Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: Saccharomyces cerevisiae

83 Effect of Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis Caffra L.) Fruit

Authors: Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-SaEz


Kei-apple is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of alcoholic and acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals. The fruit has increased L-malic, ascorbic, and phenolic acids. Juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation and acetous fermentation using acetic acid bacteria. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe wines and vinegars had highest pH. Total acidity, soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during alcoholic and acetous fermentation with highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. Volatile acidity was highest in S. pombe vinegars but not different from S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae+S. pombe. Gallic acid was highest in S. pombe wines and vinegars. Syringic acid was highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. S. cerevisiae+S. pombe wines were highest in caffeic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe vinegars were highest in caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Ferulic and sinapic acids were highest in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae wines, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was most abundant in both wines and vinegars. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe and S. cerevisiae had a positive effect on most phenolic acids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae +acetic acid bacteria had an increased effect on syringic and chlorogenic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe+acetic acid bacteria resulted in an increase in gallic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Acetic acid bacteria had minimal performance with respect to volatile acidity production in comparison to commercial vinegars. Acetic acid bacteria selection should therefore be reconsidered and the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, liquid chromatography, phenolics, saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe

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82 Effect of Initial pH and Fermentation Duration on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Carob Kibble Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Haelee Fenton, Thi Huong Tra Nguyen, Gary Dykes


In the present study, a submerged fermentation of carob kibble with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was performed. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in fermented carob kibble were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study showed that S. cerevisiae improved total phenolic content by 45 % and 50 % in acetone and water extracts respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of water extracts increased by 25 % and 41%, while acetone extracts indicated by 70% and 80% in DPPH and ABTS respectively. It is also found that initial pH 7.0 was more effective in improvement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The efficiency of treatment was recorded at 15 h. This report suggested that submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae is a potential and cost effective manner to further increase bioactive compounds in carob kibble, which are in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total phenolics

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81 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes


D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: carob kibble, d-pinitol, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total carbohydrates

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80 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes


Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae, total phenolics

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79 Genome Sequencing of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 202-3

Authors: Yina A. Cifuentes Triana, Andrés M. Pinzón Velásco, Marío E. Velásquez Lozano


In this work the sequencing and genome characterization of a natural isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (strain 202-3), identified with potential for the production of second generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates is presented. This strain was selected because its capability to consume xylose during the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates, taking into account that many strains of S. cerevisiae are incapable of processing this sugar. This advantage and other prominent positive aspects during fermentation profiles evaluated in bagasse hydrolysates made the strain 202-3 a candidate strain to improve the production of second-generation ethanol, which was proposed as a first step to study the strain at the genomic level. The molecular characterization was carried out by genome sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform paired end; the assembly was performed with different programs, finally choosing the assembler ABYSS with kmer 89. Gene prediction was developed with the approach of hidden Markov models with Augustus. The genes identified were scored based on similarity with public databases of nucleotide and protein. Records were organized from ontological functions at different hierarchical levels, which identified central metabolic functions and roles of the S. cerevisiae strain 202-3, highlighting the presence of four possible new proteins, two of them probably associated with the positive consumption of xylose.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genome sequencing, xylose consumption

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78 The Effect of High-Pressure Processing on the Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Different Concentration of Manuka Honey and Its Relation with ° Brix

Authors: Noor Akhmazillah Fauzi, Mohammed Mehdi Farid, Filipa V. Silva


The aim of this paper is to investigate if different concentration of Manuka honey (as a model food) has a major influence on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as the testing microorganism) after subjecting it to HPP. Honey samples with different sugar concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °Brix) were prepared aseptically using sterilized distilled water. No dilution of honey was made for the 80 °Brix sample. For the 0 °Brix sample (control), sterilized distilled water was used. Thermal treatment at 55 °C for 10 min (conventionally applied in honey pasteurisation in industry) was carried out for comparison purpose. S. cerevisiae cell numbers in honey samples were established before and after each HPP and thermal treatment. The number of surviving cells was determined after a proper dilution of the untreated and treated samples by the viable plate count method. S. cerevisiae cells, in different honey concentrations (0 to 80 °Brix), subjected to 600 MPa (at ambient temperature) showed an increasing resistance to inactivation with °Brix. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) between cell reduction and °Brix was found. Cell reduction in high pressure-treated samples varied linearly with °Brix (R2 > 0.9), confirming that the baroprotective effect of the food is due to sugar content. This study has practical implications in establishing efficient process design for commercial manufacturing of high sugar food products and on the potential use of HPP for such products.

