of minerals. In this study, an attempt has been made to map the hydrothermally altered zones using multispectral and hyperspectral datasets of South East Rajasthan. Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion (Level1R) dataset have been processed to generate different Band Ratio Composites (BRCs). For this study, ASTER derived BRCs were generated to delineate the alteration zones, gossans, abundant clays and host rocks. ASTER and Hyperion images were further processed to extract mineral end members and classified mineral maps have been produced using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) method. Results were validated with the geological map of the area which shows positive agreement with the image processing outputs. Thus, this study concludes that the band ratios and image processing in combination play significant role in demarcation of alteration zones which may provide pathfinders for mineral prospecting studies.

Keywords: ASTER, hyperion, band ratios, alteration zones, SAM

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37 Mapping of Siltations of AlKhod Dam, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Using Low-Cost Multispectral Satellite Data

Authors: Sankaran Rajendran


Remote sensing plays a vital role in mapping of resources and monitoring of environments of the earth. In the present research study, mapping and monitoring of clay siltations occurred in the Alkhod Dam of Muscat, Sultanate of Oman are carried out using low-cost multispectral Landsat and ASTER data. The dam is constructed across the Wadi Samail catchment for ground water recharge. The occurrence and spatial distribution of siltations in the dam are studied with five years of interval from the year 1987 of construction to 2014. The deposits are mainly due to the clay, sand, and silt occurrences derived from the weathering rocks of ophiolite sequences occurred in the Wadi Samail catchment. The occurrences of clays are confirmed by minerals identification using ASTER VNIR-SWIR spectral bands and Spectral Angle Mapper supervised image processing method. The presence of clays and their spatial distribution are verified in the field. The study recommends the technique and the low-cost satellite data to similar region of the world.

Keywords: Alkhod Dam, ASTER siltation, Landsat, remote sensing, Oman

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36 Lithological Mapping and Iron Deposits Identification in El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Data Analysis

Authors: Safaa M. Hassan; Safwat S. Gabr, Mohamed F. Sadek


This study is proposed for the lithological and iron oxides detection in the old mine areas of El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, using ASTER and Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Four old iron ore occurrences, namely; El-Gedida, El-Haraa, Ghurabi, and Nasir mine areas found in the El-Bahariya area. This study aims to find new high potential areas for iron mineralization around El-Baharyia depression. Image processing methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and band ratios (b4/b5, b5/b6, b6/b7, and 4/2, 6/7, band 6) images were used for lithological identification/mapping that includes the iron content in the investigated area. ASTER and Landsat-8 visible and short-wave infrared data found to help mapping the ferruginous sandstones, iron oxides as well as the clay minerals in and around the old mines area of El-Bahariya depression. Landsat-8 band ratio and the principle component of this study showed well distribution of the lithological units, especially ferruginous sandstones and iron zones (hematite and limonite) along with detection of probable high potential areas for iron mineralization which can be used in the future and proved the ability of Landsat-8 and ASTER data in mapping these features. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), pixel purity index methods as well as Spectral Ange Mapper classifier algorithm have been successfully discriminated the hematite and limonite content within the iron zones in the study area. Various ASTER image spectra and ASD field spectra of hematite and limonite and the surrounding rocks are compared and found to be consistent in terms of the presence of absorption features at range from 1.95 to 2.3 μm for hematite and limonite. Pixel purity index algorithm and two sub-pixel spectral methods, namely Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) and matched filtering (MF) methods, are applied to ASTER bands to delineate iron oxides (hematite and limonite) rich zones within the rock units. The results are validated in the field by comparing image spectra of spectrally anomalous zone with the USGS resampled laboratory spectra of hematite and limonite samples using ASD measurements. A number of iron oxides rich zones in addition to the main surface exposures of the El-Gadidah Mine, are confirmed in the field. The proposed method is a successful application of spectral mapping of iron oxides deposits in the exposed rock units (i.e., ferruginous sandstone) and present approach of both ASTER and ASD hyperspectral data processing can be used to delineate iron-rich zones occurring within similar geological provinces in any parts of the world.

Keywords: Landsat-8, ASTER, lithological mapping, iron exploration, western desert

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35 Determination of in vitro Antioxidative Activity of Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Min Jung Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho


Oxidative stress that results from overproduction of free radicals can lead to pathogenesis of human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (A. yomena) belonging to Compositae family is a perennial plant, and it has anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effect of A. yomena by measuring 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (˙OH) and superoxide radical (O₂⁻) scavenging activities in vitro. A. yomena was extracted with ethanol and then partitioned with n-hexane, methylene chloride (CH₂Cl₂), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the concentration of A. yomena from 10 to 100μg/mL dose-dependently raised the inhibition of DPPH oxidation. Especially, EtOAc fraction of A. yomena showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity among other fractions. The ˙OH radical scavenging activities of the extract and four fractions of A. yomena were increased by over 80% at a concentration of 50μg/mL. Especially, the IC50 value of EtOAc fraction was 0.03 μg/mL that is the lowest value compared with the values of other fractions. In addition, we found that the EtOAc fraction of A. yomena was showed to be better at O₂⁻ radical scavenging than other fractions. Taken together these results, we suggested that A. yomena, especially EtOAc fraction, can be used as a natural antioxidant against free radicals. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2016R1D1A1B03931593).

