Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7749

Search results for: water productivity

7749 Water Productivity and Sensitivity Tolerance Stress Indices in Five Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max L.) at Different Levels of Water Deficit

Authors: Hassan Masoumi, Rashed Alavi, Mahmoud Reza Khorshidian

Abstract:

In order to measure the water deficit stress effects on seed yield and water productivity of soybean cultivars, a two field experiments wad conducted out via split plot in a randomized complete block design with four replications in 2011 and 2012. Irrigation treatments were three levels (S1; 50, S2; 62.5 and S3; 150 mm) that applied based on evaporation from the ‘class A’ pan. Cultivars were L17, Clean, T.M.S, Williams×Chippewa and M9, too. The results showed that, only extreme water deficit stresses (S3) was reduced number of pods per plants, dry weight, seed yield and also water productivity and water economic productivity, significantly. Among cultivars and at the first and second levels of irrigation (S1, S2) cultivar of L17 and at the third level (S3) cultivar of Wiiliams*Chippwea had the highest seed yield, water productivity and water economic productivity. There were observed a positive and significant correlation between seed yield with number of pods per plants and plants dry weight, too. Also, despite the reduction in water consumption at level of S2 than S1 and due to the lack of a significant reduction in seed yield, water productivity and water economic productivity was also increased, significantly (P < 0.01). All indices of sensitivity and tolerance (SSI, STI and GMP) investigated in this study showed that at the moderate and extreme water deficit stresses (S2, S3), the cultivars of L17 and Wiiliams * Chippwea had the highest tolerance and lowest sensitivity among the cultivars.

Keywords: drought, sensitivity indices, yield components, seed

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7748 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
7747 Quantity, Quality and Water Productivity of Mulberry Leaf Influenced by Different Methods, Levels of Irrigation and Mulching in Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: Chengalappa Seenappa, Narayanappa Devkumar, Narayanappa Nagaraja

Abstract:

Mulberry leaf is the major economic component in sericulture and quality of leaf produced per unit area has a direct effect on quality of cocoon. Among all the agronomical inputs, irrigation water has highest impact on mulberry leaf quantity and quality. The water productivity in sericulture in the country is inadequate and inefficient though India has the largest irrigated area. There is a need of proper irrigation methods and conservation practices to ensure efficiency and economy in water use. Hence, this field experiment was conducted at College of Sericulture, Chintamani, Chickaballapur district, Karnataka, India during 2013 and 2014 to know the quantity, quality and water productivity of mulberry influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching in Eastern Dry Zone (EDZ) of Karnataka, India. The results revealed that the mulberry leaf quantity, quality and water productivity were significantly influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. Subsurface drip irrigation at 0.8 CPE (Cumulative Pan Evaporation) recorded higher leaf yield, chlorophyll, relative water, protein content and water productivity (42857 kg ha-1 yr-1, 8.54, 65.80%, 22.27% and 364.41 kg hacm-1, respectively) than surface drip at 1.0 CPE (38809 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.34, 62.76%, 17.75% and 264 10 kg hacm-1, respectively) and micro spray jet at 1.0 CPE (39931 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.96, 63.50%, 19.00%, 35617 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 271.83 kg hacm-1, respectively). Mulching treatment recorded maximum leaf yield, chlorophyll, relative water, protein content and water productivity (38035 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.12, 62.11%, 16.14% and 330 kg hacm-1, respectively) compared to without mulching. These results clearly indicated that subsurface drip irrigation at lower level of irrigation (0.8 CPE) and mulching increased the quantity, quality and water productivity of mulberry leaf than surface drip and micro spray jet irrigation at higher level of irrigation (1.0 CPE) by saving 20 per cent of water. Therefore, in the coming days subsurface drip irrigation in mulberry cultivation may be more appropriate to realise higher yield, quality and water productivity in EDZ of Karnataka, India.

Keywords: subsurface drip irrigation, mulching, water productivity, mulberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
7746 Enhancement of Mulberry Leaf Yield and Water Productivity in Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: Narayanappa Devakumar, Chengalappa Seenappa

Abstract:

The field experiments were conducted during Rabi 2013 and summer 2014 at College of Sericulture, Chintamani, Chickaballapur district, Karnataka, India to find out the response of mulberry to different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. The results showed that leaf yield and water productivity of mulberry were significantly influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. Subsurface drip with lower level of irrigation at 0.8 CPE (Cumulative Pan Evaporation) recorded higher leaf yield and water productivity (42857 kg ha-1 yr-1and 364.41 kg hacm-1) than surface drip with higher level of irrigation at 1.0 CPE (38809 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 264.10 kg hacm-1) and micro spray jet (39931 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 271.83 kg hacm-1). Further, subsurface drip recorded minimum water used to produce one kg of leaf and to earn one rupee of profit (283 L and 113 L) compared to surface drip (390 L and 156 L) and micro spray jet (379 L and 152 L) irrigation methods. Mulberry leaf yield increased and water productivity decreased with increased levels of irrigation. However, these results indicated that irrigation of mulberry with subsurface drip increased leaf yield and water productivity by saving 20% of irrigation water than surface drip and micro spray jet irrigation methods in Eastern Dry Zone (EDZ) of Karnataka.