Keywords: high pressure processing, honey, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, °Brix

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77 Metabolic and Adaptive Laboratory Evolutionary Engineering (ALE) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Second Generation Biofuel Production

Authors: Farnaz Yusuf, Naseem A. Gaur


The increase in environmental concerns, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves and intense interest in achieving energy security has led to a global research effort towards developing renewable sources of fuels. Second generation biofuels have attracted more attention recently as the use of lignocellulosic biomass can reduce fossil fuel dependence and is environment-friendly. Xylose is the main pentose and second most abundant sugar after glucose in lignocelluloses. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not readily uptake and use pentose sugars. For an economically feasible biofuel production, both hexose and pentose sugars must be fermented to ethanol. Therefore, it is important to develop S. cerevisiae host platforms with more efficient xylose utilization. This work aims to construct a xylose fermenting yeast strains with engineered oxido-reductative pathway for xylose metabolism. Engineered strain was further improved by adaptive evolutionary engineering approach. The engineered strain is able to grow on xylose as sole carbon source with the maximum ethanol yield of 0.39g/g xylose and productivity of 0.139g/l/h at 96 hours. The further improvement in strain development involves over expression of pentose phosphate pathway and protein engineering of xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase to change their cofactor specificity in order to reduce xylitol accumulation.

Keywords: biofuel, lignocellulosic biomass, saccharomyces cerevisiae, xylose

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76 Immunoprotective Role of Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) against Experimentally Induced Aflatoxicosis in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Zain Ul Abadeen, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed Hassan, Aisha Khatoon, Qasim Altaf


Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi, and there are four types of aflatoxins include AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as most toxic form. It is mainly responsible for the contamination of poultry feed and produces a condition called aflatoxicosis leads to immunosuppression in poultry birds. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a single cell microorganism and acts as a source of growth factors, minerals and amino acids which improve the immunity and digestibility in poultry birds as probiotics. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well recognized to cause the biological degradation of mycotoxins (toxin binder) because its cell wall contains β-glucans and mannans which specifically bind with aflatoxins and reduce their absorption or transfer them to some non-toxic compounds. The present study was designed to investigate the immunosuppressive effects of aflatoxins in broiler chicks and the reduction of severity of these effects by the use of Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). One-day-old broiler chicks were procured from local hatchery and were divided into various groups (A-I). These groups were treated with different levels of AFB1 @ 400 µg/kg and 600 µg/kg along with different levels of Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) 0.1% and 0.5 % in the feed. The total duration of the experiment was six weeks and different immunological parameters including the cellular immune response by injecting PHA-P (Phytohemagglutinin-P) in the skin of the birds, phagocytic function of mononuclear cells by Carbon clearance assay from blood samples and humoral immune response against intravenously injected sheep RBCs from the serum samples were determined. The birds from each group were slaughtered at the end of the experiment to determine the presence of gross lesions in the immune organs and these tissues were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histological investigations. The results showed that AFB1 intoxicated groups had reduced body weight gain, feed intake, organs weight and immunological responses compared to the control and Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated groups. Different gross and histological degenerative changes were recorded in the immune organs of AFB1 intoxicated groups compared to control and Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated groups. The present study concluded that Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) addition in the feed helps to ameliorate the immunotoxigenic effects produced by AFB1 in broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxins, body weight gain, feed intake, immunological response, toxigenic effect

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75 Effect of Nanoparticles Concentration, pH and Agitation on Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743: An Optimization Study

Authors: Adeyemi Isaac Sanusi, Gueguim E. B. Kana


Nanoparticles have received attention of the scientific community due to their biotechnological potentials. They exhibit advantageous size, shape and concentration-dependent catalytic, stabilizing, immunoassays and immobilization properties. This study investigates the impact of metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743. Nine different nanoparticles were synthesized using precipitation method and microwave treatment. The nanoparticles synthesized were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fermentation processes were carried out at varied NPs concentrations (0 – 0.08 wt%). Highest ethanol concentrations were achieved after 24 h using Cobalt NPs (5.07 g/l), Copper NPs (4.86 g/l) and Manganese NPs (4.74 g/l) at 0.01 wt% NPs concentrations, which represent 13%, 8.7% and 5.4% increase respectively over the control (4.47 g/l). The lowest ethanol concentration (0.17 g/l) was obtained when 0.08 wt% of Silver NPs was used. And lower ethanol concentrations were observed at higher NPs concentration. Ethanol concentration decrease after 24 h for all the processes. In all set up with NPs, the pH was observed to be stable and the stability was directly proportional to nanoparticles concentrations. These findings suggest that the presence of some of the NPs in the bioprocesses has catalytic and pH stabilizing potential. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743 was enhanced in the presence of Cobalt NPs, Copper NPs and Manganese NPs. Optimization study using response surface methodology (RSM) will further elucidate the impact of these nanoparticles on bioethanol production.