Keywords: Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (A. yomena), free radicals, antioxidant, EtOAc fraction

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34 Establishment of Reference Interval for Serum Protein Electrophoresis of Apparently Healthy Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Demiraw Bikila, Tadesse Lejisa, Yosef Tolcha, Chala Bashea, Mehari Meles Tigist Getahun Genet Ashebir, Wossene Habtu, Feyissa Challa, Ousman Mohammed, Melkitu Kassaw, Adisu Kebede, Letebrhan G. Egzeabher, Endalkachew Befekadu, Mistire Wolde, Aster Tsegaye


Background: Even though several factors affect reference intervals (RIs), the company-derived values are currently in use in many laboratories worldwide. However, little or no data is available regarding serum protein RIs, mainly in resource-limited setting countries like Ethiopia. Objective: To establish a reference interval for serum protein electrophoresis of apparently healthy adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 297 apparently healthy adults from April-October 2019 in four selected sub-cities (Akaki, Kirkos, Arada, Yeka) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Laboratory analysis of collected samples was performed using Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyzer, while statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and med-cal software. Mann-Whitney test was used to check Partitions. Non-parametric method of reference range establishment was performed as per CLSI guideline EP28A3C. Result: The established RIs were: Albumin 53.83-64.59%, 52.24-63.55%; Alpha-1 globulin 3.04-5.40%, 3.44-5.60%; Alpha-2 globulin 8.0-12.67%, 8.44-12.87%; and Beta-1 globulin 5.01-7.38%, 5.14-7.86%. Moreover, Albumin to globulin ratio was 1.16-1.8, 1.09-1.74 for males and females, respectively. The combined RIs for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin were 2.54-4.90% and 12.40-21.66%, respectively. Conclusion: The established reference interval for serum protein fractions revealed gender-specific differences except for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin.

Keywords: serum protein electrophoresis, reference interval, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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33 Propagation of DEM Varying Accuracy into Terrain-Based Analysis

Authors: Wassim Katerji, Mercedes Farjas, Carmen Morillo


Terrain-Based Analysis results in derived products from an input DEM and these products are needed to perform various analyses. To efficiently use these products in decision-making, their accuracies must be estimated systematically. This paper proposes a procedure to assess the accuracy of these derived products, by calculating the accuracy of the slope dataset and its significance, taking as an input the accuracy of the DEM. Based on the output of previously published research on modeling the relative accuracy of a DEM, specifically ASTER and SRTM DEMs with Lebanon coverage as the area of study, analysis have showed that ASTER has a low significance in the majority of the area where only 2% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. On the other hand, SRTM showed a better significance, where 37% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. Statistical analysis deduced that the accuracy of the slope dataset, calculated on a cell-by-cell basis, is highly correlated to the accuracy of the input DEM. However, this correlation becomes lower between the slope accuracy and the slope significance, whereas it becomes much higher between the modeled slope and the slope significance.

Keywords: terrain-based analysis, slope, accuracy assessment, Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

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32 Derivation of Runoff Susceptibility Map Using Slope-Adjusted SCS-CN in a Tropical River Basin

Authors: Abolghasem Akbari


The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. It employs the hydrologic soil groups and land use information along with period soil moisture conditions to derive NRCS-CN. This method has been well documented and available in popular rainfall-runoff models such as HEC-HMS, SWAT, SWMM and much more. Despite all benefits and advantages of this well documented and easy-to-use method, it does not take into account the effect of terrain slope and drainage area. This study aimed to first investigate the effect of slope on CN and then slope-adjusted runoff potential map is generated for Kuantan River Basin, Malaysia. The Hanng method was used to adjust CN values provided in National Handbook of Engineering and The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) version 2 is used to derive slope map with the spatial resolution of 30 m for Kuantan River Basin (KRB). The study significantly enhanced the application of GIS tools and recent advances in earth observation technology to analyze the hydrological process.

