Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2568

Search results for: serum protein electrophoresis

2568 Comparison with Two Clinical Cases of Plasma Cell Neoplasm by Using the Method of Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Kai Pai Huang


Background: There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are found in our lab. Today, we want to compare with two cases using the method of capillary electrophoresis. Method: Serum is prepared and electrophoresis is performed at alkaline PH in a capillary using the Sebia® Capillary 2. Albumin and globulins are detected by the detector which is located in the cathode of the capillary and the signals are transformed to peaks. Serum was treated with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to monomer immunoglobulin to clarify two M-protein are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Result: Case 1: A 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria, leukocytosis, results of high serum IgA and lambda light chain. A renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in the glomerular mesangial area. Serum protein electrophoresis shows a major monoclonal peak in the β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. Case 2: A 55-year-old male presenting abdominal distension and low back pain for more than one month. Laboratory data showed T12 T8 compression fracture, results of high serum IgM and kappa light chain. Bone marrow aspiration showed the cells from the bone marrow are B cells with monotypic kappa chain expression. Bone marrow biopsy found this is lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom macroglobulin). Serum protein electrophoresis shows a monoclonal peak in the β region and the immunotyping studies for serum showed IgM/κ type. Conclusion: Plasma cell neoplasm can be diagnosed by many examinations. Among them, using capillary electrophoresis by a lab can separate several types of gammopathy and the quantification of a monoclonal peak can be used to evaluate the patients’ prognosis or treatment.

Keywords: plasma cell neoplasm, capillary electrophoresis, serum protein electrophoresis, immunotyping

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2567 Establishment of Reference Interval for Serum Protein Electrophoresis of Apparently Healthy Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Demiraw Bikila, Tadesse Lejisa, Yosef Tolcha, Chala Bashea, Mehari Meles Tigist Getahun Genet Ashebir, Wossene Habtu, Feyissa Challa, Ousman Mohammed, Melkitu Kassaw, Adisu Kebede, Letebrhan G. Egzeabher, Endalkachew Befekadu, Mistire Wolde, Aster Tsegaye


Background: Even though several factors affect reference intervals (RIs), the company-derived values are currently in use in many laboratories worldwide. However, little or no data is available regarding serum protein RIs, mainly in resource-limited setting countries like Ethiopia. Objective: To establish a reference interval for serum protein electrophoresis of apparently healthy adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 297 apparently healthy adults from April-October 2019 in four selected sub-cities (Akaki, Kirkos, Arada, Yeka) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Laboratory analysis of collected samples was performed using Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyzer, while statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and med-cal software. Mann-Whitney test was used to check Partitions. Non-parametric method of reference range establishment was performed as per CLSI guideline EP28A3C. Result: The established RIs were: Albumin 53.83-64.59%, 52.24-63.55%; Alpha-1 globulin 3.04-5.40%, 3.44-5.60%; Alpha-2 globulin 8.0-12.67%, 8.44-12.87%; and Beta-1 globulin 5.01-7.38%, 5.14-7.86%. Moreover, Albumin to globulin ratio was 1.16-1.8, 1.09-1.74 for males and females, respectively. The combined RIs for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin were 2.54-4.90% and 12.40-21.66%, respectively. Conclusion: The established reference interval for serum protein fractions revealed gender-specific differences except for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin.

Keywords: serum protein electrophoresis, reference interval, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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2566 IgA/λ Plasma Cell Myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis: A Case Report

Authors: Kai Pei Huang, Ting Chung Hung, Li Ching Wu


Amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions wherein amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organ or tissues and cause harm. Among the several forms of amyloidosis, the principal types of that in inpatient medical services are the AL amyloidosis (primary) and AA amyloidois (secondary). AL Amyloidois is due to deposition of protein derived from overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain in plasma cell myeloma. Furthermore, it is a systemic disorder that can present with a variety of symptoms, including heavy proteinemia and edema, heptosplenomegaly, otherwise unexplained heart failure. We reported a 78-year-old female presenting dysuria, oliguria and leg edema for several months. Laboratory data showed proteinuria (UPCR:1679.8), leukocytosis (WBC:16.2 x 10^3/uL), results of serum urea nitrogen (39mg/dL), creatinine (0.76 mg/dL), IgG (748 mg/dL.), IgA (635 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), kappa light chain(18.8 mg/dL), lambda light chain (110.0 mg/dL) and kappa/lambda ratio (0.17). Renal biopsy found amyloid fibrils in glomerular mesangial area, and Congo red stain highlights amyloid deposition in glomeruli. Additional lab studies included serum protein electrophoresis, which shows a major monoclonal peak in β region and minor small peak in gamma region, and the immunotyping studies for serum showed two IgA/λ type. We treated sample with beta-mercaptoethanol which reducing the polymerized immunoglobulin to clarify two IgA/λ are secreted from the same plasma cell clone in bone marrow. Later examination confirmed it existed plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow, and the immunohistochemical staining showed monotypic for λ light chain and are positive for IgA. All findings mentioned above reveal it is a case of plasma cell myeloma with λ Light Chain Amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain, plasma cell myeloma, serum protein electrophoresis