Keywords: agitation, bioethanol, nanoparticles concentration, optimization, pH value

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74 Production of High-Content Fructo-Oligosaccharides

Authors: C. Nobre, C. C. Castro, A.-L. Hantson, J. A. Teixeira, L. R. Rodrigues, G. De Weireld


Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are produced from sucrose by Aureobasidium pullulans in yields between 40-60% (w/w). To increase the amount of FOS it is necessary to remove the small, non-prebiotic sugars, present. Two methods for producing high-purity FOS have been developed: the use of microorganisms able to consume small saccharides; and the use of continuous chromatography to separate sugars: simulated moving bed (SMB). It is herein proposed the combination of both methods. The aim of this study is to optimize the composition of the fermentative broth (in terms of salts and sugars) that will be further purified by SMB. A yield of 0.63 gFOS.g Sucrose-1 was obtained with A. pullulans using low amounts of salts in the initial fermentative broth. By removing the small sugars, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis increased the percentage of FOS from around 56.0% to 83% (w/w) in average, losing only 10% (w/w) of FOS during the recovery process.

Keywords: fructo-oligosaccharides, microbial treatment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis

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73 The Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Yeast Culture on Microbial Nitrogen Supply to Small Intestine in Male Kivircik Yearlings Fed with Different Ratio of Forage and Concentrate

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya, Nadide Hulya Ozdemir


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) live yeast culture on microbial protein supply to the small intestine in Kivircik male yearlings when fed with different ratio of forage and concentrate diets. Four Kivircik male yearlings with permanent rumen canula were used in the experiment. . The treatments were allocated to a 4x4 Latin square design. Diet I consisted of 70% alfalfa hay and 30% concentrate, Diet II consisted of 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrate, Diet I and II were supplemented with a SC. Daily urine was collected and stored at -20°C until analysis. Calorimetric methods were used for the determination of urinary allantoin and creatinin levels. The estimated microbial N supply to small intestine for Diets I, I+SC, II and II+SC were 2.51, 2.64, 2.95 and 3.43 g N/d respectively. Supplementation of Diets I and II with SC significantly affected the allantoin levels in µmol/W0. 75 (p<0.05). Mean creatinine values in µmol/W0. 75 and allantoin:creatinin ratios were not significantly different among diets. In conclusion, supplementation with SC live yeast culture had a significant effect on urinary allantoin excretion and microbial protein supply to small intestine in Kivircik yearlings fed with high concentrate Diet II (P<0.05). Hence urinary allantoin excretion may be used as a tool for estimating microbial protein supply in Kivircık yearlings. However, further studies are necessary to understand the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast culture with different forage: concentrate ratio in Kıvırcık Yearlings.

Keywords: allantoin, creatinin, Kivircik yearling, microbial nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisia

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72 Tetracycline as Chemosensor for Simultaneous Recognition of Al³⁺: Application to Bio-Imaging for Living Cells

Authors: Jesus Alfredo Ortega Granados, Pandiyan Thangarasu


Antibiotic tetracycline presents as a micro-contaminant in fresh water, wastewater and soils, causing environmental and health problems. In this work, tetracycline (TC) has been employed as chemo-sensor for the recognition of Al³⁺ without interring other ions, and the results show that it enhances the fluorescence intensity for Al³⁺ and there is no interference from other coexisting cation ions (Cd²⁺, Ni²⁺, Co²⁺, Sr²⁺, Mg²⁺, Fe³⁺, K⁺, Sm³⁺, Ag⁺, Na⁺, Ba²⁺, Zn²⁺, and Mn²⁺). For the addition of Cu²⁺ to [TET-Al³⁺], it appears that the intensity of fluorescence has been quenched. Other combinations of metal ions in addition to TC do not change the fluorescence behavior. The stoichiometry determined by Job´s plot for the interaction of TC with Al³⁺ was found to be 1:1. Importantly, the detection of Al³⁺⁺ successfully employed in the real samples like living cells, and it was found that TC efficiently performs as a fluorescent probe for Al³⁺ ion in living systems, especially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; this is confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Keywords: chemo-sensor, recognition of Al³⁺ ion, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tetracycline,

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71 Influence of Yeast Strains on Microbiological Stability of Wheat Bread

