Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6460

Search results for: temperature dependence

6460 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško


The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

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6459 Temperature Dependent Interaction Energies among X (=Ru, Rh) Impurities in Pd-Rich PdX Alloys

Authors: M. Asato, C. Liu, N. Fujima, T. Hoshino, Y. Chen, T. Mohri


We study the temperature dependence of the interaction energies (IEs) of X (=Ru, Rh) impurities in Pd, due to the Fermi-Dirac (FD) distribution and the thermal vibration effect by the Debye-Grüneisen model. The n-body (n=2~4) IEs among X impurities in Pd, being used to calculate the internal energies in the free energies of the Pd-rich PdX alloys, are determined uniquely and successively from the lower-order to higher-order, by the full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s function method (FPKKR), combined with the generalized gradient approximation in the density functional theory. We found that the temperature dependence of IEs due to the FD distribution, being usually neglected, is very important to reproduce the X-concentration dependence of the observed solvus temperatures of the Pd-rich PdX (X=Ru, Rh) alloys.

Keywords: full-potential KKR-green’s function method, Fermi-Dirac distribution, GGA, phase diagram of Pd-rich PdX (X=Ru, Rh) alloys, thermal vibration effect

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6458 Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Local Avalanche Compact Model for Bipolar Transistors

Authors: Robert Setekera, Ramses van der Toorn


We present an extensive analysis of the temperature dependence of the local avalanche model used in most of the modern compact models for bipolar transistors. This local avalanche model uses the Chynoweth's empirical law for ionization coefficient to define the generation of the avalanche current in terms of the local electric field. We carry out the model analysis using DC-measurements taken on both Si and advanced SiGe bipolar transistors. For the advanced industrial SiGe-HBTs, we consider both high-speed and high-power devices (both NPN and PNP transistors). The limitations of the local avalanche model in modeling the temperature dependence of the avalanche current mostly in the weak avalanche region are demonstrated. In addition, the model avalanche parameters are analyzed to see if they are in agreement with semiconductor device physics.

Keywords: avalanche multiplication, avalanche current, bipolar transistors, compact modeling, electric field, impact ionization, local avalanche

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6457 Moderation in Temperature Dependence on Counter Frictional Coefficient and Prevention of Wear of C/C Composites by Synthesizing SiC around Surface and Internal Vacancies

Authors: Noboru Wakamoto, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii


The aim of this study is to moderate the dependence of counter frictional coefficient on temperature between counter surfaces and to reduce the wear of C/C composites at low temperature. To modify the C/C composites, Silica (SiO2) powders were added into phenolic resin for carbon precursor. The preform plate of the precursor of C/C composites was prepared by conventional filament winding method. The C/C composites plates were obtained by carbonizing preform plate at 2200 °C under an argon atmosphere. At that time, the silicon carbides (SiC) were synthesized around the surfaces and the internal vacancies of the C/C composites. The frictional coefficient on the counter surfaces and specific wear volumes of the C/C composites were measured by our developed frictional test machine like pin-on disk type. The XRD indicated that SiC was synthesized in the body of C/C composite fabricated by current method. The results of friction test showed that coefficient of friction of unmodified C/C composites have temperature dependence when the test condition was changed. In contrast, frictional coefficient of the C/C composite modified with SiO2 powders was almost constant at about 0.27 when the temperature condition was changed from Room Temperature (RT) to 300 °C. The specific wear rate decreased from 25×10-6 mm2/N to 0.1×10-6 mm2/N. The observations of the surfaces after friction tests showed that the frictional surface of the modified C/C composites was covered with a film produced by the friction. This study found that synthesizing SiC around surface and internal vacancies of C/C composites was effective to moderate the dependence on the frictional coefficient and reduce to the abrasion of C/C composites.