Keywords: cumulative pan evaporation, mulaberry, subsurface drip irrigation, water productivity

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7745 A Comparative Study on Primary Productivity in Fish Cage Culture Unit and Fish Pond in Relation to Different Level of Water Depth

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, D. Manikandavelu, V. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

The total amount of productivity in the system is the gross primary productivity. The present study was carried out to understand the relationship between productivity in the cages and water depth. The experiment was conducted in the fish cages installed in the pond at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu (10° 47' 13.1964'' N; 79° 8' 16.1700''E). Primary productivity was estimated by light and dark bottle method. The measurement of primary productivity was done at different depths viz., 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm. Six Biological Oxygen Demand bottles of 300 ml capacity were collected and tagged. The productivity was obtained in mg O2/l/hr. The maximum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth was observed 5.62 ± 0.22 mg/l/hr in the light bottle in pond water while the minimum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth in a cage was observed 3.62 ± 0.18 mg/l/hr in dark bottle. In the same way, the maximum and minimum value of dissolved oxygen was observed at 40, and 60 cm depth and results were compared. A slight change in pH was observed in the cage and pond. The maximum gross primary productivity observed was 1.97 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth while minimum gross primary productivity observed was 0.82±0.16 mg/l/hr in a cage at 60 cm depth. The community respiration was also variable with the depth in both cage and pond. Maximum community respiration was found 1.50±0.19 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth. A strong positive linear relationship was observed between primary productivity and fish yields in ponds. The pond primary productivity can contribute substantially to the nutrition of farm-raised aquaculture species, including shrimp. The growth of phytoplankton’s is dependent on the sun light, availability of primary nutrients (N, P, and K) in the water body and transparency, so to increase the primary productivity fertilization through organic manure may be done that will clean to the pond environment also.

Keywords: cage aquaculture, water depth, net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, community respiration

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7744 Study of Some Factors Effecting on Productivity of Solar Distillers

Authors: Keshek M.H, Mohamed M.A, El-Shafey M.A

Abstract:

The aim of this research was increasing the productivity of solar distillation. In order to reach this aim, a solar distiller was created with three glass sides sloping 30o at the horizontal level, and the experiments were carried out on the solar distillation unit during the period from 24th August, 2016 till 24th May, 2017 at the Agricultural Engineering and Bio Systems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University. Three gap lengths were used between the water level and the inner glass cover, those were 3, 6, and 9 cm. As the result of change the gap length between the water level and the inner glass cover the total volume of basins were changed from 15.5, 13, and 11 L, respectively. The total basin volume was divided to three sections, to investigate the effect of water volume. The three water volumes were 100%, 75%, and 50%. Every section was supplied with one, two, or three heaters. The one heater power was 15 W. The results showed that, by increasing the distance between the basins edge and the inner edge of the glass cover, an increase occurs in the percentage of temperature difference with maximum value was 52% at distance 9 cm from each edge, an increase occurs in the productivity with maximum productivity was 3.3 L/m2 at distance 9 cm from each edge and an increase occurs in the efficiency with maximum efficiency was 70% at distance 9 cm from each edge.

Keywords: distillation, solar energy, still productivity, efficiency

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7743 Experimental Investigation of Air Gap Membrane Distillation System with Heat Recovery

Authors: Yasser Elhenaw, A. Farag, Mohamed El-Ghandour, M. Shatat, G. H. Moustafa

Abstract:

This study investigates the performance of two spiral-wound Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) units. These units are connected in two different configurations in order to be tested and compared experimentally. In AGMD, the coolant water is used to condensate water vapor leaving membrane via condensing plate. The rejected cooling water has a relativity high temperature which can be used, depending on operation parameters, to increase the thermal efficiency and water productivity. In the first configuration, the seawater feed flows parallel and equally through both units then rejected. The coolant water is divided into the two units, and the heat source is divided into the two heat exchangers. In the second one, only the feed of the first unit is heated while the cooling rejected from the unit is used in heating the feed to the second. The performance of the system, estimated by the water productivity as well as the Gain Output Ratio (GOR), is measured for the two configurations at different feed flow rates, temperatures and salinities. The results show that at steady state condition, the heat recovery configurations lead to an increase in water productivity by 25%.

Keywords: membrane distillation, heat transfer, heat recovery, desalination

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7742 A Theoretical Model for a Humidification Dehumidification (HD) Solar Desalination Unit

Authors: Yasser El-Henawy, M. Abd El-Kader, Gamal H. Moustafa

Abstract:

A theoretical study of a humidification dehumidification solar desalination unit has been carried out to increase understanding the effect of weather conditions on the unit productivity. A humidification-dehumidification (HD) solar desalination unit has been designed to provide fresh water for population in remote arid areas. It consists of solar water collector and air collector; to provide the hot water and air to the desalination chamber. The desalination chamber is divided into humidification and dehumidification towers. The circulation of air between the two towers is maintained by the forced convection. A mathematical model has been formulated, in which the thermodynamic relations were used to study the flow, heat and mass transfer inside the humidifier and dehumidifier. The present technique is performed in order to increase the unit performance. Heat and mass balance has been done and a set of governing equations has been solved using the finite difference technique. The unit productivity has been calculated along the working day during the summer and winter sessions and has compared with the available experimental results. The average accumulative productivity of the system in winter has been ranged between 2.5 to 4 kg/m2.day, while the average summer productivity has been found between 8 to 12 kg/m2 day.