Authors: E. Soboleva, E. Sergachyova, S. G. Davydenko, T. V. Meledina


Problem of food preservation is extremely important for mankind. Viscous damage ("illness") of bread results from development of Bacillus spp. bacteria. High temperature resistant spores of this microorganism are steady against 120°C) and remain in bread during pastries, potentially causing spoilage of the final product. Scientists are interested in further characterization of bread spoiling Bacillus spp. species. Our aim was to find weather yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to produce natural antimicrobial killer factor can preserve bread illness. By diffusion method, we showed yeast antagonistic activity against spore-forming bacteria. Experimental technological parameters were the same as for bakers' yeasts production on the industrial scale. Risograph test during dough fermentation demonstrated gas production. The major finding of the study was a clear indication of the presence of killer yeast strain antagonistic activity against rope in bread causing bacteria. After demonstrating antagonistic effect of S. cerevisiae on bacteria using solid nutrient medium, we tested baked bread under provocative conditions. We also measured formation of carbon dioxide in the dough, dough-making duration and quality of the final products, when using different strains of S. cerevisiae. It is determined that the use of yeast S. cerevisiae RCAM 01730 killer strain inhibits appearance of rope in bread. Thus, natural yeast antimicrobial killer toxin, produced by some S. cerevisiae strains is an anti-rope in bread protector.

Keywords: bakers' yeasts, killer toxin, rope in bread, Saccharomyces cerevisiæ

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70 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

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69 Production of Ethanol from Mission Grass

Authors: Darin Khumsupan, Tidarat Komolwanich, Sirirat Prasertwasu, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit


Bioethanol production has become a subject of interest for many researchers due to its potential to replace fossil fuels. Since the most popular sources of bioethanol originate from food crops including corn and sugarcane, many people become more concerned with increasing demand for food supply. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as grass, could be a practical alternative to replace the conventional fossil fuels due to its low cost, renewability, and abundance in nature. Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) is one of the candidates for bioethanol production. This research is focused on the detoxification and fermentation of hydrolysate from mission grass. Glucose in the hydrolysate was detoxified by overliming process at various pH. Although overliming at pH 12 gave the highest yeast population, the ethanol yield was low due to glucose degradation. Overliming at pH 10 showed the highest yield of ethanol production. Various strains of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) will be utilized to produce ethanol at the optimal overliming pH.

Keywords: Pennisetum polystachion, lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol production, detoxification, overliming, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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68 Computational Identification of Signalling Pathways in Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Angela U. Makolo, Temitayo A. Olagunju


The knowledge of signaling pathways is central to understanding the biological mechanisms of organisms since it has been identified that in eukaryotic organisms, the number of signaling pathways determines the number of ways the organism will react to external stimuli. Signaling pathways are studied using protein interaction networks constructed from protein-protein interaction data obtained using high throughput experimental procedures. However, these high throughput methods are known to produce very high rates of false positive and negative interactions. In order to construct a useful protein interaction network from this noisy data, computational methods are applied to validate the protein-protein interactions. In this study, a computational technique to identify signaling pathways from a protein interaction network constructed using validated protein-protein interaction data was designed. A weighted interaction graph of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s Yeast) organism using the proteins as the nodes and interactions between them as edges was constructed. The weights were obtained using Bayesian probabilistic network to estimate the posterior probability of interaction between two proteins given the gene expression measurement as biological evidence. Only interactions above a threshold were accepted for the network model. A pathway was formalized as a simple path in the interaction network from a starting protein and an ending protein of interest. We were able to identify some pathway segments, one of which is a segment of the pathway that signals the start of the process of meiosis in S. cerevisiae.

Keywords: Bayesian networks, protein interaction networks, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, signalling pathways

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67 Comparative Growth Kinetic Studies of Two Strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Dates and a Commercial Strain

