Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Endalkachew Befekadu

3 Establishment of Reference Interval for Serum Protein Electrophoresis of Apparently Healthy Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Demiraw Bikila, Tadesse Lejisa, Yosef Tolcha, Chala Bashea, Mehari Meles Tigist Getahun Genet Ashebir, Wossene Habtu, Feyissa Challa, Ousman Mohammed, Melkitu Kassaw, Adisu Kebede, Letebrhan G. Egzeabher, Endalkachew Befekadu, Mistire Wolde, Aster Tsegaye


Background: Even though several factors affect reference intervals (RIs), the company-derived values are currently in use in many laboratories worldwide. However, little or no data is available regarding serum protein RIs, mainly in resource-limited setting countries like Ethiopia. Objective: To establish a reference interval for serum protein electrophoresis of apparently healthy adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 297 apparently healthy adults from April-October 2019 in four selected sub-cities (Akaki, Kirkos, Arada, Yeka) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Laboratory analysis of collected samples was performed using Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyzer, while statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and med-cal software. Mann-Whitney test was used to check Partitions. Non-parametric method of reference range establishment was performed as per CLSI guideline EP28A3C. Result: The established RIs were: Albumin 53.83-64.59%, 52.24-63.55%; Alpha-1 globulin 3.04-5.40%, 3.44-5.60%; Alpha-2 globulin 8.0-12.67%, 8.44-12.87%; and Beta-1 globulin 5.01-7.38%, 5.14-7.86%. Moreover, Albumin to globulin ratio was 1.16-1.8, 1.09-1.74 for males and females, respectively. The combined RIs for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin were 2.54-4.90% and 12.40-21.66%, respectively. Conclusion: The established reference interval for serum protein fractions revealed gender-specific differences except for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin.

Keywords: serum protein electrophoresis, reference interval, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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2 Comparing Remote Sensing and in Situ Analyses of Test Wheat Plants as Means for Optimizing Data Collection in Precision Agriculture

Authors: Endalkachew Abebe Kebede, Bojin Bojinov, Andon Vasilev Andonov, Orhan Dengiz


Remote sensing has a potential application in assessing and monitoring the plants' biophysical properties using the spectral responses of plants and soils within the electromagnetic spectrum. However, only a few reports compare the performance of different remote sensing sensors against in-situ field spectral measurement. The current study assessed the potential applications of open data source satellite images (Sentinel 2 and Landsat 9) in estimating the biophysical properties of the wheat crop on a study farm found in the village of OvchaMogila. A Landsat 9 (30 m resolution) and Sentinel-2 (10 m resolution) satellite images with less than 10% cloud cover have been extracted from the open data sources for the period of December 2021 to April 2022. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used to capture the spectral response of plant leaves. In addition, SpectraVue 710s Leaf Spectrometer was used to measure the spectral response of the crop in April at five different locations within the same field. The ten most common vegetation indices have been selected and calculated based on the reflectance wavelength range of remote sensing tools used. The soil samples have been collected in eight different locations within the farm plot. The different physicochemical properties of the soil (pH, texture, N, P₂O₅, and K₂O) have been analyzed in the laboratory. The finer resolution images from the UAV and the Leaf Spectrometer have been used to validate the satellite images. The performance of different sensors has been compared based on the measured leaf spectral response and the extracted vegetation indices using the five sampling points. A scatter plot with the coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the correlation (r) matrix prepared using the corr and heatmap python libraries have been used for comparing the performance of Sentinel 2 and Landsat 9 VIs compared to the drone and SpectraVue 710s spectrophotometer. The soil analysis revealed the study farm plot is slightly alkaline (8.4 to 8.52). The soil texture of the study farm is dominantly Clay and Clay Loam.The vegetation indices (VIs) increased linearly with the growth of the plant. Both the scatter plot and the correlation matrix showed that Sentinel 2 vegetation indices have a relatively better correlation with the vegetation indices of the Buteo dronecompared to the Landsat 9. The Landsat 9 vegetation indices somewhat align better with the leaf spectrometer. Generally, the Sentinel 2 showed a better performance than the Landsat 9. Further study with enough field spectral sampling and repeated UAV imaging is required to improve the quality of the current study.

Keywords: landsat 9, leaf spectrometer, sentinel 2, UAV

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1 In vitro Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bovine Mastitis Bacteria in Ethiopia

Authors: Befekadu Urga Wakayo


Introduction: Bacterial infections represent major human and animal health problems in Ethiopia. In the face of poor antibiotic regulatory mechanisms, development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to commonly used drugs has become a growing health and livelihood threat in the country. Monitoring and control of AMR demand close coloration between human and veterinary services as well as other relevant stakeholders. However, risk of AMR transfer from animal to human population’s remains poorly explored in Ethiopia. This systematic research literature review attempted to give an overview on AMR challenges of bovine mastitis bacteria in Ethiopia. Methodology: A web based research literature search and analysis strategy was used. Databases are considered including; PubMed, Google Scholar, Ethiopian Veterinary Association (EVA) and Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP). The key search terms and phrases were; Ethiopia, dairy, cattle, mastitis, bacteria isolation, antibiotic sensitivity and antimicrobial resistance. Ultimately, 15 research reports were used for the current analysis. Data extraction was performed using a structured Microsoft Excel format. Frequency AMR prevalence (%) was registered directly or calculated from reported values. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS – 16. Variables were summarized by giving frequencies (n or %), Mean ± SE and demonstrative box plots. One way ANOVA and independent t test were used to evaluate variations in AMR prevalence estimates (Ln transformed). Statistical significance was determined at p < 0.050). Results: AMR in bovine mastitis bacteria was investigated in a total of 592 in vitro antibiotic sensitivity trials involving 12 different mastitis bacteria (including 1126 Gram positive and 77 Gram negative isolates) and 14 antibiotics. Bovine mastitis bacteria exhibited AMR to most of the antibiotics tested. Gentamycin had the lowest average AMR in both Gram positive (2%) and negative (1.8%) bacteria. Gram negative mastitis bacteria showed higher mean in vitro resistance levels to; Erythromycin (72.6%), Tetracycline (56.65%), Amoxicillin (49.6%), Ampicillin (47.6%), Clindamycin (47.2%) and Penicillin (40.6%). Among Gram positive mastitis bacteria higher mean in vitro resistance was observed in; Ampicillin (32.8%), Amoxicillin (32.6%), Penicillin (24.9%), Streptomycin (20.2%), Penicillinase Resistant Penicillin’s (15.4%) and Tetracycline (14.9%). More specifically, S. aurues exhibited high mean AMR against Penicillin (76.3%) and Ampicillin (70.3%) followed by Amoxicillin (45%), Streptomycin (40.6%), Tetracycline (24.5%) and Clindamycin (23.5%). E. coli showed high mean AMR to Erythromycin (78.7%), Tetracycline (51.5%), Ampicillin (49.25%), Amoxicillin (43.3%), Clindamycin (38.4%) and Penicillin (33.8%). Streptococcus spp. demonstrated higher (p =0.005) mean AMR against Kanamycin (> 20%) and full sensitivity (100%) to Clindamycin. Overall, mean Tetracycline (p = 0.013), Gentamycin (p = 0.001), Polymixin (p = 0.034), Erythromycin (p = 0.011) and Ampicillin (p = 0.009) resistance increased from the 2010’s than the 2000’s. Conclusion; the review indicated a rising AMR challenge among bovine mastitis bacteria in Ethiopia. Corresponding, public health implications demand a deeper, integrated investigation.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, dairy cattle, Ethiopia, Mastitis bacteria

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