Keywords: C/C composites, friction coefficient, wear, SiC

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6456 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph


A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant

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6455 The Importance of Science and Technology Education in Skill Acquisition for Self Dependence

Authors: Olaje Monday Olaje


Science and technology has been prove to be the back bone for economic development of any country, and for Nigeria, it has more critical role to play. This paper examines the importance of science and technology education for national development and self dependence for Nigerian citizens. A historical overview of the interconnectivity of science and technology and self dependence is heighted. The current situation and challenges facing science and technology education are also highlighted to bring out the theoretical importance of science and technology education for self dependence which actually has not been practically achieved. Recommendations are also made at the of the study so as to skill acquisition through science and technology for self dependence.

Keywords: acquisition, education, self-dependence, science, technology

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6454 Transient Hygrothermoelastic Behavior in an Infinite Annular Cylinder with Internal Heat Generation by Linear Dependence Theory of Coupled Heat and Moisture

Authors: Tasneem Firdous Islam, G. D. Kedar


The aim of this paper is to study the effect of internal heat generation in a transient infinitely long annular cylinder subjected to hygrothermal loadings. The linear dependence theory of moisture and temperature is derived based on Dufour and Soret effect. The meticulous solutions of temperature, moisture, and thermal stresses are procured by using the Hankel transform technique. The influence of the internal heat source on the radial aspect is examined for coupled and uncoupled cases. In the present study, the composite material T300/5208 is considered, and the coupled and uncoupled cases are analyzed. The results obtained are computed numerically and illustrated graphically.

Keywords: temperature, moisture, hygrothermoelasticity, internal heat generation, annular cylinder

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6453 Thermal Behaviors of the Strong Form Factors of Charmonium and Charmed Beauty Mesons from Three Point Sum Rules

Authors: E. Yazıcı, H. Sundu, E. Veli Veliev


In order to understand the nature of strong interactions and QCD vacuum, investigation of the meson coupling constants have an important role. The knowledge on the temperature dependence of the form factors is very important for the interpretation of heavy-ion collision experiments. Also, more accurate determination of these coupling constants plays a crucial role in understanding of the hadronic decays. With the increasing of CM energies of the experiments, researches on meson interactions have become one of the more interesting problems of hadronic physics. In this study, we analyze the temperature dependence of the strong form factor of the BcBcJ/ψ vertex using the three point QCD sum rules method. Here, we assume that with replacing the vacuum condensates and also the continuum threshold by their thermal version, the sum rules for the observables remain valid. In calculations, we take into account the additional operators, which appear in the Wilson expansion at finite temperature. We also investigated the momentum dependence of the form factor at T = 0, fit it into an analytic function, and extrapolate into the deep time-like region in order to obtain a strong coupling constant of the vertex. Our results are consistent with the results existing in the literature.

Keywords: QCD sum rules, thermal QCD, heavy mesons, strong coupling constants

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6452 Effect of Chemical Concentration on the Rheology of Inks for Inkjet Printing

Authors: M. G. Tadesse, J. Yu, Y. Chen, L. Wang, V. Nierstrasz, C. Loghin


Viscosity and surface tension are the fundamental rheological property of an ink for inkjet printing. In this work, we optimized the viscosity and surface tension of inkjet inks by varying the concentration of glycerol with water, PEDOT:PSS with glycerol and water, finally by adding the surfactant. The surface resistance of the sample was characterized by four-probe measurement principle. The change in volume of PEDOT:PSS in water, as well as the change in weight of glycerol in water has got a great influence on the viscosity on both temperature dependence and shear dependence behavior of the ink solution. The surface tension of the solution changed from 37 to 28 mN/m due to the addition of Triton. Varying the volume of PEDOT:PSS and the volume of glycerol in water has a great influence on the viscosity of the ink solution for inkjet printing. Viscosity drops from 12.5 to 9.5 mPa s with the addition of Triton at 25 oC. The PEDOT:PSS solution was found to be temperature dependence but not shear dependence as it is a Newtonian fluid. The sample was used to connect the light emitting diode (LED), and hence the electrical conductivity, with a surface resistance of 0.158 KΩ/square, was sufficient enough to give transfer current for LED lamp. The rheology of the inkjet ink is very critical for the successful droplet formation of the inkjet printing.