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2565 Testing Serum Proteome between Elite Sprinters and Long-Distance Runners

Authors: Hung-Chieh Chen, Kuo-Hui Wang, Tsu-Lin Yeh


Proteomics represent the performance of genomic complement proteins and the protein level on functional genomics. This study adopted proteomic strategies for comparing serum proteins among three groups: elite sprinter (sprint runner group, SR), long-distance runners (long-distance runner group, LDR), and the untrained control group (control group, CON). Purposes: This study aims to identify elite sprinters and long-distance runners’ serum protein and to provide a comparison of their serum proteome’ composition. Methods: Serum protein fractionations that separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analyzed by a quantitative nano-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic profiling. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc comparison (α= 0.05) was used to determine whether there is any significant difference in each protein level among the three groups. Results: (1) After analyzing the 307 identified proteins, there were 26 unique proteins in the SR group, and 18 unique proteins in the LDR group. (2) For the LDR group, 7 coagulation function-associated proteins’ expression levels were investigated: vitronectin, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, fibulin-1, complement C3, vitamin K-dependent protein, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 and von Willebrand factor, and the findings show the seven coagulation function-associated proteins were significantly lower than the group of SR. (3) Comparing to the group of SR, this study found that the LDR group’s expression levels of the 2 antioxidant proteins (afamin and glutathione peroxidase 3) were also significantly lower. (4) The LDR group’s expression levels of seven immune function-related proteins (Ig gamma-3 chain C region, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5, clusterin, complement C1s subcomponent, complement factor B, complement C4-A, complement C1q subcomponent subunit A) were also significantly lower than the group of SR. Conclusion: This study identified the potential serum protein markers for elite sprinters and long-distance runners. The changes in the regulation of coagulation, antioxidant, or immune function-specific proteins may also provide further clinical applications for these two different track athletes.

Keywords: biomarkers, coagulation, immune response, oxidative stress

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2564 Comparison of Serum Protein Fraction between Healthy and Diarrhea Calf by Electrophoretogram

Authors: Jinhee Kang, Kwangman Park, Ruhee Song, Suhee Kim, Do-Hyeon Yu, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park


Statement of the Problem: Animal blood components maintain homeostasis when animals are healthy, and changes in chemical composition of the blood and body fluids can be observed if animals have a disease. In particular, newborn calves are susceptible to disease and therefore hematologic tests and serum chemistry tests could become an important guideline to the diagnosis and the treatment of diseases. Diarrhea in newborn calves is the most damaging to cattle ranch, whether dairy or cattle fattening, and is a large part of calf atrophy and death. However, since the study on calf electrophoresis was not carried out, a survey analysis was conducted on it. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The calves were divided into healthy calves and disease (diarrhea) calves, and calves were classified by 1-14d, 15-28d, and more than 28d, respectively. The fecal state was classified by solid (0-value), semi-solid (1-value), loose (2-value) and watery (3-value). In the solid (0-value) and semi-solid (1-value) feces valuable pathogen was not detected, but loose (2-value) and watery (3-value) feces were detected. Findings: ALB, α-1, α-2, α-SUM, β and γ (Gamma) were examined by electrophoresis analysis of healthy calves and diarrhea calves. Test results showed that there were age differences between healthy calves and diarrheic calves. When we look at the γ-globulin at 1-14 days of age, we can see that the average calf of healthy calves is 16.8% and the average of diarrheal calves is 7.7%, when we look at the figures for the α-2 at 1-14 days, we found that healthy calves average 5.2% and diarrheal calves 8.7% higher than healthy cows. On α-1, 15-28 days, and after 28 days, healthy calves average 10.4% and diarrheal calves average 7.5% diarrhea calves were 12.6% and 12.4% higher than healthy calves. In the α-SUM, the healthy calves were 21.6%, 16.8%, and 14.5%, respectively, after 1-14 days, 15-28 days and 28 days. diarrheal calves were 23.1%, 19.5%, and 19.8%. Conclusion and Significance: In this study, we examined the electrophoresis results of healthy calves and diseased (diarrhea) calves, gamma globulin at 1-14 days of age were lower than those of healthy calves (diarrhea), indicating that the calf was unable to consume colostrum from the mother when it was a new calf. α-1, α-2, α-SUM may be associated with an acute inflammatory response as a result of increased levels of calves with diarrhea (diarrhea). Further research is needed to investigate the effects of acute inflammatory responses on additional calf-forming proteins. Information on the results of the electrophoresis test will be provided where necessary according to the item.