Authors: Nizar Chaira


Dates, main products of the oases, due to their therapeutic interests, are considered highly nutritious fruit. Several studies on the valuation biotechnology and technology of dates are made, and several products are already prepared. Isolation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, naturally presents in a scrap of date, optimization of growth in the medium based on date syrup and production biomass can potentially expand the range of secondary products of dates. To this end, this paper tries to study the suitability for processing dates technology and biotechnology to use the date pulp as a carbon source for biological transformation. Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from date syrup (S1, S2) and a commercial strain have used for this study. After optimization of culture conditions, production in a fermenter on two different media (date syrup and beet molasses) was performed. This is followed by studying the kinetics of growth, protein production and consumption of sugars in crops strain 1, 2 and the commercial strain and on both media. The results obtained showed that a concentration of 2% sugar, 2.5 g/l yeast extract, pH 4.5 and a temperature between 25 and 35°C are the optimal conditions for cultivation in a bioreactor. The exponential phase of the specific growth rate of a strain on both media showed that it is about 0.3625 h-1 for the production of a medium based on date syrup and 0.3521 h-1 on beet molasses with a generation time equal to 1.912 h and on the medium based on date syrup, yeast consumes preferentially the reducing sugars. For the production of protein, we showed that this latter presents an exponential phase when the medium starts to run out of reducing sugars. For strain 2, the specific growth rate is about 0.261h-1 for the production on a medium based on date syrup and 0207 h-1 on beet molasses and the base medium syrup date of the yeast consumes preferentially reducing sugars. For the invertase and other metabolits, these increases rapidly after exhaustion of reducing sugars. The comparison of productivity between the three strains on the medium based on date syrup showed that the maximum value is obtained with the second strain: p = 1072 g/l/h as it is about of 0923 g/l/h for strain 1 and 0644 g/l/h for the commercial strain. Thus, isolates of date syrup are more competitive than the commercial strain and can give the same performance in a shorter time with energy gain.

Keywords: date palm, fermentation, molasses, Saccharomyces, syrup

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66 All Types of Base Pair Substitutions Induced by γ-Rays in Haploid and Diploid Yeast Cells

Authors: Natalia Koltovaya, Nadezhda Zhuchkina, Ksenia Lyubimova


We study the biological effects induced by ionizing radiation in view of therapeutic exposure and the idea of space flights beyond Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, we examine the differences between base pair substitution induction by ionizing radiation in model haploid and diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Such mutations are difficult to study in higher eukaryotic systems. In our research, we have used a collection of six isogenic trp5-strains and 14 isogenic haploid and diploid cyc1-strains that are specific markers of all possible base-pair substitutions. These strains differ from each other only in single base substitutions within codon-50 of the trp5 gene or codon-22 of the cyc1 gene. Different mutation spectra for two different haploid genetic trp5- and cyc1-assays and different mutation spectra for the same genetic cyc1-system in cells with different ploidy — haploid and diploid — have been obtained. It was linear function for dose-dependence in haploid and exponential in diploid cells. We suggest that the differences between haploid yeast strains reflect the dependence on the sequence context, while the differences between haploid and diploid strains reflect the different molecular mechanisms of mutations.

Keywords: base pair substitutions, γ-rays, haploid and diploid cells, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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65 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah


In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L., essential oils, biological activity

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64 The Effect of Concentrate Containing Probiotics on Fermentation Characteristics and in vitro Nutrient Digestibility

Authors: B. Santoso, B. Tj. Hariadi, H. Abubakar


The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of probiotic addition in concentrate on fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of the grass Pennisetum purpureophoides. Two strains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidhophilus, and one strain yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as probiotic. The probiotics was added at 2% and 4% (v/w) in the concentrate. The result showed the concentrate containing between 1.5 × 106 and 3 × 107 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria and 3 × 103 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae. The DM, OM and NDF digestibility were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Addition of probiotic in concentrate increased (P<0.01) DM, OM and NDF compared to concentrate without probiotic. Total VFA and propionic acid concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Concentration of acetic acid decreased (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass substrate alone. Addition of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus and S. cerevisiae in concentrate increased (P<0.01) propionic acid concentration. It was concluded that addition of probiotic in concentrate increased propionic concentration and in vitro nutrient digestibility.

Keywords: by-products, concentrate, digestibility, probiotics

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63 Screening and Optimization of Pretreatments for Rice Straw and Their Utilization for Bioethanol Production Using Developed Yeast Strain

Authors: Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Min Kyu Oh


Rice straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste materials and its annual production is about 731 Mt in the world. This study treats the subject of effective utilization of this waste biomass for biofuels production. We have showed a comparative assessment of numerous pretreatment strategies for rice straw, comprising of major physical, chemical and physicochemical methods. Among the different methods employed for pretreatment alkaline pretreatment in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification found efficient pretreatment with significant improvement in the enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. A cellulase dose of 20 filter paper units (FPU) released a maximum 63.21 g/L of reducing sugar with 94.45% hydrolysis yield and 64.64% glucose yield from rice straw, respectively. The effects of different pretreatment methods on biomass structure and complexity were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analytical techniques. Finally the enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used for ethanol production using developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8. The developed yeast strain enabled efficient fermentation of xylose and glucose and produced higher ethanol production. Thus development of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic waste biomass is generic, applicable methodology and have great implication for using ‘green raw materials’ and producing ‘green products’ much needed today.