Keywords: shear rate, surface tension, surfactant, viscosity

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6451 Prediction of Ionic Liquid Densities Using a Corresponding State Correlation

Authors: Khashayar Nasrifar


Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit particular properties exemplified by extremely low vapor pressure and high thermal stability. The properties of ILs can be tailored by proper selection of cations and anions. As such, ILs are appealing as potential solvents to substitute traditional solvents with high vapor pressure. One of the IL properties required in chemical and process design is density. In developing corresponding state liquid density correlations, scaling hypothesis is often used. The hypothesis expresses the temperature dependence of saturated liquid densities near the vapor-liquid critical point as a function of reduced temperature. Extending the temperature dependence, several successful correlations were developed to accurately correlate the densities of normal liquids from the triple point to a critical point. Applying mixing rules, the liquid density correlations are extended to liquid mixtures as well. ILs are not molecular liquids, and they are not classified among normal liquids either. Also, ILs are often used where the condition is far from equilibrium. Nevertheless, in calculating the properties of ILs, the use of corresponding state correlations would be useful if no experimental data were available. With well-known generalized saturated liquid density correlations, the accuracy in predicting the density of ILs is not that good. An average error of 4-5% should be expected. In this work, a data bank was compiled. A simplified and concise corresponding state saturated liquid density correlation is proposed by phenomena-logically modifying reduced temperature using the temperature-dependence for an interacting parameter of the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This modification improves the temperature dependence of the developed correlation. Parametrization was next performed to optimize the three global parameters of the correlation. The correlation was then applied to the ILs in our data bank with satisfactory predictions. The correlation of IL density applied at 0.1 MPa and was tested with an average uncertainty of around 2%. No adjustable parameter was used. The critical temperature, critical volume, and acentric factor were all required. Methods to extend the predictions to higher pressures (200 MPa) were also devised. Compared to other methods, this correlation was found more accurate. This work also presents the chronological order of developing such correlations dealing with ILs. The pros and cons are also expressed.

Keywords: correlation, corresponding state principle, ionic liquid, density

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6450 Electrical and Optical Properties of Polyaniline: Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots Nanocomposites

Authors: Akhtar Rasool, Tasneem Zahra Rizvi


In this study, a series of the cadmium sulphide quantum dots/polyaniline nanocomposites with varying compositions were prepared by in-situ polymerization technique and were characterized using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to find out the energy band gap of the nanoparticles and the nanocomposites. Temperature dependence of DC electrical conductivity and temperature and frequency dependence of AC conductivity were investigated to study the charge transport mechanism in the nanocomposites. DC conductivity was found to be a typical for a semiconducting behavior following Mott’s 1D variable range hoping model. The frequency dependent AC conductivity followed the universal power law.

Keywords: conducting polymers, nanocomposites, polyaniline composites, quantum dots

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6449 Contagion and Stock Interdependence in the BRIC+M Block

Authors: Christian Bucio Pacheco, Miriam Magnolia Sosa Castro, María Alejandra Cabello Rosales


This paper aims to analyze the contagion effect among the stock markets of the BRIC+M block (Brazil, Russia, India, China plus Mexico). The contagion effect is proved through increasing on dependence parameters during crisis periods. The dependence parameters are estimated through copula approach in a period of time from July 1997 to December 2015. During this period there are instability and calm episodes, allowing to analyze changes in the relations of dependence. Empirical results show strong evidence of time-varying dependence among the BRIC+M markets and an increasing dependence relation during global financial crisis period.