Keywords: alpha, electrophoretogram, serum protein, γ, gamma

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2563 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki


30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: albumin, amylase, cholesterol, crack, HDL, LDL, lipase, protein, rat, triglycerides, VLDL

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2562 Preliminary Study on Milk Composition and Milk Protein Polymorphism in the Algerian Local Sheep's Breeds

Authors: A. Ameur Ameur, F. Chougrani, M. Halbouche


In order to characterize the sheep's milk, we analyzed and compared, in a first stage of our work, the physical and chemical characteristics in two Algerian sheep breeds: Hamra race and race Ouled Djellal breeding at the station the experimental ITELV Ain Hadjar (Saïda Province). Analyses are performed by Ekomilk Ultra-analyzer (EON TRADING LLC, USA), they focused on the pH, density, freezing, fat, total protein, solids-the total dry extract. The results obtained for these parameters showed no significant differences between the two breeds studied. The second stage of this work was the isolation and characterization of milk proteins. For this, we used the precipitation of caseins phi [pH 4.6]. For this, we used the precipitation of caseins Phi (pH 4.6). After extraction, purification and assay, both casein and serum protein fractions were then assayed by the Bradford method and controlled by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in the different conditions (native, in the presence of urea and in the presence of SDS). The electrophoretic pattern of milk samples showed the presence similarities of four major caseins variants (αs1-, αs2-β-and k-casein) and two whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin) of two races Hamra and Ouled Djellal. But compared to bovine milk, they have helped to highlight some peculiarities as related to serum proteins (α La β Lg) as caseins, including αs1-Cn.

Keywords: Hamra, Ouled Djellal, protein polymorphism, sheep breeds

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2561 Spectrofluorometric Studies on the Interactions of Bovine Serum Albumin with Dimeric Cationic Surfactants

Authors: Srishti Sinha, Deepti Tikariha, Kallol K. Ghosh


Over the past few decades protein-surfactant interactions have been a subject of extensive studies as they are of great importance in wide variety of industries, biological, pharmaceutical and cosmetic systems. Protein-surfactant interactions have been explored the effect of surfactants on structure of protein in the form of solubilization and denaturing or renaturing of protein. Globular proteins are frequently used as functional ingredients in healthcare and pharmaceutical products, due to their ability to catalyze biochemical reactions, to be adsorbed on the surface of some substance and to bind other moieties and form molecular aggregates. One of the most widely used globular protein is bovine serum albumin (BSA), since it has a well-known primary structure and been associated with the binding of many different categories of molecules, such as dyes, drugs and toxic chemicals. Protein−surfactant interactions are usually dependent on the surfactant features. Most of the research has been focused on single-chain surfactants. More recently, the binding between proteins and dimeric surfactants has been discussed. In present study interactions of one dimeric surfactant Butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylhexadecylammonium bromide) (16-4-16, 2Br-) and the corresponding single-chain surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been investigated by surface tension and spectrofluoremetric methods. It has been found that the bindings of all gemini surfactant to BSA were cooperatively driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The gemini surfactant carrying more charges and hydrophobic tails, showed stronger interactions with BSA than the single-chain surfactant.

Keywords: bovine serum albumin, gemini surfactants, hydrophobic interactions, protein surfactant interaction

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2560 Admission C-Reactive Protein Serum Levels and In-Hospital Mortality in the Elderly Admitted to the Acute Geriatrics Department

Authors: Anjelika Kremer, Irina Nachimov, Dan Justo


Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels are commonly measured in hospitalized patients. Elevated admission CRP serum levels and in-hospital mortality has been seldom studied in the general population of elderly patients admitted to the acute Geriatrics department. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary medical center. Included were all elderly patients (age 65 years or more) admitted to a single acute Geriatrics department from the emergency room between April 2014 and January 2015. CRP serum levels were measured routinely in all patients upon the first 24 hours of admission. A logistic regression analysis was used to study if admission CRP serum levels were associated with in-hospital mortality independent of age, gender, functional status, and co-morbidities. Results: Overall, 498 elderly patients were included in the analysis: 306 (61.4%) female patients and 192 (38.6%) male patients. The mean age was 84.8±7.0 years (median: 85 years; IQR: 80-90 years). The mean admission CRP serum levels was 43.2±67.1 mg/l (median: 13.1 mg/l; IQR: 2.8-51.7 mg/l). Overall, 33 (6.6%) elderly patients died during the hospitalization. A logistic regression analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was independently associated with history of stroke (p < 0.0001), heart failure (p < 0.0001), and admission CRP serum levels (p < 0.0001) – and to a lesser extent with age (p = 0.042), collagen vascular disease (p=0.011), and recent venous thromboembolism (p=0.037). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that admission CRP serum levels predict in-hospital mortality fairly with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.694 (p < 0.0001). Cut-off value with maximal sensitivity and specificity was 19.7 mg/L. Conclusions: Admission CRP serum levels may be used to predict in-hospital mortality in the general population of elderly patients admitted to the acute Geriatrics department.