Keywords: solar desalination, solar collector, humidification and dehumidification, simulation, finite difference, water productivity

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7741 Experimental Determination of Water Productivity of Improved Cassava Varieties Propagation under Rain-Fed Condition in Tropical Environment

Authors: Temitayo Abayomi Ewemoje, Isaac Olugbemiga Afolayan, Badmus Alao Tayo

Abstract:

Researchers in developing countries have worked on improving cassava resistance to diseases and pests, high yielding and early maturity However, water management has received little or no attention as cassava cultivation in Sub-Saharan Africa depended on available precipitation (rain-fed condition). Therefore the need for water management in Agricultural crop production cannot be overemphasized. As other sectors compete with agricultural sector for fresh water (which is not readily available), there is need to increase water productivity in agricultural production. Experimentation was conducted to examine water use, growth and yield of improved cassava varieties under rain fed condition using Latin- square design with four replications. Four improved disease free stem cassava varieties TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) were planted and growth parameters of the varieties were monitored for 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP). Effective rainfall useful for the plant growth was calculated using CROPWAT8 for Windows. Results indicated TMS090581 was having the highest tuber yield and plant height while TMS30572 had highest number of nodes. Tuber stem and leaf water productivities at 90 and 120 DAP of TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) are (1.27 and 3.58, 1.44 and 2.35, 0.89 and 1.86, 1.64 and 3.77) kg/m3 (1.56 and 2.59, 1.95 and 2.02, 1.98 and 2.05, 1.95 and 2.18) kg/m3, and (1.34 and 2.32, 1.94 and 2.16, 1.57 and 1.40, 1.27 and 1.80) kg/m3 respectively. Based on tuber water productivity TMS090581 are recommended while TMS30572 are recommended based on leaf and stem productivity in water scarce regions.Experimentation was conducted to examine water use, growth and yield of improved cassava varieties under rain fed condition using Latin- square design with four replications. Four improved disease free stem cassava varieties TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) were planted and growth parameters of the varieties were monitored for 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP). Effective rainfall useful for the plant growth was calculated using CROPWAT8 for Windows. Results indicated TMS090581 was having the highest tuber yield and plant height while TMS30572 had the highest number of nodes. Tuber, stem and leaf water productivities at 90 and 120 DAP of TMS (30572, 980505, 920326 and 090581) are (1.27 and 3.58, 1.44 and 2.35, 0.89 and 1.86, 1.64 and 3.77) kg/m3 (1.56 and 2.59, 1.95 and 2.02, 1.98 and 2.05, 1.95 and 2.18) kg/m3, and (1.34 and 2.32, 1.94 and 2.16, 1.57 and 1.40, 1.27 and 1.80) kg/m3 respectively. Based on tuber water productivity TMS090581 are recommended while TMS30572 are recommended based on leaf and stem productivity in water scarce regions

Keywords: improved TMS varieties, leaf productivity, rain-fed cassava production, stem productivity, tuber productivity

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7740 Numerical Method for Productivity Prediction of Water-Producing Gas Well with Complex 3D Fractures: Case Study of Xujiahe Gas Well in Sichuan Basin

Authors: Hong Li, Haiyang Yu, Shiqing Cheng, Nai Cao, Zhiliang Shi

Abstract:

Unconventional resources have gradually become the main direction for oil and gas exploration and development. However, the productivity of gas wells, the level of water production, and the seepage law in tight fractured gas reservoirs are very different. These are the reasons why production prediction is so difficult. Firstly, a three-dimensional multi-scale fracture and multiphase mathematical model based on an embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) is established. And the material balance method is used to calculate the water body multiple according to the production performance characteristics of water-producing gas well. This will help construct a 'virtual water body'. Based on these, this paper presents a numerical simulation process that can adapt to different production modes of gas wells. The research results show that fractures have a double-sided effect. The positive side is that it can increase the initial production capacity, but the negative side is that it can connect to the water body, which will lead to the gas production drop and the water production rise both rapidly, showing a 'scissor-like' characteristic. It is worth noting that fractures with different angles have different abilities to connect with the water body. The higher the angle of gas well development, the earlier the water maybe break through. When the reservoir is a single layer, there may be a stable production period without water before the fractures connect with the water body. Once connected, a 'scissors shape' will appear. If the reservoir has multiple layers, the gas and water will produce at the same time. The above gas-water relationship can be matched with the gas well production date of the Xujiahe gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin. This method is used to predict the productivity of a well with hydraulic fractures in this gas reservoir, and the prediction results are in agreement with on-site production data by more than 90%. It shows that this research idea has great potential in the productivity prediction of water-producing gas wells. Early prediction results are of great significance to guide the design of development plans.