Keywords: BRIC+M Block, Contagion effect, Copula, dependence

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6448 Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in an Elastic Pipe with Viscoelastic Liquid

Authors: S. Levitsky, R. Bergman


Fluid rheology may have essential impact on sound propagation in a liquid-filled pipe, especially, in a low frequency range. Rheological parameters of liquid are temperature-sensitive, which ultimately results in a temperature dependence of the wave speed and attenuation in the waveguide. The study is devoted to modeling of this effect at sound propagation in an elastic pipe with polymeric liquid, described by generalized Maxwell model with non-zero high-frequency viscosity. It is assumed that relaxation spectrum is distributed according to the Spriggs law; temperature impact on the liquid rheology is described on the basis of the temperature-superposition principle and activation theory. The dispersion equation for the waveguide, considered as a thin-walled tube with polymeric solution, is obtained within a quasi-one-dimensional formulation. Results of the study illustrate the influence of temperature on sound propagation in the system.

Keywords: elastic tube, sound propagation, temperature effect, viscoelastic liquid

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6447 Structural, Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of Iron-Doped Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄MnO₃ Perovskite

Authors: Ismail Al-Yahmadi, Abbasher Gismelseed, Fatma Al-Mammari, Ahmed Al-Rawas, Ali Yousif, Imaddin Al-Omari, Hisham Widatallah, Mohamed Elzain


The influence of Fe-doping on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄FeₓMn₁₋ₓO₃ (0≤ x ≤0.5) were investigated. The samples were synthesized by auto-combustion Sol-Gel method. The phase purity, crystallinity, and the structural properties for all prepared samples were examined by X-ray diffraction. XRD refinement indicates that the samples are crystallized in the orthorhombic single-phase with Pnma space group. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurements under a magnetic applied field of 0.02 T reveals that the samples with (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) exhibit a paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition with decreasing temperature. The Curie temperature decreased with increasing Fe content from 256 K for x =0.0 to 80 K for x =0.3 due to increasing of antiferromagnetic superexchange (SE) interaction coupling. Moreover, the magnetization as a function of applied magnetic field (M-H) curves was measured at 2 K, and 300 K. the results of such measurements confirm the temperature dependence of magnetization measurements. The magnetic entropy change|∆SM | was evaluated using Maxwell's relation. The maximum values of the magnetic entropy change |-∆SMax |for x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 are found to be 15.35, 5.13, 3.36, 1.08 J/kg.K for an applied magnetic field of 9 T. Our result on magnetocaloric properties suggests that the parent sample Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄MnO₃ could be a good refrigerant for low-temperature magnetic refrigeration.

Keywords: manganite perovskite, magnetocaloric effect, X-ray diffraction, relative cooling power

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6446 Estimation of the Upper Tail Dependence Coefficient for Insurance Loss Data Using an Empirical Copula-Based Approach

Authors: Adrian O'Hagan, Robert McLoughlin


Considerable focus in the world of insurance risk quantification is placed on modeling loss values from lines of business (LOBs) that possess upper tail dependence. Copulas such as the Joe, Gumbel and Student-t copula may be used for this purpose. The copula structure imparts a desired level of tail dependence on the joint distribution of claims from the different LOBs. Alternatively, practitioners may possess historical or simulated data that already exhibit upper tail dependence, through the impact of catastrophe events such as hurricanes or earthquakes. In these circumstances, it is not desirable to induce additional upper tail dependence when modeling the joint distribution of the loss values from the individual LOBs. Instead, it is of interest to accurately assess the degree of tail dependence already present in the data. The empirical copula and its associated upper tail dependence coefficient are presented in this paper as robust, efficient means of achieving this goal.

Keywords: empirical copula, extreme events, insurance loss reserving, upper tail dependence coefficient

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6445 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir


History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

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6444 Critical Behaviour and Filed Dependence of Magnetic Entropy Change in K Doped Manganites Pr₀.₈Na₀.₂−ₓKₓMnO₃ (X = .10 And .15)

Authors: H. Ben Khlifa, W. Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, A. Cheikhrouhou