Keywords: c-reactive protein, elderly, mortality, prediction

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2559 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Protein C Purification

Authors: Duygu Çimen, Nilay Bereli, Adil Denizli


In this study is to synthesis magnetic nanoparticles for purify protein C. For this aim, N-Methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by using micro-emulsion polymerization technique for templating protein C via metal chelation. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta-size analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After that, they were used for protein C purification from aqueous solution to evaluate/optimize the adsorption condition. Hereby, the effecting factors such as concentration, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and reusability were evaluated. As the last step, protein C was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Keywords: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), magnetic nanoparticle, protein C, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

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2558 Glycation of Serum Albumin: Cause Remarkable Alteration in Protein Structure and Generation of Early Glycation End Products

Authors: Ishrat Jahan Saifi, Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, M. R. Ajmal


Glycation of protein is very important as well as a harmful process, which may lead to develop DM in human body. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood and it is highly prone to glycation by the reducing sugars. 2-¬deoxy d-¬Ribose (dRib) is a highly reactive reducing sugar which is produced in cells as a product of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. It is generated during the degradation of DNA in human body. It may cause glycation in HSA rapidly and is involved in the development of DM. In present study, we did in¬vitro glycation of HSA with different concentrations of 2-¬deoxy d-¬ribose and found that dRib glycated HSA rapidly within 4h incubation at 37◦C. UV¬ Spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) technique have been done to determine the structural changes in HSA upon glycation. Results of this study suggested that dRib is the potential glycating agent and it causes alteration in protein structure and biophysical properties which may lead to development and progression of Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: 2-deoxy D-ribose, human serum albumin, glycation, diabetes mellitus

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2557 Fasted and Postprandial Response of Serum Physiological Response, Hepatic Antioxidant Abilities and Hsp70 Expression in M. amblycephala Fed Different Dietary Carbohydrate

Authors: Chuanpeng Zhou


The effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) level on serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was studied. Two isonitrogenous (28.56% crude protein) and isolipidic (5.28% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 30% or 53% wheat starch. Diets were fed for 90 days to fish in triplicate tanks (28 fish per tank). At the end of feeding trial, significantly higher serum triglyceride level, insulin level, cortisol level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed in fish fed the 53% CHO diet, while significantly lower serum total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were found in fish fed the 53% CHO diet compared with those fed the 30% diet. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 mRNA was significantly higher in the 53% CHO group than that in the 30% CHO at 6, 12, and 48 h after feeding. The results of this study indicated that ingestion of 53% dietary CHO impacted the nonspecific immune ability and caused metabolic stress of Megalobrama amblycephala.

Keywords: Megalobrama amblycephala, carbohydrate, fasted and postprandial response, immunity, Hsp70

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2556 Rapid Method for the Determination of Acid Dyes by Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Can Hu, Huixia Shi, Hongcheng Mei, Jun Zhu, Hongling Guo


Textile fibers are important trace evidence and frequently encountered in criminal investigations. A significant aspect of fiber evidence examination is the determination of fiber dyes. Although several instrumental methods have been developed for dyes detection, the analysis speed is not fast enough yet. A rapid dye analysis method is still needed to further improve the efficiency of case handling. Capillary electrophoresis has the advantages of high separation speed and high separation efficiency and is an ideal method for the rapid analysis of fiber dyes. In this paper, acid dyes used for protein fiber dyeing were determined by a developed short-end injection capillary electrophoresis technique. Five acid red dyes with similar structures were successfully baseline separated within 5 min. The separation reproducibility is fairly good for the relative standard deviation of retention time is 0.51%. The established method is rapid and accurate which has great potential to be applied in forensic setting.

Keywords: acid dyes, capillary electrophoresis, fiber evidence, rapid determination

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2555 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit


Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: nickel, zinc, rats, GOT, GPT, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

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2554 Antifungal Protein ~35kDa Produced by Bacillus cereus Inhibits the Growth of Some Molds and Yeasts

Authors: Saleh H. Salmen, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hany M. Yehia, Mohammad A. Khiyami, Milton Wainwright, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Arunachalam Chinnathambi


An antifungal protein synthesized by Bacillus cereus has been partially purified by the use of ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex-G-200 column chromatography. The protein was produced from Bacillus cereus grown in potato Dextrose Broth Medium (PDB) at 30 ºC for 3 days at 100 rpm. The protein showed antagonistic effect against some fungi and yeasts. Crude extract from medium and semi-purified protein were tested in vitro against both fungi and yeasts using the disc diffusion method in order to detect the inhibitory effect of the protein. Zones of inhibition of the following diameter were found (mm) were Alternaria alternate (28), Rhodotorula glutinis (20), Fusarium sp. (16), Rhizopus sp. (15), Penicillium digitatum (13), Mucor sp. (13) and Aspergillus niger (10). The isolated protein was found to have a molecular weight of ~35kDa by sodium deodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The data showed that the protein of Bacillus cereus has antifungal activity, a fact which points to the possibility of using it as a bio-control agent against some fungi, findings which emphasize the potential role of B. cereus as an important bio-control agent.

Keywords: bacillus cereus, ~35kDa protein, molds, yeasts

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2553 Gene Expression and Staining Agents: Exploring the Factors That Influence the Electrophoretic Properties of Fluorescent Proteins