Keywords: Kuantan, ASTER-GDEM, SCS-CN, runoff

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31 The Change of Urban Land Use/Cover Using Object Based Approach for Southern Bali

Authors: I. Gusti A. A. Rai Asmiwyati, Robert J. Corner, Ashraf M. Dewan


Change on land use/cover (LULC) dominantly affects spatial structure and function. It can have such impacts by disrupting social culture practice and disturbing physical elements. Thus, it has become essential to understand of the dynamics in time and space of LULC as it can be used as a critical input for developing sustainable LULC. This study was an attempt to map and monitor the LULC change in Bali Indonesia from 2003 to 2013. Using object based classification to improve the accuracy, and change detection, multi temporal land use/cover data were extracted from a set of ASTER satellite image. The overall accuracies of the classification maps of 2003 and 2013 were 86.99% and 80.36%, respectively. Built up area and paddy field were the dominant type of land use/cover in both years. Patch increase dominantly in 2003 illustrated the rapid paddy field fragmentation and the huge occurring transformation. This approach is new for the case of diverse urban features of Bali that has been growing fast and increased the classification accuracy than the manual pixel based classification.

Keywords: land use/cover, urban, Bali, ASTER

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30 Geological Mapping of Gabel Humr Akarim Area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: Constrain from Remote Sensing Data, Petrographic Description and Field Investigation

Authors: Doaa Hamdi, Ahmed Hashem


The present study aims at integrating the ASTER data and Landsat 8 data to discriminate and map alteration and/or mineralization zones in addition to delineating different lithological units of Humr Akarim Granites area. The study area is located at 24º9' to 24º13' N and 34º1' to 34º2'45"E., covering a total exposed surface area of about 17 km². The area is characterized by rugged topography with low to moderate relief. Geologic fieldwork and petrographic investigations revealed that the basement complex of the study area is composed of metasediments, mafic dikes, older granitoids, and alkali-feldspar granites. Petrographic investigations revealed that the secondary minerals in the study area are mainly represented by chlorite, epidote, clay minerals and iron oxides. These minerals have specific spectral signatures in the region of visible near-infrared and short-wave infrared (0.4 to 2.5 µm). So that the ASTER imagery processing was concentrated on VNIR-SWIR spectrometric data in order to achieve the purposes of this study (geologic mapping of hydrothermal alteration zones and delineate possible radioactive potentialities). Mapping of hydrothermal alterations zones in addition to discriminating the lithological units in the study area are achieved through the utilization of some different image processing, including color band composites (CBC) and data transformation techniques such as band ratios (BR), band ratio codes (BRCs), principal component analysis(PCA), Crosta Technique and minimum noise fraction (MNF). The field verification and petrographic investigation confirm the results of ASTER imagery and Landsat 8 data, proposing a geological map (scale 1:50000).

Keywords: remote sensing, petrography, mineralization, alteration detection

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29 Satellite Photogrammetry for DEM Generation Using Stereo Pair and Automatic Extraction of Terrain Parameters

Authors: Tridipa Biswas, Kamal Pandey


A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a simple representation of a surface in 3 dimensional space with elevation as the third dimension along with X (horizontal coordinates) and Y (vertical coordinates) in rectangular coordinates. DEM has wide applications in various fields like disaster management, hydrology and watershed management, geomorphology, urban development, map creation and resource management etc. Cartosat-1 or IRS P5 (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) is a state-of-the-art remote sensing satellite built by ISRO (May 5, 2005) which is mainly intended for cartographic applications.Cartosat-1 is equipped with two panchromatic cameras capable of simultaneous acquiring images of 2.5 meters spatial resolution. One camera is looking at +26 degrees forward while another looks at –5 degrees backward to acquire stereoscopic imagery with base to height ratio of 0.62. The time difference between acquiring of the stereopair images is approximately 52 seconds. The high resolution stereo data have great potential to produce high-quality DEM. The high-resolution Cartosat-1 stereo image data is expected to have significant impact in topographic mapping and watershed applications. The objective of the present study is to generate high-resolution DEM, quality evaluation in different elevation strata, generation of ortho-rectified image and associated accuracy assessment from CARTOSAT-1 data based Ground Control Points (GCPs) for Aglar watershed (Tehri-Garhwal and Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India). The present study reveals that generated DEMs (10m and 30m) derived from the CARTOSAT-1 stereo pair is much better and accurate when compared with existing DEMs (ASTER and CARTO DEM) also for different terrain parameters like slope, aspect, drainage, watershed boundaries etc., which are derived from the generated DEMs, have better accuracy and results when compared with the other two (ASTER and CARTO) DEMs derived terrain parameters.

Keywords: ASTER-DEM, CARTO-DEM, CARTOSAT-1, digital elevation model (DEM), ortho-rectified image, photogrammetry, RPC, stereo pair, terrain parameters

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28 Multicriteria for Optimal Land Use after Mining