The orthorhombic Pr₀.₈Na₀.₂−ₓKₓMnO₃ (x = 0.10 and 0.15) manganites are prepared by using the solid-state reaction at high temperatures. The critical exponents (β, γ, δ) are investigated through various techniques such as modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher method, and critical isotherm analysis based on the data of the magnetic measurements recorded around the Curie temperature. The critical exponents are derived from the magnetization data using the Kouvel-Fisher method, are found to be β = 0.32(4) and γ = 1.29(2) at TC ~ 123 K for x = 0.10 and β = 0.31(1) and γ = 1.25(2) at TC ~ 133 K for x = 0.15. The critical exponent values obtained for both samples are comparable to the values predicted by the 3D-Ising model and have also been verified by the scaling equation of state. Such results demonstrate the existence of ferromagnetic short-range order in our materials. The magnetic entropy changes of polycrystalline samples with a second-order phase transition are investigated. A large magnetic entropy change deduced from isothermal magnetization curves, is observed in our samples with a peak centered on their respective Curie temperatures (TC). The field dependence of the magnetic entropy changes are analyzed, which shows power-law dependence ΔSmax ≈ a(μ0 H)n at the transition temperature. The values of n obey the Curie Weiss law above the transition temperature. It is shown that for the investigated materials, the magnetic entropy change follows a master curve behavior. The rescaled magnetic entropy change curves for different applied fields collapse onto a single curve for both samples.

Keywords: manganites, critical exponents, magnetization, magnetocaloric, master curve

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6443 Temperature Dependence and Seasonal Variation of Denitrifying Microbial Consortia from a Woodchip Bioreactor in Denmark

Authors: A. Jéglot, F. Plauborg, M. K. Schnorr, R. S. Sørensen, L. Elsgaard


Artificial wetlands such as woodchip bioreactors are efficient tools to remove nitrate from agricultural wastewater with a minimized environmental impact. However, the temperature dependence of the microbiological nitrate removal prevents the woodchip bioreactors from being an efficient system when the water temperature drops below 8℃. To quantify and describe the temperature effects on nitrate removal efficiency, we studied nitrate-reducing enrichments from a woodchip bioreactor in Denmark based on samples collected in Spring and Fall. Growth was quantified as optical density, and nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in time-course experiments to compare the growth of the microbial population and the nitrate conversion efficiencies at different temperatures. Ammonia was measured to indicate the importance of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) in nitrate conversion for the given denitrifying community. The temperature responses observed followed the increasing trend proposed by the Arrhenius equation, indicating higher nitrate removal efficiencies at higher temperatures. However, the growth and the nitrous oxide production observed at low temperature provided evidence of the psychrotolerance of the microbial community under study. The assays conducted showed higher nitrate removal from the microbial community extracted from the woodchip bioreactor at the cold season compared to the ones extracted during the warmer season. This indicated the ability of the bacterial populations in the bioreactor to evolve and adapt to different seasonal temperatures.

Keywords: agricultural waste water treatment, artificial wetland, denitrification, psychrophilic conditions

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6442 Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels

Authors: M. Münch, R. Brandt


Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.

Keywords: activation parameters, creep mechanisms, high strength steels, low temperature creep

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6441 Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles

Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Hayato Maruyama, Ariyuki Kato, Atsushi Nakamura, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroki Akasaka, Hidetoshi Saitoh


Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.

Keywords: low temperature luminescence spectroscopy, material identification, strontium aluminates phosphor, emission properties

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6440 Quince Seed Mucilage (QSD)/ Multiwall Carbonano Tube Hybrid Hydrogels as Novel Controlled Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: Raouf Alizadeh, Kadijeh Hemmati