Keywords: EDFM, multiphase, multilayer, water body

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7739 Crop Water Productivity for Sunflower under Different Irrigation Regimes and Plant Spacing, at Gezira Clay Soil, Sudan

Authors: R. A. Eman Elsheikh, Bart Schultz, Abraham Mehari Haile, Hussein S. Adam

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Gezira research station farm during the winter season in the third week of November 2012, in WadMedani, Sudan (Lat 14.23 W, Long 33.39 E and altitude 405 m above sea level, in deep cracking alkaline heavy clay Vertisols). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of three different irrigation for 10 days (W1), 15 days (W2) and 20 days (W3) and for two rows of 30 cm (S1) and 40 cm (S2), respectively. The experimental design was split plot with three replicates. The sunflower test variety was Hysun 33 cultivar. The seasonal water applied during the study was 6898, 6647, 5256, 5435, 5214, 5416 m3/ha for W1S1, W1S2, W2S1, W2S2, W3S1 and W3S2 respectively. The seed yield obtained for the above treatment in that sequence was 4208, 5542, 5167, 4579, 2931, 2936 kg/ha. The corresponding computed water productivity was 0.61, 0.82, 0.87, 0.95, 0.54, 0.56 kg/m3. The study clearly indicated that the highest seed yield was obtained when the crop was sown at 40 cm row spacing and was irrigated every 10 days (W1S2), followed by W2S1.

Keywords: water productivity, water deficit, sunflower, plant spacing

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7738 AquaCrop Model Simulation for Water Productivity of Teff (Eragrostic tef): A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Yenesew Mengiste Yihun, Abraham Mehari Haile, Teklu Erkossa, Bart Schultz

Abstract:

Teff (Eragrostic tef) is a staple food in Ethiopia. The local and international demand for the crop is ever increasing pushing the current price five times compared with that in 2006. To meet this escalating demand increasing production including using irrigation is imperative. Optimum application of irrigation water, especially in semi-arid areas is profoundly important. AquaCrop model application in irrigation water scheduling and simulation of water productivity helps both irrigation planners and agricultural water managers. This paper presents simulation and evaluation of AquaCrop model in optimizing the yield and biomass response to variation in timing and rate of irrigation water application. Canopy expansion, canopy senescence and harvest index are the key physiological processes sensitive to water stress. For full irrigation water application treatment there was a strong relationship between the measured and simulated canopy and biomass with r2 and d values of 0.87 and 0.96 for canopy and 0.97 and 0.74 for biomass, respectively. However, the model under estimated the simulated yield and biomass for higher water stress level. For treatment receiving full irrigation the harvest index value obtained were 29%. The harvest index value shows generally a decreasing trend under water stress condition. AquaCrop model calibration and validation using the dry season field experiments of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 shows that AquaCrop adequately simulated the yield response to different irrigation water scenarios. We conclude that the AquaCrop model can be used in irrigation water scheduling and optimizing water productivity of Teff grown under water scarce semi-arid conditions.

Keywords: AquaCrop, climate smart agriculture, simulation, teff, water security, water stress regions

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
7737 Conservation Agriculture and Precision Water Management in Alkaline Soils under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: Effect on Wheat Productivity and Irrigation Water Use-a Case Study from India

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, H. S. Jat, Manish Kakraliya, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

Abstract:

The biggest challenge in agriculture is to produce more food for the continually increasing world population with in the limited land and water resources. Serious water deficits and reducing natural resources are some of the major threats to the agricultural sustainability in many regions of South Asia. Food and water security may be gained by bringing improvement in the crop water productivity and the amount produced per unit of water consumed. Improvement in the crop water productivity may be achieved by pursuing alternative modern agronomics approaches, which are more friendly and efficient in utilizing natural resources. Therefore, a research trial on conservation agriculture (CA) and precision water management (PWM) was conducted in 2018-19 at Karnal, India to evaluate the effect on crop productivity and irrigation in sodic soils under rice-wheat (RW) systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Eight scenarios were compared varied in the tillage, crop establishment, residue and irrigarion management i.e., {First four scenarios irrigated with flood irrigation method;Sc1-Conventional tillage (CT) without residue, Sc2-CT with residue, Sc3- Zero tillage (ZT) without residue, Sc4-ZT with residue}, and {last four scenarios irrigated with sub-surface drip irrigation method; Sc5-ZT without residue, Sc6- ZT with residue, Sc7-ZT inclusion legume without residue and Sc8- ZT inclusion legume with residue}. Results revealed that CA-flood irrigation (S3, Sc4) and CA-PWM system (Sc5, Sc6, Sc7 and Sc8) recorded about ~5% and ~15% higher wheat yield, respectively compared to Sc1. Similar, CA-PWM saved ~40% irrigation water compared to Sc1. Rice yield was not different under different scenarios in the first year (kharif 2019) but almost half irrigation water saved under CA-PWM system. Therefore, results of our study on modern agronomic practices including CA and precision water management (subsurface drip irrigation) for RW rotation would be addressed the existing and future challenges in the RW system.