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Chris Lowe, Hannah Krupa


Fluorescent proteins are self-sufficient in forming chromophores with a visible wavelength from 3 amino acids sequence within their own polypeptide structure. This chromophore – a molecule that absorbs a photon of light and exhibits an energy transition equal to the energy of the absorbed photon. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) consisted of a chain of 238 amino acid residues and composed of 11 beta strands shaped in a cylinder surrounding an alpha helix structure. A better understanding of the system of the chromospheres and the increasing advance in protein engineering in recent years, the properties of FPs offers the potential for new applications. They have used sensors and probes in molecular biology and cell-based research that giving a chance to observe these FPs tagged cell localization, structural variation and movement. For clarifying functional uses of fluorescent proteins, electrophoretic properties of these proteins are one of the most important parameters. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is used for determining electrophoretic properties commonly. While there are many techniques are used for determining the functionality of protein-based research, SDS-PAGE analysis can only provide a molecular level assessment of the proteolytic fragments. Before SDS-PAGE analysis, fluorescent proteins need to successfully purified. Due to directly purification of the target, FPs is difficult from the animal, gene expression is commonly used which must be done by transformation with the plasmid. Furthermore, used gel within electrophoresis and staining agents properties have a key role. In this review, the different factors that have the impact on the electrophoretic properties of fluorescent proteins explored. Fluorescent protein separation and purification are the essential steps before electrophoresis that should be done very carefully. For protein purification, gene expression process and following steps have a significant function. For successful gene expression, the properties of selected bacteria for expression, used plasmid are essential. Each bacteria has own characteristics which are very sensitive to gene expression, also used procedure is the important factor for fluorescent protein expression. Another important factors are gel formula and used staining agents. Gel formula has an effect on the specific proteins mobilization and staining with correct agents is a key step for visualization of electrophoretic bands of protein. Visuality of proteins can be changed depending on staining reagents. Apparently, this review has emphasized that gene expression and purification have a stronger effect than electrophoresis protocol and staining agents.

Keywords: cell biology, gene expression, staining agents, SDS-page

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2552 Haematology and Serum Biochemical Profile of Laying Chickens Reared on Deep Litter System with or without Access to Grass or Legume Pasture under Humid Tropical Climate

Authors: E. Oke, A. O. Ladokun, J. O. Daramola, O. M. Onagbesan


There has been a growing interest on the effects of access to pasture on poultry health status. However, there is a paucity of data on the relative benefits of grass and legume pastures. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing systems {deep litter system (DL), deep litter with access to legumes (LP) or grass (GP) pastures} haematology and serum chemistry of ISA Brown layers. The study involved the use of two hundred and forty 12 weeks old pullets. The birds were reared until 60 weeks of age. Eighty birds were assigned to each treatment; each treatment had four replicates of 20 birds each. Blood samples (2.5 ml) were collected from the wing vein of two birds per replicate and serum chemistry and haematological parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in all the parameters considered at 18 weeks of age. At 24 weeks old, the percentage of heterophyl (HET) in DL and LP were similar but higher than that of GP. The ratio of H:L was higher (P<0.05) in DL than those of LP and GP while LP and GP were comparable. At week 38 of age, the percentage of PCV in the birds in LP and GP were similar but the birds in DL had significantly lower level than that of GP. In the early production phase, serum total protein of the birds in LP was similar to that of GP but higher (P<0.05) than that of DL. At the peak production phase (week 38), the total protein in GP and DL were similar but significantly lower than that of LP. The albumin level in LP was greater (P<0.05) than GP but similar to that of DL. In the late production phase, the total protein in LP was significantly higher than that of DL but similar to that of GP. It was concluded that rearing chickens in either grass or legume pasture did not have deleterious effects on the health of laying chickens but improved some parameters including blood protein and HET/lymphocyte.

Keywords: rearing systems, stylosanthes, cynodon serum chemistry, haematology, hen

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2551 The Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise after Consumption of Four Different Diets on Serum Levels Irisin, Insulin and Glucose in Overweight Men

Authors: Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Abdolhamid Habibi, Majid Mohammad Shahi


The combination of exercise and diet as the most important strategy to reduce weight and control obesity-related factors, including Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose was raised. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise combined with four different diets on serum levels of Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose in overweight men. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 8 overweight men (BMI 29.23±0.47) with average age of (23±1.6) voluntarily participated in 4 sessions by one-week interval. The study was done in exercise physiology lab. In each session, subjects performed a 30 minutes treadmill test with 60-70% of maximum heart rate, after consuming a high carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein and normal diet. For biochemical measurement, three blood samples were taken in fasting state, two hours after meals and after exercise Results: Statistical analysis of data showed that the serum levels of Irisin after consumption all four diets had been reduced which this reduce as a result of high-fat diet that were significantly (p ≤ 0/038). Serum concentration of Insulin and Glucose increased after consuming four diets. However, increase in serum Insulin and Glucose was significant only after consuming high-carbohydrate diet (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/042). In addition, during exercise after consuming all four regular diet, high carbohydrate, high-protein and high-fat, Irisin significant increased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/021, p ≤ 0/049, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/003), Insulin decreased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/002, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002) and Glucose were significantly reduced (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002). After aerobic activity following the consumption of a high protein diet the highest increase in irisin levels, and after aerobic exercise following consumption of high carbohydrate diet the greatest decrease in insulin and glucose levels were observed. Conclusion: It seems that diet alone and exercises following different consumption diets can have a significant effect on Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose serum levels in overweight young men.