Authors: Carla Idely Palencia-Aguilar


Mining in Colombia represents around 2% of the GDP (USD 8 billion in 2018), with main productions represented by coal, nickel, gold, silver, emeralds, iron, limestone, gypsum, among others. Sand and Gravel had been decreasing its participation of the GDP with a reduction of 33.2 million m3 in 2015, to 27.4 in 2016, 22.7 in 2017 and 15.8 in 2018, with a consumption of approximately 3 tons/inhabitant. However, with the new government policies it is expected to increase in the following years. Mining causes temporary environmental impacts, once restoration and rehabilitation takes place, social, environmental and economic benefits are higher than the initial state. A way to demonstrate how the mining interventions had contributed to improve the characteristics of the region after sand and gravel mining, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from MODIS and ASTER were employed. The histograms show not only increments of vegetation in the area (8 times higher), but also topographies similar to the ones before the intervention, according to the application for sustainable development selected: either agriculture, forestry, cattle raising, artificial wetlands or do nothing. The decision was based upon a Multicriteria analysis for optimal land use, with three main variables: geostatistics, evapotranspiration and groundwater characteristics. The use of remote sensing, meteorological stations, piezometers, sunphotometers, geoelectric analysis among others; provide the information required for the multicriteria decision. For cattle raising and agricultural applications (where various crops were implemented), conservation of products were tested by means of nanotechnology. The results showed a duration of 2 years with no chemicals added for preservation and concentration of vitamins of the tested products.

Keywords: ASTER, Geostatistics, MODIS, Multicriteria

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27 Electrochemical Response Transductions of Graphenated-Polyaniline Nanosensor for Environmental Anthracene

Authors: O. Tovide, N. Jahed, N. Mohammed, C. E. Sunday, H. R. Makelane, R. F. Ajayi, K. M. Molapo, A. Tsegaye, M. Masikini, S. Mailu, A. Baleg, T. Waryo, P. G. Baker, E. I. Iwuoha


A graphenated–polyaniline (GR-PANI) nanocomposite sensor was constructed and used for the determination of anthracene. The direct electro-oxidation behavior of anthracene on the GR-PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as the sensing principle. The results indicate thatthe response profile of the oxidation of anthracene on GR-PANI-modified GCE provides for the construction of sensor systems based onamperometric and potentiometric signal transductions. A dynamic linear range of 0.12- 100 µM anthracene and a detection limit of 0.044 µM anthracene were established for the sensor system.

Keywords: electrochemical sensors, environmental pollutants, graphenated-polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon

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26 Gold-Bearing Alteration Zones in South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Geology and Remote Sensing Analysis

Authors: Mohamed F. Sadek, Safaa M. Hassan, Safwat S. Gabr


Several alteration zones hosting gold mineralization are wide spreading in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt where gold has been mined from many localities since the time of the Pharaohs. The Sukkari is the only mine currently producing gold in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more detailed studies on these locations using modern exploratory methods. The remote sensing plays an important role in lithological mapping and detection of associated hydrothermal mineralization particularly the exploration of gold mineralization. This study is focused on three localities in South Eastern Desert of Egypt, namely Beida, Defiet and Hoteib-Eiqat aiming to detect the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones using the integrated data of remote sensing, field study and mineralogical investigation. Generally, these areas are dominated by Precambrian basement rocks including metamorphic and magmatic assemblages. They comprise ophiolitic serpentinite-talc carbonate, island-arc metavolcanics which were intruded by syn to late orogenic mafic and felsic intrusions mainly gabbro, granodiorite and monzogranite. The processed data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Landsat-8 images are used in the present study to map the gold bearing-hydrothermal alteration zones. Band rationing and principal component analysis techniques are used to discriminate the different lithologic units exposed in the studied three areas. Field study and mineralogical investigation have been used to verify the remote sensing data. This study concluded that, the integrated remote sensing data with geological, field and mineralogical investigations are very effective in lithological discrimination, detailed geological mapping and detection of the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones. More detailed exploration for gold mineralization with the help of remote sensing techniques is recommended to evaluate its potentiality in the study areas.

Keywords: pan-african, Egypt, landsat-8; ASTER, gold, alteration zones

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25 Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data

Authors: Aliyu J. Abubakar, Mazlan Hashim, Amin B. Pour


Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.

Keywords: geothermal exploration, image enhancement, minerals, spectral mapping

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24 Prediction of Gully Erosion with Stochastic Modeling by using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Data in North of Iran

Authors: Reza Zakerinejad


Gully erosion is a serious problem that threading the sustainability of agricultural area and rangeland and water in a large part of Iran. This type of water erosion is the main source of sedimentation in many catchment areas in the north of Iran. Since in many national assessment approaches just qualitative models were applied the aim of this study is to predict the spatial distribution of gully erosion processes by means of detail terrain analysis and GIS -based logistic regression in the loess deposition in a case study in the Golestan Province. This study the DEM with 25 meter result ion from ASTER data has been used. The Landsat ETM data have been used to mapping of land use. The TreeNet model as a stochastic modeling was applied to prediction the susceptible area for gully erosion. In this model ROC we have set 20 % of data as learning and 20 % as learning data. Therefore, applying the GIS and satellite image analysis techniques has been used to derive the input information for these stochastic models. The result of this study showed a high accurate map of potential for gully erosion.