Keywords: Sub-surface drip, Crop residue, Crop yield , Zero tillage

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7736 Effects of Effort and Water Quality on Productivity (CPUE) of Hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) Resources in Jatiluhur Dam, West Java

Authors: Ririn Marinasari, S. Pi

Abstract:

Hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) is one of Citarum river indigenous fishes that still find in Jatiluhur dam. IUCN at 2013 said that hampal listed on redlist species category, this species was rare in Jatiluhur dam. This species more and more decreasing because change of habitats characteristic such as water quality and fishing effort. This study aims to determine and identify the influence of fishing effort and the quality of water on the productivity of fish resources hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) in Jatiluhur. The study was conducted from October to November 2013. Zones of research include lacustrine zone, transition and Riverin. Hampal fish productivity value computed by Hampal’s CPUE values. The results showed that fish MSY hampal obtained from surplus production model of Schaefer is equal to 0.2045 tons / quarterly. In the years 2011-2012 have occurred over fishing in 2013 while still under fishing. Total catches have exceeded the MSY during the year 2011 and the third quarterly of 2012 tons of fish that exceed 0.2045 hampal. The rate of utilization of fish resources hampal is equal to 80% of MSY or equal to the allowable catch (Total Allowable Catch) for fish in Jatiluhur hampal based Schaefer surplus production theory. Fishing effort, water quality parameters such as DO, turbidity and negatively correlated sulfide as H2S, while the temperature and pH positively correlated to productivity or unit catches fish hampal efforts in quarterly time series in the period 2011-2013. Shows that the higher fishing effort, DO, turbidity and sulfide in H2S and diminishing the temperature and pH of the productivity decreases. Variables that affect the productivity of fishing hampal only H2S only factor beta coefficient -0.834 which indicates a negative effect. It can be caused by H2S levels are toxic and have already exceeded the quality standard, while for other water quality parameters are still below the maximum standards allowed in the waters. Result of the study can be a reference of fishing regulation for hampal conservation in Jatiluhur dam.

Keywords: effort, hampal, productivity, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
7735 Climate-Smart Agriculture for Sustainable Maize-Wheat Production: Effects on Crop Productivity, Profitability and Irrigation Water Use

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, R. D. Jat, H. S. Jat, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

Abstract:

The traditional rice-wheat (RW) system in the IGP of South Asia is tillage, water, energy, and capital intensive. Coupled with more pumping of groundwater over the years to meet the high irrigation water requirement of the RW system has resulted in over-exploitation of groundwater. Replacement of traditional rice with less water crops such as maize under climate-smart agriculture (CSA) based management (tillage, crop establishment and residue management) practices are required to promote sustainable intensification. Furthermore, inefficient nutrient management practices are responsible for low crop yields and nutrient use efficiencies in maize-wheat (MW) system. A 7-year field experiment was conducted in farmer’s participatory strategic research mode at Taraori, Karnal, India to evaluate the effects of tillage and crop establishment (TCE) methods, residue management, mungbean integration, and nutrient management practices on crop yields, water productivity and profitability of MW system. The main plot treatments included four combinations of TCE, residue and mungbean integration [conventional tillage (CT), conventional tillage with mungbean (CT + MB), permanent bed (PB) and permanent bed with MB (PB + MB] with three nutrient management practices [farmer’s fertilizer practice (FFP), recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and site-specific nutrient management (SSNM)] using Nutrient Expert® as subplot treatments. System productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and net returns under PB + MB were significantly increased by 25–30%, 28–31% and 35–40% compared to CT respectively, during seven years of experimentation. The integration of MB in MW system contributed ~25and ~ 28% increases in system productivity and net returns compared with no MB, respectively. SSNM based nutrient management increased the mean (averaged across 7 yrs) system productivity by 12- 15% compared with FFP. The study revealed that CSA based sustainable intensification (PB + MB) and SSNM approach provided opportunities for enhancing crop productivity, WUE and profitability of the MW system in India.

Keywords: Conservation Agriculture, Precision water and nutrient management, Permanent beds, Crop yields

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
7734 Irrigation Scheduling for Wheat in Bangladesh under Water Stress Conditions Using Water Productivity Model

Authors: S. M. T. Mustafa, D. Raes, M. Huysmans

Abstract:

Proper utilization of water resource is very important in agro-based Bangladesh. Irrigation schedule based on local environmental conditions, soil type and water availability will allow a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture. In this study, the FAO crop water model (AquaCrop) was used to simulate the different water and fertilizer management strategies in different location of Bangladesh to obtain a management guideline for the farmer. Model was calibrated and validated for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The statistical indices between the observed and simulated grain yields obtained were very good with R2, RMSE, and EF values of 0.92, 0.33, and 0.83, respectively for model calibration and 0.92, 0.68 and 0.77, respectively for model validations. Stem elongation (jointing) to booting and flowering stage were identified as most water sensitive for wheat. Deficit irrigation on water sensitive stage could increase the grain yield for increasing soil fertility levels both for loamy and sandy type soils. Deficit irrigation strategies provides higher water productivity than full irrigation strategies and increase the yield stability (reduce the standard deviation). The practical deficit irrigation schedule for wheat for four different stations and two different soils were designed. Farmer can produce more crops by using deficit irrigation schedule under water stress condition. Practical application and validation of proposed strategies will make them more credible.