Keywords: acute aerobic exercise, diet, irisin, overweight

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2550 An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Kerime Özkay, Ahmet Yıldırım


In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

Keywords: agarose gel, DNA staining, organic dye, N-719

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2549 PCR Based DNA Analysis in Detecting P53 Mutation in Human Breast Cancer (MDA-468)

Authors: Debbarma Asis, Guha Chandan


Tumor Protein-53 (P53) is one of the tumor suppressor proteins. P53 regulates the cell cycle that conserves stability by preventing genome mutation. It is named so as it runs as 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein on Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis although the actual mass is 43.7 kDa. Experimental evidence has indicated that P53 cancer mutants loses tumor suppression activity and subsequently gain oncogenic activities to promote tumourigenesis. Tumor-specific DNA has recently been detected in the plasma of breast cancer patients. Detection of tumor-specific genetic materials in cancer patients may provide a unique and valuable tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. Commercially available MDA-468 breast cancer cell line was used for the proposed study.

Keywords: tumor protein (P53), cancer mutants, MDA-468, tumor suppressor gene

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2548 Clara Cell Secretory Protein 16 Serum Level Decreases in Patients with Non-Smoking-Related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)

Authors: Lian Wu, Mervyn Merrilees


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide problem, characterized by irreversible and progressive airflow obstruction. In New Zealand, it is currently the 4th commonest cause of death and exacerbations of COPD are a frequent cause of admission to hospital. Serum levels of Clara cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) are believed to represent Clara cell toxicity. More recently, CC-16 has been found to be associated with smoker COPD. It is produced almost exclusively by non-ciliated Clara cells in the airways, and its primary function is to protect the lungs against oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke, serum levels of CC-16 become elevated. CC16 is a potent natural immune-suppressor and anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro, CC16 inhibits both monocyte and polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis and phagocytosis. CC16 also inhibits fibroblast chemotaxis. However, the role of CC-16 in non-smoking related COPD is still not clear. In this study, we investigated serum CC-16 levels in non-smoking related COPD. Methods: We compared non-smoker patients with COPD (FEV1<60% of predicted, FEV1/FVC <0.7, n=100) and individuals with normal lung function FEV1≥ 80% of predicted and FEV1/FVC≥ 0.7, n=80). All subjects had no smoking history. CC-16 was measured by ELISA. Results and conclusion: Serum CC-16 levels are reduced in individuals with non-smoking related COPD, and there is a weak correlation with disease severity in non-smoking related COPD group compared to non-smoker controls.

Keywords: COPD, CC-16, ELISA, non-smoking-related COPD

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2547 Apolipoprotein A1 -75 G to a Substitution and Its Relationship with Serum ApoA1 Levels among Indian Punjabi Population

Authors: Savjot Kaur, Mridula Mahajan, AJS Bhanwer, Santokh Singh, Kawaljit Matharoo


Background: Disorders of lipid metabolism and genetic predisposition are CAD risk factors. ApoA1 is the apolipoprotein component of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The protective action of HDL and ApoA1 is attributed to their central role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Aim: This study was aimed at identifying sequence variations in ApoA1 (-75G>A) and its association with serum ApoA1 levels. Methods: A total of 300 CAD patients and 300 Normal individuals (controls) were analyzed. PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the ApoA1 gene, PCR products digested with restriction enzyme MspI, followed by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Serum apolipoprotein A1 concentration was estimated with immunoturbidimetric method. Results: Deviation from Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was observed for this gene variant. The A- allele frequency was higher among Coronary Artery disease patients (53.8) compared to controls (45.5), p= 0.004, O.R= 1.38(1.11-1.75). Under recessive model analysis (AA vs. GG+GA) AA genotype of ApoA1 G>A substitution conferred ~1 fold increased risk towards CAD susceptibility (p= 0.002, OR= 1.72(1.2-2.43). With serum ApoA1 levels < 107 A allele frequency was higher among CAD cases (50) as compared to controls (43.4) [p=0.23, OR= 1.2(0.84-2)] and there was zero % occurrence of A allele frequency in individuals with ApoA1 levels > 177. Conclusion: Serum ApoA1 levels were associated with ApoA1 promoter region variation and influence CAD risk. The individuals with the APOA1 -75 A allele confer excess hazard of developing CAD as a result of its effect on low serum concentrations of ApoA1.

Keywords: apolipoprotein A1 (G>A) gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease (CAD), reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)

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2546 The Haemoglobin, Transferrin, Ceruloplasmin and Glutathione Polymorphism of Native Goat Breeds of Turkey, II-Kilis and Honamli

Authors: Ayse Ozge Demir, Nihat Mert


In this research, Kilis and Honamli goats are used, which are specific local genetic resources of Turkey. The herds were independent, but they had similar care and nutrition circumstances. From each breed 30 samples were taken, in all 120 samples were collected. Erytrocyte, all blood and serum samples were used for hemoglobine (Hb), glutathione (GSH) and Tf with Cp analysis, respectively. In the analysis of this samples, Hb and Tf bands were determined by electrophoresis. However, Cp and GSH levels were analyzed by the spectrophotometer. Three Hb phenotypes (AA, BB, AB) and Six Tf phenotypes (AA, AB, AC, BB, BC, CC) were determined in this study. In addition, both the observed and the expected values of polymorphic characteristic for 2 characters were presented according to the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). Cp levels were detected as 0.822 ± 0.055 mg/dl and 1.793 ± 0.109 mg/dl in Kilis and Honamli herds, respectively. GSH levels were detected as, 42,486 ± 1,034 mg/dl and 33.515 ± 0.345 mg/dl in these breeds, respectively,. On the other hand, the high and low GSH levels (GSHH and GSHh) of herds were presented.