Keywords: rice straw, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, FPU, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8, ethanol fermentation

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62 Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeasts and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations: Effect on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis caffra L.) Vinegar

Authors: Phillip Minnaar, Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-Saez


Dovyalis caffra is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals of Kei-apple fruit. The phytochemical content of vinegars is derived from compounds present in the fruit the vinegar is made of. Kei-apple fruit juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation (AF). Acetous fermentation followed AF, using an acetic acid bacteria consortium as an inoculant. Juice had the lowest pH and highest total acidity (TA). The wine had the highest pH and vinegars lowest TA. Total soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during AF and acetous fermentation. Volatile acidity concentration was not different among vinegars. Gallic, syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic acids increased during acetous fermentation, whereas ferulic, sinapic, and protocatechuic acids decreased. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in both wines and vinegars. It is evident from this investigation that Kei-apple vinegar is a source of plant-derived phenolics, which evolved through fermentation. However, the AAB selection showed minimal performance with respect to VA production. Acetic acid bacteria selection for acetous fermentation should be reconsidered, and the reasons for the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, acetous fermentation, liquid chromatography, phenolic acids

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61 A Novel Marketable Dried Mixture for High-Quality Sweet Wine Production in Domestic Refrigerator Using Tubular Cellulose

Authors: Ganatsios Vassilios, Terpou Antonia, Maria Kanellaki, Bekatorou Argyro, Athanasios Koutinas


In this study, a new fermentation technology is proposed with potential application in home wine-making. Delignified cellulosic material was used to preserve Tubular Cellulose (TC), an effective fermentation support material in high osmotic pressure, low temperature, and alcohol concentration. The psychrotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 was immobilized on TC to preserve a novel home wine making biocatalyst (HWB) and the entrapment was examined by SEM. Various concentrations of HWB was added in high-density grape must and the mixture was dried immediately. The dried mixture was stored for various time intervals and its fermentation examined after addition of potable water. The percentage of added water was also examined to succeed high alcohol and residual sugar concentration. The effect of low temperature (1-10 oC) on fermentation kinetics was studied revealing the ability of HBW on low-temperature sweet wine making. Sweet wines SPME GC-MS analysis revealed the promotion effect of TC on volatile by-products formation in comparison with free cells. Kinetics results and aromatic profile of final product encouraged the efforts of high-quality sweet wine making in domestic refrigerator and potential marketable opportunities are also assessed and discussed.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, sweet wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1, residual sugar concentration

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60 Dependence of the Electro-Stimulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Pulsed Electric Field at the Yeast Growth Phase

Authors: Jessy Mattar, Mohamad Turk, Maurice Nonus, Nikolai Lebovka, Henri El Zakhem, Eugene Vorobiev


The effects of electro-stimulation of S. cerevisiae cells in colloidal suspension by Pulsed Electric Fields ‎‎(PEF) with electric field strength E = 20 – 2000 and effective PEF treatment time tPEF = 10^−5 – 1 s were ‎investigated. The applied experimental procedure includes variations in the preliminary fermentation time and ‎electro-stimulation by PEF-treatment. Plate counting was performed.‎ At relatively high electric fields (E ≥ 1000 and moderate PEF treatment time (tPEF > 100 µs), the ‎extraction of ionic components from yeast was observed by conductivity measurements, which can be related to ‎electroporation of cell membranes. Cell counting revealed a dependency of the colonies’ size on the time of ‎preliminary fermentation tf and the power consumption W, however no dependencies were noticeable by varying the initial yeast concentration in the treated suspensions.‎

Keywords: intensification, yeast, fermentation, electroporation, biotechnology

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59 Improved Predictive Models for the IRMA Network Using Nonlinear Optimisation

Authors: Vishwesh Kulkarni, Nikhil Bellarykar


Cellular complexity stems from the interactions among thousands of different molecular species. Thanks to the emerging fields of systems and synthetic biology, scientists are beginning to unravel these regulatory, signaling, and metabolic interactions and to understand their coordinated action. Reverse engineering of biological networks has has several benefits but a poor quality of data combined with the difficulty in reproducing it limits the applicability of these methods. A few years back, many of the commonly used predictive algorithms were tested on a network constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) to resolve this issue. The network was a synthetic network of five genes regulating each other for the so-called in vivo reverse-engineering and modeling assessment (IRMA). The network was constructed in S. cereviase since it is a simple and well characterized organism. The synthetic network included a variety of regulatory interactions, thus capturing the behaviour of larger eukaryotic gene networks on a smaller scale. We derive a new set of algorithms by solving a nonlinear optimization problem and show how these algorithms outperform other algorithms on these datasets.