Keywords: crop-water model, deficit irrigation, irrigation scheduling, wheat

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7733 Impact of Unconventional Waters on Spirulina Production under Greenhouse Condition in Ouargla

Authors: Afaf Djaghoubi, Mustapha Daddi Bouhoun, Jr., Ali Seggai

Abstract:

The study of the habitat of Spirulina is the key to ensure the smooth running of its culture outside of its natural habitat. Our experimental work in the Ouargla basin which aims to study the Spirulina productivity cultivated under greenhouse in unconventional waters enriched and non-enriched, drainage and wastewater treated were used in the experiment. For this, we proceeded to measure the biomass concentration by the DO625. The high biomass concentration and productivity amount were in treated wastewater enriched with 2.49±1.09 and 0.12±0.57 respectively, while The high amount in drainage water were in medium enriched with 2.19 ± 0.85 g/l and 0.08±0.52 g/l/d respectively. In spite of the enrichment and the good productivity of these waters, the chemical and microbiological qualities remain to study for a better valuation.

Keywords: Algeria, Ouargla, production, Spirulina, unconventional water

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
7732 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines.

Keywords: quantile regression, smoothing spline, labor productivity, financial ratios

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
7731 Improved Water Productivity by Deficit Irrigation: Implications for Water Saving in Orange, Olive and Vineyard Orchards in Arid Conditions of Tunisia

Authors: K. Nagaz, F. El Mokh, M. Masmoudi, N. Ben Mechlia, M. O. Baba Sy, G. Ghiglieri

Abstract:

Field experiments on deficit irrigation (DI) were performed in Médenine, Tunisia on drip-irrigated olive, orange and grapevine orchards during 2013 and 2014. Four irrigation treatments were compared: full irrigation (FI), which was irrigated at 100% of ETc for the whole season; two deficit irrigation (DI) strategies -DI75 and DI50- which received, respectively, 25 and 50% less water than FI; and traditional farming management (FM) - with water input much less than actually needed. The traditional farming (FM) applied 11, 18, 30 and 33% less water than the FI treatment, respectively, in orange, grapevine and table and oil olive orchards, indicating that the farmers practices represent a form of unintended deficit irrigation. Yield was reduced when deficit irrigation was applied and there were significant differences between DI75, DI50 and FM treatments. Significant differences were not observed between DI50 and FM treatments even though numerically smaller yield was observed in the former (DI50) as compared to the latter (FM). The irrigation water productivity (IWP) was significantly affected by irrigation treatments. The smallest IWP was recorded under the FI treatment, while the largest IWP was obtained under the deficit irrigation treatment (DI50). The DI50 and FM treatments reduced the economic return compared to the full treatment (FI), while the DI75 treatment resulted in a better economic return in respect to DI50 and FM. Full irrigation (FI) could be recommended for olive, orange and grapevine irrigation under the arid climate of Tunisia. Nevertheless, the treatment DI75 can be applied as a strategy under water scarcity conditions in commercial olive, orange and grapevine orchards allowing water savings up to 25% but with some reduction in yield and net return. The results would be helpful in adopting deficit irrigation in ways that enhance net financial returns.

Keywords: water productivity, deficit irrigation, drip irrigation, orchards

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
7730 Evaluation of Water Management Options to Improve the Crop Yield and Water Productivity for Semi-Arid Watershed in Southern India Using AquaCrop Model

Authors: V. S. Manivasagam, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Modeling the soil, water and crop growth interactions are attaining major importance, considering the future climate change and water availability for agriculture to meet the growing food demand. Progress in understanding the crop growth response during water stress period through crop modeling approach provides an opportunity for improving and sustaining the future agriculture water use efficiency. An attempt has been made to evaluate the potential use of crop modeling approach for assessing the minimal supplementary irrigation requirement for crop growth during water limited condition and its practical significance in sustainable improvement of crop yield and water productivity. Among the numerous crop models, water driven-AquaCrop model has been chosen for the present study considering the modeling approach and water stress impact on yield simulation. The study has been evaluated in rainfed maize grown area of semi-arid Shanmuganadi watershed (a tributary of the Cauvery river system) located in southern India during the rabi cropping season (October-February). In addition to actual rainfed maize growth simulation, irrigated maize scenarios were simulated for assessing the supplementary irrigation requirement during water shortage condition for the period 2012-2015. The simulation results for rainfed maize have shown that the average maize yield of 0.5-2 t ha-1 was observed during deficit monsoon season (<350 mm) whereas 5.3 t ha-1 was noticed during sufficient monsoonal period (>350 mm). Scenario results for irrigated maize simulation during deficit monsoonal period has revealed that 150-200 mm of supplementary irrigation has ensured the 5.8 t ha-1 of irrigated maize yield. Thus, study results clearly portrayed that minimal application of supplementary irrigation during the critical growth period along with the deficit rainfall has increased the crop water productivity from 1.07 to 2.59 kg m-3 for major soil types. Overall, AquaCrop is found to be very effective for the sustainable irrigation assessment considering the model simplicity and minimal inputs requirement.