The aim of this study is to synthesize several series of hydrogels from combination of a natural based polymer (Quince seed mucilage QSD), a synthetic copolymer contained methoxy poly ethylene glycol -polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) in the presence of different amount of multi-walled carbon nanotube (f-MWNT). Mono epoxide functionalized mPEG (mP EG-EP) was synthesized and reacted with sodium azide in the presence of NH4Cl to afford mPEG- N3(-OH). Then ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε–caprolactone (CL) in the presence of mPEG- N3(-OH) as initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as catalyst led to preparation of mPEG-PCL- N3(-OH ) which was grafted onto propagylated f-MWNT by the click reaction to obtain mPEG-PCL- f-MWNT (-OH ). In the presence of mPEG- N3(-Br) and mixture of NHS/DCC/ QSD, hybrid hydrogels were successfully synthesized. The copolymers and hydrogels were characterized using different techniques such as, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The gel content of hydrogels showed dependence on the weight ratio of QSD:mPEG-PCL:f-MWNT. The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was also studied under variation of pH, immersion time, and temperature. According to the results, the swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels showed significant dependence in the gel content, pH, immersion time and temperature. The highest swelling was observed at room temperature, in 60 min and at pH 8. The loading and in-vitro release of quercetin as a model drug were investigated at pH of 2.2 and 7.4, and the results showed that release rate at pH 7.4 was faster than that at pH 2.2. The total loading and release showed dependence on the network structure of hydrogels and were in the range of 65- 91%. In addition, the cytotoxicity and release kinetics of the prepared hydrogels were also investigated.

Keywords: antioxidant, drug delivery, Quince Seed Mucilage(QSD), swelling behavior

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6439 Dielectric Properties of Ni-Al Nano Ferrites Synthesized by Citrate Gel Method

Authors: D. Ravinder, K. S. Nagaraju


Ni–Al ferrite with composition of NiAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.2, 0.4 0.6, and 0.8, ) were prepared by citrate gel method. The dielectric properties for all the samples were investigated at room temperature as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant shows dispersion in the lower frequency region and remains almost constant at higher frequencies. The frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) is found to be abnormal, giving a peak at certain frequency for mixed Ni-Al ferrites. A qualitative explanation is given for the composition and frequency dependence of the dielectric loss tangent.

Keywords: ferrites, citrate method, lattice parameter, dielectric constant

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6438 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified With Li-Sb

Authors: Roopam Gaur, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram


In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 10500C-10900C for 2-3 hours to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination.

Keywords: piezoelectric, dielectric, Li, Sb, KNN, conventional sintering

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6437 Modification of Magneto-Transport Properties of Ferrimagnetic Mn₄N Thin Films by Ni Substitution and Their Magnetic Compensation

Authors: Taro Komori, Toshiki Gushi, Akihito Anzai, Taku Hirose, Kaoru Toko, Shinji Isogami, Takashi Suemasu


Ferrimagnetic antiperovskite Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN thin film exhibits both small saturation magnetization and rather large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) when x is small. Both of them are suitable features for application to current induced domain wall motion devices using spin transfer torque (STT). In this work, we successfully grew antiperovskite 30-nm-thick Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN epitaxial thin films on MgO(001) and STO(001) substrates by MBE in order to investigate their crystalline qualities and magnetic and magneto-transport properties. Crystalline qualities were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnetic properties were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Anomalous Hall effect was measured by physical properties measurement system. Both measurements were performed at room temperature. Temperature dependence of magnetization was measured by VSM-Superconducting quantum interference device. XRD patterns indicate epitaxial growth of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN thin films on both substrates, ones on STO(001) especially have higher c-axis orientation thanks to greater lattice matching. According to VSM measurement, PMA was observed in Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN on MgO(001) when x ≤ 0.25 and on STO(001) when x ≤ 0.5, and MS decreased drastically with x. For example, MS of Mn₃.₉Ni₀.₁N on STO(001) was 47.4 emu/cm³. From the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAH) of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN thin films on STO(001) with the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane, we found out Mr/MS was about 1 when x ≤ 0.25, which suggests large magnetic domains in samples and suitable features for DW motion device application. In contrast, such square curves were not observed for Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN on MgO(001), which we attribute to difference in lattice matching. Furthermore, it’s notable that although the sign of ρAH was negative when x = 0 and 0.1, it reversed positive when x = 0.25 and 0.5. The similar reversal occurred for temperature dependence of magnetization. The magnetization of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN on STO(001) increases with decreasing temperature when x = 0 and 0.1, while it decreases when x = 0.25. We considered that these reversals were caused by magnetic compensation which occurred in Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN between x = 0.1 and 0.25. We expect Mn atoms of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN crystal have larger magnetic moments than Ni atoms do. The temperature dependence stated above can be explained if we assume that Ni atoms preferentially occupy the corner sites, and their magnetic moments have different temperature dependence from Mn atoms at the face-centered sites. At the compensation point, Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN is expected to show very efficient STT and ultrafast DW motion with small current density. What’s more, if angular momentum compensation is found, the efficiency will be best optimized. In order to prove the magnetic compensation, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism will be performed. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry is a candidate method to analyze the accurate composition ratio of samples.