Keywords: electrophoresis, gene resource, goat, spectrophotometer

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2545 Potential Use of Cnidoscolus Chayamansa Leaf from Mexico as High-Quality Protein Source

Authors: Diana Karina Baigts Allende, Mariana Gonzalez Diaz, Luis Antonio Chel Guerrero, Mukthar Sandoval Peraza


Poverty and food insecurity are still incident problems in the developing countries, where population´s diet is based on cereals which are lack in protein content. Nevertheless, during last years the use of native plants has been studied as an alternative source of protein in order to improve the nutritional intake. Chaya crop also called Spinach tree, is a prehispanic plant native from Central America and South of Mexico (Mayan culture), which has been especially valued due to its high nutritional content particularly protein and some medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein isolation processing from Chaya leaf harvest in Yucatan, Mexico on its structure quality in order: i) to valorize the Chaya crop and ii) to produce low-cost and high-quality protein. Chaya leaf was extruded, clarified and recovered using: a) acid precipitation by decreasing the pH value until reach the isoelectric point (3.5) and b) thermal coagulation, by heating the protein solution at 80 °C during 30 min. Solubilized protein was re-dissolved in water and spray dried. The presence of Fraction I protein, known as RuBisCO (Rubilose-1,5-biphosfate carboxylase/oxygenase) was confirmed by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) where molecular weight bands of 55 KDa and 12 KDa were observed. The infrared spectrum showed changes in protein structure due to the isolation method. The use of high temperatures (thermal coagulation) highly decreased protein solubility in comparison to isoelectric precipitated protein, the nutritional properties according to amino acid profile was also disturbed, showing minor amounts of overall essential amino acids from 435.9 to 367.8 mg/g. Chaya protein isolate obtained by acid precipitation showed higher protein quality according to essential amino acid score compared to FAO recommendations, which could represent an important sustainable source of protein for human consumption.

Keywords: chaya leaf, nutritional properties, protein isolate, protein structure

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2544 Morroniside Intervention Mechanism of Renal Lesions, a Combination Model of AGEs Exacerbation of STZ-Induced Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Hui-Qin Xu, Xing Lv, Yu-Han Tao


The depth study aimed on the mechanism of morroniside in protecting diabetic nephropathy. The diabetic mice models with blood glucose above 15mmol/L were divided into model, aminoguanidine, metformin, captopril, morroniside low-dose, and morroniside high-dose groups. And normal group was set simultaneously. All groups were fed with high AGEs food except normal group. Each group was intragastric administration of the corresponding medicine except model and normal groups. After 12 weeks, all the indictors were measured. It showed that the morroniside could reduce blood glucose significantly, urinary protein, serum urea nitrogen, creatine, pathological changes, AGEs levels, renal cortex RAGE mRNA and RAGE protein expression levels; increase food consumption, water intake, urine volume, insulin secretion. As a conclusion, morroniside from cornus officinalis can protect renal in diabetic mice, its mechanism may be related to the proliferation of islet cells, rectify glycometabolism, reduce serum and kidney AGEs content, and descend renal RAGEmRNA and RAGE protein expression levels.

Keywords: cornus officinalis, diabetic nephropathy, morroniside, RAGE protein

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2543 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumine on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek


Preparation of nano-particles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumine on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nano-particles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumine adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nano-particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am=118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumine on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nano-particles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential, albumin

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2542 The Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) in the Diet on Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Oscar Fish (Astronotus ocellatus)

Authors: Ali Saghaei, Negar Ghotbeddin, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh Ghatrami, Milad Maniat


The use of herbs as natural additives in fish diets are used to enhance the efficiency and safety systems. The use of herbs, garlic, due to the structure and composition of it has beneficial role in human nutrition and animal nutrition. This study was conducted evaluate the effect different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on the some serum biochemical parameters of Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus). Fish were divided into four groups fed on diets containing garlic in different levels; 5 g kg˗1, 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group diet was without garlic. A total number of 300 fish was used and Triplicate groups of Oscar fish with initial weight of 12.43±0.24 g were hand-fed to visual satiation at three meals per day. The experiment extended for two months. Total Protein (TP), Albumin (ALB), Globulin (GLB) and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio, were determined. Based on the results, no significant differences were seen among treatments and control groups during the experimental period for TP, ALB, GLB, and A/G ratio (p > 0.05). Although, the highest amount of serum total protein and globulin levels were observed in diet containing 10 g kg-1 of garlic. Also, the highest value of albumin and A/G were observed in diet containing 20 g kg-1 of garlic, but there were no significant difference with other treatments. The results of this study show that addition of garlic Allium sativum to fish diet can improve fish health.