Keywords: AquaCrop, crop modeling, rainfed maize, water stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
7729 Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Farming: Empirical Evidence from a Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Munoz, Angeles Godoy-Duran, Emilio Galdeano-Gomez, Juan C. Perez-Mesa

Abstract:

Spain is very sensitive to water management issues due to its climatic characteristics and the deficit of this resource in many areas of its territory. This study examines the characteristics of the family farms that are more efficient in the use of water, focusing on a semi-arid area located in Almeria, southeast of Spain. In the case of irrigated agriculture, water usage efficiency usually indicates water productivity in terms of yield (kg/m³), or in economic terms (euros/m³). These two water usage indicators were considered to analyse water usage efficiency according to other studies on water efficiency in the horticultural area under analysis. This work also takes into account other water usage characteristics such as water supplied, innovative irrigation practices, water-efficient technology, and water-saving practices. The results show that the most water efficient farms have technical advisors and use irrigation on demand, that measures the water needs of the crops and are considered the most technological irrigation system. These farms are more technological and less labor intensive. They are also aware of water scarcity and the need to conserve the environment. This approach allow managers to identify the principal factors and best practices related to water efficiency in order to promote and implement them in inefficient farms and promote sustainability.

Keywords: cluster analysis, family farms, Spain, sustainability, water-use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
7728 Development of Value Productivity in Automotive Industry

Authors: Jiří Klečka, Dagmar Čámská

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the investigation of productivity (total productivity and partial productivity). The value productivity is an indicator of level and changes in technical economic efficiency of production factors. It represents an important factor in achieving corporate objectives. This text works with the contemporary concept of value productivity that means that indicators of the productivity express the effect of economic efficiency not only of inputs consumption, but also of inputs binding efficiency. This approach is based on principles of the economic profit, respectively the economic value added (EVA). The research is done on the sample of Czech enterprises operating in the automotive industry in the regions of Liberec and the Central Bohemia. The data sample covers the time period 2006-2011 which allows the comparison of development before crisis and during crisis period. It enables to discover the companies' reaction during crises and the regional comparison allows to showing if there are significant differences between regions.

Keywords: automotive industry, Czech Republic, economic efficiency, regional comparison, value productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
7727 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed

Abstract:

Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
7726 Solar Seawater Desalination Still with Seawater Preheater Using Efficient Heat Transfer Oil: Numerical Investigation and Data Verification

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Gamal Tag Abdel-Jaber, Rashed D. Aldughpassi

Abstract:

The feasibility of improving the performance of the proposed solar still unit which operated in very hot climate is investigated numerically and verified with experimental data. This solar desalination unit with proposed auxiliary device as seawater preheating system using petrol based textherm oil was used to produce pure fresh water from seawater. The effective evaporation area of basin is about 1 m2. The unit was tested in two main operation modes which are normal and with seawater preheating system. The results showed that, there is good agreement between the theoretical data and the experimental data; this means that the numerical model can be accurately dependable for predicting the proposed solar still performance and design parameters. The results also showed that the fresh water productivity of the solar still in the modified preheating case which is higher than normal case, leads to an increase in productivity of 42%.

Keywords: improving productivity, seawater desalination, solar stills, theoretical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
7725 Physical and Chemical Parameters of Lower Ogun River, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: F.I. Adeosun, A.A. Idowu, D.O. Odulate,

Abstract:

The aims of carrying out this experiment were to determine the water quality and to investigate if the various human and ecological activities around the river have any effect on the physico-chemical parameters of the river’s resources with a view to effectively utilizing these resources. Water samples were collected from two stations on the surface water of Lower Ogun River Akomoje biweekly for a period of 5 months (January to May, 2011). Results showed that temperature ranged between 24.0-30.7oC, transparency (0.53-1.00 m), depth (1.0-3.88 m), alkalinity (4.5-14.5 mg/l), nitrates (0.235-5.445 mg/l), electrical conductivity (140-190µS/cm), dissolved oxygen (4.12-5.32 mg/l), phosphates (0.02 mg/l-0.7 5 mg/l) and total dissolved solids (70-95).The parameters at the deep end (station A) accounted for the bulk of the highest values; there was however no significant differences between the stations at P˂0.05 with the exception of transparency, depth, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity. The phosphate value was relatively low which accounted for the low productivity and high transparency. The results obtained from the physico-chemical parameters agreed with the limits set by both national and international bodies for drinking and fish growth. It was however observed that during the period of data collection, catch was low and this could be attributed to low level of primary productivity due to the quality of physico-chemical parameters of the water. It is recommended that the agencies involved in the management of the river should put the right policies in place that will effectively enhance proper exploitation of the water resources. More research should also be carried out on the physico-chemical parameters since this work only studied the water for five months.

Keywords: physical, chemical, parameters, water quality, Ogunriver

Procedia PDF Downloads 585
7724 Check Factors Contributing to the Increase or Decrease in Labor Productivity in Employees Applied Science Center Municipal Andimeshk

Authors: Hossein Boromandfar, Ahmad Ghalavandi

Abstract:

This paper examines the importance of human resources as a strategic resource and the factors that lead to increased Labor productivity in Applied Science Center Andimeshk pay. First, the concepts and definitions of productivity and factors affecting it, and then determine the center Recommendations for improving the productivity of the university at a high level its improvement. What leads to increased productivity of labor is worth. The most competent human resources infrastructure is set, because by moving towards the development and promotion. The use of qualified employees in the university with a focus on specific objectives can be effective on its promotion.