Keywords: synthetic gene network, network identification, optimization, nonlinear modeling

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58 Induction of Adaptive Response in Yeast Cells under Influence of Extremely High Frequency Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Sergei Voychuk


Introduction: Adaptive response (AR) is a manifestation of radiation hormesis, which deal with the radiation resistance that may be increased with the pretreatment with small doses of radiation. In the current study, we evaluated the potency of radiofrequency EMF to induce the AR mechanisms and to increase a resistance to UV light. Methods: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which were created to study induction of mutagenesis and recombination, were used in the study. The strains have mutations in rad2 and rad54 genes, responsible for DNA repair: nucleotide excision repair (PG-61), postreplication repair (PG-80) and mitotic (crossover) recombination (T2). An induction of mutation and recombination are revealed due to the formation of red colonies on agar plates. The PG-61 and T2 are UV sensitive strains, while PG-80 is sensitive to ionizing radiation. Extremely high frequency electromagnetic field (EHF-EMF) was used. The irradiation was performed in floating mode and frequency changed during exposure from 57 GHz to 62 GHz. The power of irradiation was 100 mkW, and duration of exposure was 10 and 30 min. Treatment was performed at RT and then cells were stored at 28° C during 1 h without any exposure but after that they were treated with UV light (254nm) for 20 sec (strain T2) and 120 sec (strain PG-61 and PG-80). Cell viability and quantity of red colonies were determined after 5 days of cultivation on agar plates. Results: It was determined that EHF-EMF caused 10-20% decrease of viability of T2 and PG-61 strains, while UV showed twice stronger effect (30-70%). EHF-EMF pretreatment increased T2 resistance to UV, and decreased it in PG-61. The PG-80 strain was insensitive to EHF-EMF and no AR effect was determined for this strain. It was not marked any induction of red colonies formation in T2 and PG-80 strain after EHF or UV exposure. The quantity of red colonies was 2 times more in PG-61 strain after EHF-EMF treatment and at least 300 times more after UV exposure. The pretreatment of PG-61 with EHF-EMF caused at least twice increase of viability and consequent decrease of amount of red colonies. Conclusion: EHF-EMF may induce AR in yeast cells and increase their viability under UV treatment.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, EHF-EMF, UV light, adaptive response

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57 The Use of a Miniature Bioreactor as Research Tool for Biotechnology Process Development

Authors: Muhammad Zainuddin Arriafdi, Hamudah Hakimah Abdullah, Mohd Helmi Sani, Wan Azlina Ahmad, Muhd Nazrul Hisham Zainal Alam


The biotechnology process development demands numerous experimental works. In laboratory environment, this is typically carried out using a shake flask platform. This paper presents the design and fabrication of a miniature bioreactor system as an alternative research tool for bioprocessing. The working volume of the reactor is 100 ml, and it is made of plastic. The main features of the reactor included stirring control, temperature control via the electrical heater, aeration strategy through a miniature air compressor, and online optical cell density (OD) sensing. All sensors and actuators integrated into the reactor was controlled using an Arduino microcontroller platform. In order to demonstrate the functionality of such miniature bioreactor concept, series of batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation experiments were performed under various glucose concentrations. Results attained from the fermentation experiments were utilized to solve the Monod equation constants, namely the saturation constant, Ks, and cells maximum growth rate, μmax as to further highlight the usefulness of the device. The mixing capacity of the reactor was also evaluated. It was found that the results attained from the miniature bioreactor prototype were comparable to results achieved using a shake flask. The unique features of the device as compared to shake flask platform is that the reactor mixing condition is much more comparable to a lab-scale bioreactor setup. The prototype is also integrated with an online OD sensor, and as such, no sampling was needed to monitor the progress of the reaction performed. Operating cost and medium consumption are also low and thus, making it much more economical to be utilized for biotechnology process development compared to lab-scale bioreactors.