Keywords: compensation, ferrimagnetism, Mn₄N, PMA

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6436 Theoretical Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of AlBi

Authors: S. Louhibi-Fasla, H. Achour, B. Amrani


The purpose of this work is to provide some additional information to the existing data on the physical properties of AlBi with state-of-the-art first-principles method of the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW). Additionally to the structural properties, the electronic properties have also been investigated. The dependence of the volume, the bulk modulus, the variation of the thermal expansion α, as well as the Debye temperature are successfully obtained in the whole range from 0 to 30 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1200 K. The latter are the basis of solid-state science and industrial applications and their study is of importance to extend our knowledge on their specific behaviour when undergoing severe constraints of high pressure and high temperature environments.

Keywords: AlBi, FP-LAPW, structural properties, electronic properties

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6435 Anharmonic Behavior in BaTiO3: Investigation by Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: M. D. Fontana, I. Bejaoui Ouni, D. Chapron, H. Aroui


BaTiO3 (BT) is a well known ferroelectric material which has been thoroughly studied during several decades since it undergoes successive cubic-tetragonal-orthorhombic-rhombohedral phase transitions on cooling. It has several ferroelectric properties that allow it to be a good material for electronic applications such as the design of ferroelectric memories and pyroelectric elements. In the present work, we report the analysis of temperature dependence of Raman frequency and damping of the A1 modes polarized along the FE c axis as well as the optical phonons E corresponding to the ionic motions in the plane normal to c. Measurements were carried out at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 408 K (tetragonal phase) within different scattering configurations. Spectroscopic parameters of BT have determined using a high resolution Raman spectrometer and a fitting program. All the first order frequency modes exhibit a quasi linear decrease as function of the temperature, except for the A1[TO1], E[TO2] and E[TO4] lines which reveal a parabolic dependence illustrating an anharmonic process. The phonon frequency downshifts and damping evolutions are interpreted in terms of normal volume expansion and third- and fourth-order anharmonic potentials.

Keywords: BaTiO3, Raman spectroscopy, frequency, damping, anharmonic potential

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6434 Models to Calculate Lattice Spacing, Melting Point and Lattice Thermal Expansion of Ga₂Se₃ Nanoparticles

Authors: Mustafa Saeed Omar


The formula which contains the maximum increase of mean bond length, melting entropy and critical particle radius is used to calculate lattice volume in nanoscale size crystals of Ga₂Se₃. This compound belongs to the binary group of III₂VI₃. The critical radius is calculated from the values of the first surface atomic layer height which is equal to 0.336nm. The size-dependent mean bond length is calculated by using an equation-free from fitting parameters. The size-dependent lattice parameter then is accordingly used to calculate the size-dependent lattice volume. The lattice size in the nanoscale region increases to about 77.6 A³, which is up to four times of its bulk state value 19.97 A³. From the values of the nanosize scale dependence of lattice volume, the nanoscale size dependence of melting temperatures is calculated. The melting temperature decreases with the nanoparticles size reduction, it becomes zero when the radius reaches to its critical value. Bulk melting temperature for Ga₂Se₃, for example, has values of 1293 K. From the size-dependent melting temperature and mean bond length, the size-dependent lattice thermal expansion is calculated. Lattice thermal expansion decreases with the decrease of nanoparticles size and reaches to its minimum value as the radius drops down to about 5nm.