Keywords: productivity, manage, human resources, center for applied science

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
7723 The Role of Land Consolidation to Reduce Soil Degradation in the Czech Republic

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky

Abstract:

The paper deals with positive impacts of land consolidation on decreasing soil degradation with the main emphasis on soil and water conservation in the landscape. The importance of land degradation is very high because of its impact on crop productivity and many other adverse effects. Soil degradation through soil erosion is causing losses in crop productivity and quality of the environment, through decreasing quality of soil and water (especially water resources). Negative effects of conventional farming practices are increased water erosion, as well as crusting and compaction of the topsoil and subsoil. Soil erosion caused by water destructs the soil’s structure, reduces crop productivity due to deterioration in soil physical and chemical properties such as infiltration rate, water holding capacity, loss of nutrients needed for crop production, and loss of soil carbon. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity for improving the quality of the environment and sustainability of the crop production by means a better soil and water conservation. The present process of the complex land consolidation is not only a reallocation of plots, but this system consists of a new layout of plots within a certain territory, aimed at establishing the integrated land-use economic units, based on the needs of individual landowners and land users. On the other hand, the interests of the general public and the environmental protection have to be solved, too. From the general point of view, a large part of the Czech landscape shall be reconstructed in the course of complex land consolidation projects. These projects will be based on new integrated soil-economic units, spatially arranged in a designed multifunctional system of soil and water conservation measures, such as path network and a territorial system of ecological stability, according to structural changes in agriculture. This new approach will be the basis of a rational economic utilization of the region which will comply with the present ecological and aesthetic demands at present.

Keywords: soil degradation, land consolidation, soil erosion, soil conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7722 The Effect of Wellness Program on Organizations Productivity: The Case of Pakistani Corporation’s

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

Abstract:

This study imperially evaluated of five human resource (HR) practices (Wellness program extents are Employee’s assistance program, Health care screenings, and Recreation trips, Seminars for life style, Indoor and Outdoor activities) and there likely impact on the organization productivity in Pakistani organizations. The data were gathering by administrating questionnaires. The result indicated that all five variables are positively and significantly correlated with organization productivity. Results of regressing the all variables on organization productivity show that seminars for life style and employee’s assistance program strong predictors of organization productivity.

Keywords: wellness program, organization’s productivity, employee’s assistance program, health care screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
7721 A Framework for Improving Trade Contractors’ Productivity Tracking Methods

Authors: Sophia Hayes, Kenny L. Liang, Sahil Sharma, Austin Shema, Mahmoud Bader, Mohamed Elbarkouky

Abstract:

Despite being one of the most significant economic contributors of the country, Canada’s construction industry is lagging behind other sectors when it comes to labor productivity improvements. The construction industry is very collaborative as a general contractor, will hire trade contractors to perform most of a project’s work; meaning low productivity from one contractor can have a domino effect on the shared success of a project. To address this issue and encourage trade contractors to improve their productivity tracking methods, an investigative study was done on the productivity views and tracking methods of various trade contractors. Additionally, an in-depth review was done on four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry: cost codes, benchmarking, the job productivity measurement (JPM) standard, and WorkFace Planning (WFP). The four tracking methods were used as a baseline in comparing the trade contractors’ responses, determining gaps within their current tracking methods, and for making improvement recommendations. 15 interviews were conducted with different trades to analyze how contractors value productivity. The results of these analyses indicated that there seem to be gaps within the construction industry when it comes to an understanding of the purpose and value in productivity tracking. The trade contractors also shared their current productivity tracking systems; which were then compared to the four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry. Gaps were identified in their various tracking methods and using a framework; recommendations were made based on the type of trade on how to improve how they track productivity.

Keywords: labor productivity, productivity tracking methods, trade contractors, construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
7720 Water Use Efficiency of Sunflower Genotypes Under Drip Irrigation

Authors: Adel M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

This Investigation was conducted to determine the productivity and water use efficiency for new sunflower genotypes. Ten sunflower genotypes were evaluated under drip irrigation using two treatments of. Results indicate that decreasing the amount of irrigation water from 1500 to 1130 mm/hectar significantly reduced all studied traits. Mutation (M1-63) surpassed all the other one genotypes in seed yield and WUE. Lines which gave the highest yield of the seed have water use efficiency under drought conditions higher than water use efficiency under normal irrigation. The lowest depression in seed yield due to drought conditions has been registered for Line 20, Line M1-63 and Sakha 53 genotypes (11 , 18 and 16 %, respectively). Genotypes (Line 20 , Line M1-63 and Sakha 53) are more tolerant to drought than others and we can used its in breeding program to develop sunflower hybrids suitable for cultivation under drought condition.

Keywords: sunflower genotypes, water use efficiency, mutation, inbred lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 258