Keywords: TreeNet model, terrain analysis, Golestan Province, Iran

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23 Gis Based Flash Flood Runoff Simulation Model of Upper Teesta River Besin - Using Aster Dem and Meteorological Data

Authors: Abhisek Chakrabarty, Subhraprakash Mandal


Flash flood is one of the catastrophic natural hazards in the mountainous region of India. The recent flood in the Mandakini River in Kedarnath (14-17th June, 2013) is a classic example of flash floods that devastated Uttarakhand by killing thousands of people.The disaster was an integrated effect of high intensityrainfall, sudden breach of Chorabari Lake and very steep topography. Every year in Himalayan Region flash flood occur due to intense rainfall over a short period of time, cloud burst, glacial lake outburst and collapse of artificial check dam that cause high flow of river water. In Sikkim-Derjeeling Himalaya one of the probable flash flood occurrence zone is Teesta Watershed. The Teesta River is a right tributary of the Brahmaputra with draining mountain area of approximately 8600 Sq. km. It originates in the Pauhunri massif (7127 m). The total length of the mountain section of the river amounts to 182 km. The Teesta is characterized by a complex hydrological regime. The river is fed not only by precipitation, but also by melting glaciers and snow as well as groundwater. The present study describes an attempt to model surface runoff in upper Teesta basin, which is directly related to catastrophic flood events, by creating a system based on GIS technology. The main object was to construct a direct unit hydrograph for an excess rainfall by estimating the stream flow response at the outlet of a watershed. Specifically, the methodology was based on the creation of a spatial database in GIS environment and on data editing. Moreover, rainfall time-series data collected from Indian Meteorological Department and they were processed in order to calculate flow time and the runoff volume. Apart from the meteorological data, background data such as topography, drainage network, land cover and geological data were also collected. Clipping the watershed from the entire area and the streamline generation for Teesta watershed were done and cross-sectional profiles plotted across the river at various locations from Aster DEM data using the ERDAS IMAGINE 9.0 and Arc GIS 10.0 software. The analysis of different hydraulic model to detect flash flood probability ware done using HEC-RAS, Flow-2D, HEC-HMS Software, which were of great importance in order to achieve the final result. With an input rainfall intensity above 400 mm per day for three days the flood runoff simulation models shows outbursts of lakes and check dam individually or in combination with run-off causing severe damage to the downstream settlements. Model output shows that 313 Sq. km area were found to be most vulnerable to flash flood includes Melli, Jourthang, Chungthang, and Lachung and 655sq. km. as moderately vulnerable includes Rangpo,Yathang, Dambung,Bardang, Singtam, Teesta Bazarand Thangu Valley. The model was validated by inserting the rain fall data of a flood event took place in August 1968, and 78% of the actual area flooded reflected in the output of the model. Lastly preventive and curative measures were suggested to reduce the losses by probable flash flood event.

Keywords: flash flood, GIS, runoff, simulation model, Teesta river basin

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22 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Cuprous Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite

Authors: Bekan Bogale, Tsegaye Girma Asere, Tilahun Yai, Fekadu Melak


Aims: To study photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite. Background: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are among the metal oxides that demonstrated photocatalytic activity. However, the stability of Cu2O nanoparticles due to the fast recombination rate of electron/hole pairs remains a significant challenge in their photocatalytic applications. This, in turn, leads to mismatching of the effective bandgap separation, tending to reduce the photocatalytic activity of the desired organic waste (MB). To overcome these limitations, graphene has been combined with cuprous oxides, resulting in cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite as a promising photocatalyst. Objective: In this study, Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated for its photocatalytic performance of methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. Method: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized from graphite powder and copper nitrate using the facile sol-gel method. Batch experiments have been conducted to assess the applications of the nanocomposites for MB degradation. Parameters such as contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH of the solution were optimized for maximum MB degradation. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites was compared against Cu2O nanoparticles for cationic MB dye degradation. Results: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for MB degradation (with a degradation efficiency of 94%) than pure Cu2O nanoparticles (67%). This has been accomplished after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. The kinetics of MB degradation by Cu2O/graphene composites can be demonstrated by the second-order kinetic model. The synthesized nanocomposite can be used for more than three cycles of photocatalytic MB degradation. Conclusion: This work indicated new insights into Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite as high-performance in photocatalysis to degrade MB, playing a great role in environmental protection in relation to MB dye.