Keywords: biotechnology, miniature bioreactor, research tools, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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56 Effect of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Blood Metabolites in Beetal Male Goats

Authors: Saeed Ahmed, Tamoor Abbas, M. Amir, M. S. Iqbal, D. Hussain


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Beetal male goats diets on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and selected blood metabolites. Another objective was to determine the inclusion level of yeast culture for optimal growth performance of Beetal male goats. Eighteen (n=18) Beetal male goats were randomly assigned to three total mixed ration treatments (n=6 goats/treatment): T1, T2 and T3 containing 0gm, 3gm and 6gm/day yeast culture (YC) mixed with total mixed ration (TMR). The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric having crude protein 15.2% and ME 2.6Mcal/kg. The total duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Beetal bucks were fed on TMR diets (T1, T2 and T3) having blend of oat silage, Lucerne hay and concentrate mixed with yeast culture (YC). Bucks were housed individually and feed was offered @ 4% of body weight on dry matter basis. Samples of fresh feed and refusal were collected twice weekly of moisture percentage using hot air oven. Data for daily dry matter intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and selected blood metabolites were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique under Complete randomised design (SAS Institute Inc, 2002-03). Results were declared significant at P≤0.05. Overall, DMI was not affected (P≥0.05) by dietary treatments. Body weight gain, digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre were improved. Blood glucose concentration was detected higher in the group having supplementation of yeast culture (YC) 6gm/day compared to other two dietary treatments. This study suggested the positive impact of inclusion of yeast culture (YC) up to 6gm/day in the TMR diet for optimal growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in Beetal male goats.

Keywords: yeast culture, growth performance, digestibility, beetle goat

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55 Exploration of in-situ Product Extraction to Increase Triterpenoid Production in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Authors: Mariam Dianat Sabet Gilani, Lars M. Blank, Birgitta E. Ebert


Plant-derived lupane-type, pentacyclic triterpenoids are biologically active compounds that are highly interesting for applications in medical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Due to the low abundance of these valuable compounds in their natural sources, and the environmentally harmful downstream process, alternative production methods, such as microbial cell factories, are investigated. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, harboring the heterologous genes for betulinic acid synthesis, can produce up to 2 g L-1 triterpenoids, showing high potential for large-scale production of triterpenoids. One limitation of the microbial synthesis is the intracellular product accumulation. It not only makes cell disruption a necessary step in the downstream processing but also limits productivity and product yield per cell. To overcome these restrictions, the aim of this study is to develop an in-situ extraction method, which extracts triterpenoids into a second organic phase. Such a continuous or sequential product removal from the biomass keeps the cells in an active state and enables extended production time or biomass recycling. After screening of twelve different solvents, selected based on product solubility, biocompatibility, as well as environmental and health impact, isopropyl myristate (IPM) was chosen as a suitable solvent for in-situ product removal from S. cerevisiae. Impedance-based single-cell analysis and off-gas measurement of carbon dioxide emission showed that cell viability and physiology were not affected by the presence of IPM. Initial experiments demonstrated that after the addition of 20 vol % IPM to cultures in the stationary phase, 40 % of the total produced triterpenoids were extracted from the cells into the organic phase. In future experiments, the application of IPM in a repeated batch process will be tested, where IPM is added at the end of each batch run to remove triterpenoids from the cells, allowing the same biocatalysts to be used in several sequential batch steps. Due to its high biocompatibility, the amount of IPM added to the culture can also be increased to more than 20 vol % to extract more than 40 % triterpenoids in the organic phase, allowing the cells to produce more triterpenoids. This highlights the potential for the development of a continuous large-scale process, which allows biocatalysts to produce intracellular products continuously without the necessity of cell disruption and without limitation of the cell capacity.

Keywords: betulinic acid, biocompatible solvent, in-situ extraction, isopropyl myristate, process development, secondary metabolites, triterpenoids, yeast

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54 In vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Palm Oil Byproducts Which is Supplemented with Growth Factor Rumen Microbes

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Jurnida Rahman, Khasrad, Erpomen


The aim of this experiment was to study the use of palm oil by products (oil palm fronds (OPF), palm oil sludge (POS) and palm kernel cake (PKC)), that supplemented with growth factor rumen microbes (Sapindus rarak and Sacharomyces cerevisiae) on digestibility and fermentation in vitro. Oil Palm Fronds was previously treated with 3% urea. The treatments consist of 50% OPF+ 30% POS+ 20% PKC as a control diet (A), B = A + 4% Sapindus rarak, C = A + 0.5 % Sacharomyces cerevisiae and D = A + 4% Sapindus rarak + 0.5% Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Digestibility of DM, OM, ADF, NDF, cellulose and rumen parameters (NH3 and VFA) of all treatments were significantly different (P < 0.05). Fermentation and digestibility treatment A were significantly lower than treatments B, C, and D. The result indicated that supplementation Sapindus rarak and S. cerevisiae were able to improve fermentability and digestibility of palm oil by product.

Keywords: palm oil by product, Sapindus rarak, Sacharomyces rerevisiae, fermentability, OPF ammoniated

Procedia PDF Downloads 553