Keywords: Ga₂Se₃, lattice volume, lattice thermal expansion, melting point, nanoparticles

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6433 Wetting Properties of Silver Based Alloys

Authors: Zoltán Weltsch, József Hlinka, Eszter Kókai


The temperature dependence of wettability (wetting angle, Θ (T)) for Ag-based melts on graphite and Al2O3 substrates is compared. Typical alloying effects are found, as the Ag host metal is gradually replaced by various metallic elements. The essence of alloying lies in the change of the electron/atom (e/a) ratio. This ratio is also manifested in the shift of wetting angles on the same substrate. Nevertheless, the effects are partially smeared by other (metallurgical) factors, like the interaction between the oxygen-alloying elements and by the graphite substrate-oxygen interaction. In contrast, such effects are not pronounced in the case of Al2O3 substrates. As a consequence, Θ(T) exhibits an opposite trend in the case of two substrates. Crossovers of the Θ(T) curves were often found. The positions of crossovers depend on the chemical character and concentration of solute atoms. Segregation and epitaxial texture formation after solidification were also observed in certain alloy drops, especially in high concentration range. This phenomenon is not yet explained in every detail.

Keywords: contact angle, graphite, silver, soldering, solid solubility, substrate, temperature dependence, wetting

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6432 The Impact of Temperature on the Threshold Capillary Pressure of Fine-Grained Shales

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali, S. Mohammad


The threshold capillary pressure of shale caprocks is an important parameter in CO₂ storage modeling. A correct estimation of the threshold capillary pressure is not only essential for CO₂ storage modeling but also important to assess the overall economical and environmental impact of the design process. A standard step by step approach has to be used to measure the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluids at different temperatures. The objective of this work is to assess the impact of high temperature on the threshold capillary pressure of four different shales as they interacted with four different oil based muds, air, CO₂, N₂, and methane. This study shows that the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluid is highly impacted by temperature. An empirical correlation for the dependence of threshold capillary pressure on temperature when different shales interacted with oil based muds and gasses has been developed. This correlation shows that the threshold capillary pressure decreases exponentially as the temperature increases. In this correlation, an experimental constant (α) appears, and this constant may depend on the properties of shale and non-wetting fluid. The value for α factor was found to be higher for gasses than for oil based muds. This is consistent with our intuition since the interfacial tension for gasses is higher than those for oil based muds. The author believes that measured threshold capillary pressure at ambient temperature is misleading and could yield higher values than those encountered at in situ conditions. Therefore one must correct for the impact of temperature when measuring threshold capillary pressure of shale at ambient temperature.

Keywords: capillary pressure, shale, temperature, thresshold

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6431 Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium Doped Bismuth Ferrite Multifunctional Materials for Spintronic Devices

Authors: Ravinder Dachepalli, Naveena Gadwala, K. Vani


Nd and Er substituted bismuth nano crystalline multifunctional materials were prepared by citrate gel autocombution technique. The structural characterization was carried out by XRD and SEM. Electrical properties such are electrical conductivity and dielectric properties have been measured. Plots of electrical conductivity versus temperature increases with increasing temperature and shown a transition near Curie temperature. Dielectric properties such are dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent have been measured from 20Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature. Plots of dielectric constant versus frequency show a normal dielectric behaviour of multifunctional materials. Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of Bi-Nd and Bi-Er multi-functional materials were carried out by using Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The magnetization as a function of an applied field ±100 Oe was carried out at 3K and 360 K. Zero field Cooled (ZFC) and Field Cooled (FC) magnetization measurements under an applied field of 100Oe a in the temperature range of 5-375K. The observed results can be explained for spintronic devices.

Keywords: Bi-Nd and Bi-Er Multifunctional Materia, Citrate Gel Auto combustion Technique, FC-ZFC magnetization, Dielectric constant

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