Keywords: methylene blue, photocatalysis, cuprous oxide, graphene nanocomposite

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21 Women's Use of Maternal Health-Care Services in Hawassa Zuriya Worda: A Qualitative Study of Women's Childbearing Preference Location

Authors: Elin Mordal, Meseret Tsegaye, Hirut Gemeda, Ingeborg Ulvund


Background: Even the rural-urban gap in the provision of skilled care during childbirth has narrowed, developing countries have the highest percentage of maternal deaths. More important than uncovering deficiencies during pregnancy, is preventing situations of risk during childbirth. The aim of this study was to identify factors women in the rural area consider before they decide where to give birth. Methods: This study utilizes a qualitative descriptive design based on individual interviews with 25 women of childbearing age who has given birth at least once, where women who delivered both at home and a health centre were included. Data collection took place in rural areas around Hawassa Zuriya Worda in Ethiopia February 2015. To identify conditions associated to where women prefer to give birth a thematic analysis was carried out. Result: Experienced risks regarding child birth were the most common reason for women and their families to seek help from skilled birth attendants. Decision-making and planning were identified as a major factor contributing to where women give birth. The women’s position and responsibilities pointed to the fact that women's role is mainly to take care of children and manage the household, while husbands, mother in laws and the elderly are the family members who take most of the decisions. This includes decision about where women give birth. The infrastructure also influences where women choose to give birth. Conclusion: To further improve childbirth care in Hawassa Zuriya Worda it’s important that women get positive experiences, and are met in a safe and supportive way at Health Centers. Challenges appear to women’s autonomy, quality aspects, and infrastructure.

Keywords: childbirth, women, health care utilization, Hawassa Zuriya Worda, Ethiopia, rural area

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20 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Land Surface Temperature and Urban Heat Island Evaluation of Four Metropolitan Areas of Texas, USA

Authors: Chunhong Zhao


Remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) is vital to understand the land-atmosphere energy balance, hydrological cycle, and thus is widely used to describe the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. However, due to technical constraints, satellite thermal sensors are unable to provide LST measurement with both high spatial and high temporal resolution. Despite different downscaling techniques and algorithms to generate high spatiotemporal resolution LST. Four major metropolitan areas in Texas, USA: Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Austin all demonstrate UHI effects. Different cities are expected to have varying SUHI effect during the urban development trajectory. With the help of the Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS archives, this study focuses on the spatial patterns of UHIs and the seasonal and annual variation of these metropolitan areas. With Gaussian model, and Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelations (LISA), as well as data fusion methods, this study identifies the hotspots and the trajectory of the UHI phenomenon of the four cities. By making comparison analysis, the result can help to alleviate the advent effect of UHI and formulate rational urban planning in the long run.

Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis, land surface temperature, urban heat island evaluation, metropolitan areas of Texas, USA

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19 Landsat 8-TIRS NEΔT at Kīlauea Volcano and the Active East Rift Zone, Hawaii

Authors: Flora Paganelli


The radiometric performance of remotely sensed images is important for volcanic monitoring. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on-board Landsat 8 was designed with specific requirements in regard to the noise-equivalent change in temperature (NEΔT) at ≤ 0.4 K at 300 K for the two thermal infrared bands B10 and B11. This study investigated the on-orbit NEΔT of the TIRS two bands from a scene-based method using clear-sky images over the volcanic activity of Kīlauea Volcano and the active East Rift Zone (Hawaii), in order to optimize the use of TIRS data. Results showed that the NEΔTs of the two bands exceeded the design specification by an order of magnitude at 300 K. Both separate bands and split window algorithm were examined to estimate the effect of NEΔT on the land surface temperature (LST) retrieval, and NEΔT contribution to the final LST error. These results were also useful in the current efforts to assess the requirements for volcanology research campaign using the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) whose airborne prototype MODIS/ASTER instruments is plan to be flown by NASA as a single campaign to the Hawaiian Islands in support of volcanology and coastal area monitoring in 2016.

Keywords: landsat 8, radiometric performance, thermal infrared sensor (TIRS), volcanology

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18 Geographic Information Systems and Remotely Sensed Data for the Hydrological Modelling of Mazowe Dam

Authors: Ellen Nhedzi Gozo


Unavailability of adequate hydro-meteorological data has always limited the analysis and understanding of hydrological behaviour of several dam catchments including Mazowe Dam in Zimbabwe. The problem of insufficient data for Mazowe Dam catchment analysis was solved by extracting catchment characteristics and aerial hydro-meteorological data from ASTER, LANDSAT, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission SRTM remote sensing (RS) images using ILWIS, ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine geographic information systems (GIS) software. Available observed hydrological as well as meteorological data complemented the use of the remotely sensed information. Ground truth land cover was mapped using a Garmin Etrex global positioning system (GPS) system. This information was then used to validate land cover classification detail that was obtained from remote sensing images. A bathymetry survey was conducted using a SONAR system connected to GPS. Hydrological modelling using the HBV model was then performed to simulate the hydrological process of the catchment in an effort to verify the reliability of the derived parameters. The model output shows a high Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient that is close to 1 indicating that the parameters derived from remote sensing and GIS can be applied with confidence in the analysis of Mazowe Dam catchment.