Keywords: garlic (Allium sativum), serum, Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus), iran

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2541 Whey Protein: A Noval Protective Agent against Oto-Toxicity Induced by Cis-Platin in Male Rat

Authors: Eitedal Daoud, Reda M.Daoud, Khaled Abdel-Wahhab, Maha M.Saber, Lobna Saber


Background: Cis-platin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug to treat many malignant disorders including head and neck malignancies. Oto-nephrotxicity is an important and dose - limiting side effect of cis - platin therapy. Nowadays, more attention had been paid to oto-toxicity caused with cis-platin. Aim of the Work: This study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of Whey protein (WP) against cis-platin induced ototoxicity compared to the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in rats. Methodology: Male albino rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: untreated rats (control), rats orally treated with whey protein (1g/kg b.w/day) for seven executive days, rats treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (500 mg/kgb.w /day) for seven executive days, rates intoxicated intraperitoneal (ip) with cis- platin (10 mg/kgb.w. once), rats treated with whey protein (1g/kgb.w./day) for seven executive days) followed by one injection (ip) of cis-platin(10 mg/kg b.w.) one hour after the last oral administration of whey protein, rats treated with N- acetylcysteine (for seven executive days followed by one injection (ip) of cis-platin (10 mg/kgb.w) one hour after the last oral administration of N-acetylcysteine. The organ of Corti, the stria vascularis and spiral ganglia were visualized by light microscopy at different magnifications. Results: Cis-platin intoxicated animals showed a significant decrease in serum level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC),with inhibition in the activity of serum glutathione-s transferase(GST) and paraoxonnase-1 (PON-1) in comparison with control. Group treated with either NAC or WP with cis-platin showed significant elevation in the activity of both GST & PON-1 with increased serum level of TAC when compared with cis-platin intoxicated rats. Animals treated with NAC or WP with cis-platin compared to those treated with cis-platin alone showed marked degree of improvement towards control rats as there was significant drop in the serum level of cortecosterone, nitric oxide (NO), and melandialdehyde (MDA).Histopathologic, in NAC pretreated group there was no changes in stria vascularis or spiral ganglia. In group pretreated with WP, there was no histopathologic alteration detected in the organ of Corti and Reissers membrane but oedema and haemorrhage were founded in the stria vascularis in small focal manner. Conclusion: Our finding showed that Whey protein is a natural dietary supplement product proved its ability of protection of anti-oxidant system and the cochlea against cis-platin induced ototoxicity.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, cis-platin, N-acetylcysteine, ototoxicity, whey protein

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2540 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro


In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tween 80, zeta potential

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2539 Physicochemical Properties and Toxicity Studies on a Lectin from the Bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera

Authors: Uchenna Nkiruka Umeononihu, Adenike Kuku, Oludele Odekanyin, Olubunmi Babalola, Femi Agboola, Rapheal Okonji


In this study, a lectin from the bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera was purified, characterised, and its acute and sub-acute toxicity was investigated with a view to evaluate its toxic effects in mice. The protein from the bulb was extracted by homogenising 50 g of the bulb in 500 ml of phosphate buffered saline (0.025 M) of pH 7.2, stirred for 3 hr, and centrifuged at the speed of 3000 rpm. Blood group and sugar specificity assays of the crude extract were determined. The lectin was purified in a two-step procedure- gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4-B arabinose. The degree of purity of the purified lectin was ascertained by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Detection of covalently bound carbohydrate was carried out with Periodic Acid-Schiffs (PAS) reagent staining technique. Effects of temperature, pH, and EDTA on the lectin were carried out using standard methods. This was followed by acute toxicity studies via oral and subcutaneous routes using mice. The animals were monitored for mortality and signs of toxicity. The sub-acute toxicity studies were carried out using rats. Different concentrations of the lectin were administered twice daily for 5 days via the subcutaneous route. The animals were sacrificed on the sixth day; blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Biochemical assays (determination of total protein, direct bilirubin, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out on the serum and liver homogenates. The collected organs (heart, liver, kidney, and spleen) were subjected to histopathological analysis. The results showed that lectin from the bulbs of Dioscorea bulbifera agglutinated non-specifically the erythrocytes of the human ABO system as well as rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutinating activity was strongly inhibited by arabinose and dulcitol with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.781 and 6.25, respectively. The lectin was purified to homogeneity with native and subunit molecular weights of 56,273 and 29,373 Daltons, respectively. The lectin was thermostable up to 30 0C and lost 25 %, 33.3 %, and 100 % of its heamagglutinating activity at 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C, respectively. The lectin was maximally active at pH 4 and 5 but lost its total activity at pH eight, while EDTA (10 mM) had no effect on its haemagglutinating activity. PAS reagent staining showed that the lectin was not a glycoprotein. The sub-acute studies on rats showed elevated levels of ALT, AST, serum bilirubin, total protein in serum and liver homogenates suggesting damage to liver and spleen. The study concluded that the aerial bulb of D. bulbifera lectin was non-specific in its heamagglutinating activity and dimeric in its structure. The lectin shared some physicochemical characteristics with lectins from other Dioscorecea species and was moderately toxic to the liver and spleen of treated animals.

Keywords: Dioscorea bulbifera, heamagglutinin, lectin, toxicity

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