Keywords: geographic information systems, hydrological modelling, remote sensing, water resources management

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17 Site Suitability Analysis for Multipurpose Dams Using Geospatial Technologies

Authors: Saima Iftikhar Rida Shabbir, Zeeshan Hassan


Water shortage, energy crisis and natural misfortunes are the glitches which reduce the efficacy of agricultural ecosystems especially in Pakistan where these are more frequent besides being intense. Accordingly, the agricultural water resources, food security and country’s economy are at risk. To address this, we have used Geospatial techniques incorporating ASTER Global DEM, Geological map, rainfall data, discharge data, Landsat 5 image of Swat valley in order to assess the viability of selected sites. The sites have been studied via GIS tools, Hydrological investigation and multiparametric analysis for their potentialities of collecting and securing the rain water; regulating floods by storing the surplus water bulks by check dams and developing them for power generation. Our results showed that Siat1-1 was very useful for low-cost dam with main objective of as Debris dam; Site-2 and Site 3 were check dams sites having adequate storing reservoir so as to arrest the inconsistent flow accompanied by catering the sedimentation effects and the debris flows; Site 4 had a huge reservoir capacity but it entails enormous edifice cost over very great flood plain. Thus, there is necessity of active Hydrological developments to estimate the flooded area using advanced and multifarious GIS and remote sensing approaches so that the sites could be developed for harnessing those sites for agricultural and energy drives.

Keywords: site suitability, check dams, SHP, terrain analysis, volume estimation

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16 Budd-Chiari Syndrome: Common Presentation, Rare Disease

Authors: Aadil Khan, Yasser Chomayil, P. P. Venugopalan


Background: Budd-Chiari syndrome is caused by thrombosis of the hepatic veins and/or the thrombosis of the intrahepatic or suprahepatic IVC. The etiology remains idiopathic in 16% -35% of cases. Malignancy, rheumatological disorder, myeloproliferative disease, inheritable coagulopathy, infection or hyperestrogen state can be identified in many cases. Methodology: Review of case records of the patient presented to Aster Medcity, Emergency Department, Cochin. Introduction:17 years old female was presented to ED with fever, jaundice and abdominal distention since 1 week. O/E: Pallor+, icterus+. Abdomen- gross distension+, shifting dullness+, generalized anasarca+. USG abdomen showed hepatomegaly with mild coarse echotexture and moderate to gross ascites. CT abdomen and chest showed hepatomegaly with thrombosis of all three hepatic vein and moderate ascites suggestive of Budd-Chiari syndrome. Patient was taken for catheter vein thrombolysis. Venogram done the next day revealed almost > 50% opening of the right hepatic vein. Concurrent doppler showed colour and doppler signals in middle hepatic veins. She gradually improved and was discharged home on anticoagulant and adviced regular follow up. Conclusion: Being a rare disease in this young population, high suspicion is required when evaluating young patients with abdominal pain and jaundice.

Keywords: Budd-Chiari syndrome, rare disease, abdominal pain, India

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15 Optimization of Alkali Assisted Microwave Pretreatments of Sorghum Straw for Efficient Bioethanol Production

Authors: Bahiru Tsegaye, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Partha Roy


The limited supply and related negative environmental consequence of fossil fuels are driving researcher for finding sustainable sources of energy. Lignocellulose biomass like sorghum straw is considered as among cheap, renewable and abundantly available sources of energy. However, lignocellulose biomass conversion to bioenergy like bioethanol is hindered due to the reluctant nature of lignin in the biomass. Therefore, removal of lignin is a vital step for lignocellulose conversion to renewable energy. The aim of this study is to optimize microwave pretreatment conditions using design expert software to remove lignin and to release maximum possible polysaccharides from sorghum straw for efficient hydrolysis and fermentation process. Sodium hydroxide concentration between 0.5-1.5%, v/v, pretreatment time from 5-25 minutes and pretreatment temperature from 120-2000C were considered to depolymerize sorghum straw. The effect of pretreatment was studied by analyzing the compositional changes before and after pretreatments following renewable energy laboratory procedure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the model used for optimization. About 32.8%-48.27% of hemicellulose solubilization, 53% -82.62% of cellulose release, and 49.25% to 78.29% lignin solubilization were observed during microwave pretreatment. Pretreatment for 10 minutes with alkali concentration of 1.5% and temperature of 1400C released maximum cellulose and lignin. At this optimal condition, maximum of 82.62% of cellulose release and 78.29% of lignin removal was achieved. Sorghum straw at optimal pretreatment condition was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The efficiency of hydrolysis was measured by analyzing reducing sugars by 3, 5 dinitrisylicylic acid method. Reducing sugars of about 619 mg/g of sorghum straw were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. This study showed a significant amount of lignin removal and cellulose release at optimal condition. This enhances the yield of reducing sugars as well as ethanol yield. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave pretreatments for enhancing bioethanol yield from sorghum straw.

Keywords: cellulose, hydrolysis, lignocellulose, optimization

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14 Landscape Classification in North of Jordan by Integrated Approach of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Taleb Odeh, Nizar Abu-Jaber, Nour Khries


The southern part of Wadi Al Yarmouk catchment area covers north of Jordan. It locates within latitudes 32° 20’ to 32° 45’N and longitudes 35° 42’ to 36° 23’ E and has an area of about 1426 km2. However, it has high relief topography where the elevation varies between 50 to 1100 meter above sea level. The variations in the topography causes different units of landforms, climatic zones, land covers and plant species. As a results of these different landscapes units exists in that region. Spatial planning is a major challenge in such a vital area for Jordan which could not be achieved without determining landscape units. However, an integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information Systems (GIS) is an optimized tool to investigate and map landscape units of such a complicated area. Remote sensing has the capability to collect different land surface data, of large landscape areas, accurately and in different time periods. GIS has the ability of storage these land surface data, analyzing them spatially and present them in form of professional maps. We generated a geo-land surface data that include land cover, rock units, soil units, plant species and digital elevation model using ASTER image and Google Earth while analyzing geo-data spatially were done by ArcGIS 10.2 software. We found that there are twenty two different landscape units in the study area which they have to be considered for any spatial planning in order to avoid and environmental problems.

Keywords: landscape, spatial planning, GIS, spatial analysis, remote sensing

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13 Satellite LiDAR-Based Digital Terrain Model Correction using Gaussian Process Regression

Authors: Keisuke Takahata, Hiroshi Suetsugu


Forest height is an important parameter for forest biomass estimation, and precise elevation data is essential for accurate forest height estimation. There are several globally or nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) like SRTM and ASTER. However, its accuracy is reported to be low particularly in mountainous areas where there are closed canopy or steep slope. Recently, space-borne LiDAR, such as the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI), have started to provide sparse but accurate ground elevation and canopy height estimates. Several studies have reported the high degree of accuracy in their elevation products on their exact footprints, while it is not clear how this sparse information can be used for wider area. In this study, we developed a digital terrain model correction algorithm by spatially interpolating the difference between existing DEMs and GEDI elevation products by using Gaussian Process (GP) regression model. The result shows that our GP-based methodology can reduce the mean bias of the elevation data from 3.7m to 0.3m when we use airborne LiDAR-derived elevation information as ground truth. Our algorithm is also capable of quantifying the elevation data uncertainty, which is critical requirement for biomass inventory. Upcoming satellite-LiDAR missions, like MOLI (Multi-footprint Observation Lidar and Imager), are expected to contribute to the more accurate digital terrain model generation.

Keywords: digital terrain model, satellite LiDAR, gaussian processes, uncertainty quantification

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12 Effect of Different Planting Times and Mulching Materials on Seed Quality and Yield of China Aster Cultivars

Authors: A. A. Bajad, B. P. Sharma, Y. C. Gupta, B. S. Dilt, R. K. Gupta


The present investigations were carried out at the experimental farm of Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, H.P. during 2015 and 2016. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (factorial) consisting of 48 treatment combinations of four planting dates viz., D1- mid March, D2-mid April, D3-mid May and D4- mid June and two cultivars namely V1- Kamini and V2 -Poornima with six mulching materials M¬0¬- without mulch, M1- Black plastic mulch (100 µ), M2- Silver plastic mulch (100 µ), M3¬- Transparent plastic mulch (100 µ), M3-Transparent plastic mulch (100 µ), M4¬- Pine needle (100 µ) and M5- Grass (1 inch layer). Among different planting times, D4 i.e. mid June planting obtained best results for number of seed per flower (179.38), germination percent (83.92 %), electrical conductivity (0.97 ds/m), seedling length (7.93 cm), seedling dry weight (7.09 mg), seedling vigour index I (763.79), moisture content (7.83 %) and 1000 seed weight (1.94 g). However, seed yield per plant (14.30 g) was recorded to be maximum in mid of March. Among the cultivars, cv. ‘Poornima’ gave best results for number of seed per plant (187.30). However, cv. ‘Kamini’ recorded the best result for seed yield per plant (12.55), electrical conductivity (1.11 ds/m), germination percent (80.47 %), seedling length (6.39 cm), seedling dry weight (5.11 mg), seedling vigour index I (649.49), moisture content (9.28 %) and 1000 seed weight (1.70 g). Silver plastic obtained best results for number of seed per flower (170.10), seed yield per plant (15.66 g), germination percent (80.17 %), electrical conductivity (1.26 ds/m), seedling length (5.88 cm), seedling dry weight (4.46 mg), seedling vigour index I (616.78), Moisture content (9.35 %) and 100 seed weight (1.97 g).

Keywords: cultivars, mulch materials, planting times, flowers

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11 Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010

Authors: Pebri Nurhayati, Rozanah Ahlam Fadiyah


In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.

Keywords: spatial analysis, urban development, degradation of green space, urban fringe

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