Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 137

Search results for: aquifer

137 Estimation of Aquifer Properties Using Pumping Tests: Case Study of Pydibhimavaram Industrial Area, Srikakulam, India

Authors: G. Venkata Rao, P. Kalpana, R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Adequate and reliable estimates of aquifer parameters are of utmost importance for proper management of vital groundwater resources. At present scenario the ground water is polluted because of industrial waste disposed over the land and the contaminants are transported in the aquifer from one area to another area which is depending on the characteristics of the aquifer and contaminants. To know the contaminant transport, the accurate estimation of aquifer properties is highly needed. Conventionally, these properties are estimated through pumping tests carried out on water wells. The occurrence and movement of ground water in the aquifer are characteristically defined by the aquifer parameters. The pumping (aquifer) test is the standard technique for estimating various hydraulic properties of aquifer systems, viz, transmissivity (T), hydraulic conductivity (K), storage coefficient (S) etc., for which the graphical method is widely used. The study area for conducting pumping test is Pydibheemavaram Industrial area near the coastal belt of Srikulam, AP, India. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the aquifer properties for developing contaminant transport model for the study area.

Keywords: aquifer, contaminant transport, hydraulic conductivity, industrial waste, pumping test

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
136 Estimation of Aquifer Parameters Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in Ochudo City, Abakaliki Urban Nigeria

Authors: Moses. O. Eyankware, Benard I. Odoh, Omoleomo O. Omo-Irabor, Alex O. I. Selemo

Abstract:

Knowledge of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity is essential for the determination of natural water flow through an aquifer. These parameters are commonly estimated from the analysis of electrical conductivity, soil properties and fluid flow data. In order to achieve a faster and cost effective analysis of aquifer parameters in Ochudo City in Abakaliki, this study relied on non-invasive geophysical methods. As part of this approach, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was conducted at 20 sites in the study area for the identification of the vertical variation in subsurface lithology and for the characterization of the groundwater system. The area variously consists of between five to seven geoelectric layers of different thicknesses. Depth to aquifer ranges from 9.94 m-134.0 m while the thickness of the identified aquifer varies between 8.43 m and 44.31 m. Based on the electrical conductivity values of water samples collected from two boreholes and two hand-dug wells within the study area, the hydraulic conductivity was determined to range from 0.10 to 0.433 m/day. The estimated thickness of the aquifer and calculated hydraulic conductivity were used to derive the aquifer transmissivity. The results indicate that this parameter ranges from 1.58-7.56 m²/day with a formation factor of between 0.31-3.6.

Keywords: Asu river group, transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, abakaliki, vertical electrical sounding (VES)

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
135 Assessment of Groundwater Chemistry and Quality Characteristics in an Alluvial Aquifer and a Single Plane Fractured-Rock Aquifer in Bloemfontein, South Africa

Authors: Modreck Gomo

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The evolution of groundwater chemistry and its quality is largely controlled by hydrogeochemical processes and their understanding is therefore important for groundwater quality assessments and protection of the water resources. A study was conducted in Bloemfontein town of South Africa to assess and compare the groundwater chemistry and quality characteristics in an alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifers. 9 groundwater samples were collected from monitoring boreholes drilled into the two aquifer systems during a once-off sampling exercise. Samples were collected through low-flow purging technique and analysed for major ions and trace elements. In order to describe the hydrochemical facies and identify dominant hydrogeochemical processes, the groundwater chemistry data are interpreted using stiff diagrams and principal component analysis (PCA), as complimentary tools. The fitness of the groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation uses is also assessed. Results show that the alluvial aquifer is characterised by a Na-HCO3 hydrochemical facie while fractured-rock aquifer has a Ca-HCO3 facie. The groundwater in both aquifers originally evolved from the dissolution of calcite rocks that are common on land surface environments. However the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer further goes through another evolution as driven by cation exchange process in which Na in the sediments exchanges with Ca2+ in the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical type to result in the Na-HCO3 hydrochemical type. Despite the difference in the hydrogeochemical processes between the alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifer, this did not influence the groundwater quality. The groundwater in the two aquifers is very hard as influenced by the elevated magnesium and calcium ions that evolve from dissolution of carbonate minerals which typically occurs in surface environments. Based on total dissolved levels (600-900 mg/L), groundwater quality of the two aquifer systems is classified to be of fair quality. The negative potential impacts of the groundwater quality for domestic uses are highlighted.

Keywords: alluvial aquifer, fractured-rock aquifer, groundwater quality, hydrogeochemical processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
134 Mapping the Intrinsic Vulnerability of the Quaternary Aquifer of the Eastern Mitidja (Northern Algeria)

Authors: Abida Haddouche, Ahmed Chrif Toubal

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The Neogene basin of the Eastern Mitidja, object of the study area, represents potential water resources and especially groundwater reserves. This water is an important economic; this resource is highly sensitive which need protection and preservation. Unfortunately, these waters are exposed to various forms of pollution, whether from urban, agricultural, industrial or merely accidental. This pollution is a permanent risk of limiting resource. In this context, the work aims to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer to protect and preserve the quality of this resource. It will focus on the disposal of water and land managers a cartographic document accessible to locate the areas where the water has a high vulnerability. Vulnerability mapping of the Easter Mitidja quaternary aquifer is performed by applying three methods (DRASTIC, DRIST, and GOD). Comparison and validation results show that the DRASTIC method is the most suitable method for aquifer vulnerability of the study area.

Keywords: Aquifer of Mitidja, DRASTIC method, geographic information system (GIS), vulnerability mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
133 Development of Groundwater Management Model Using Groundwater Sustainability Index

Authors: S. S. Rwanga, J. M. Ndambuki, Y. Woyessa

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Development of a groundwater management model is an important step in the exploitation and management of any groundwater aquifer as it assists in the long-term sustainable planning of the resource. The current study was conducted in Central Limpopo province of South Africa with the overall objective of determining how much water can be withdrawn from the aquifer without producing nonreversible impacts on the groundwater quantity, hence developing a model which can sustainably protect the aquifer. The development was done through the computation of Groundwater Sustainability Index (GSI). Values of GSI close to unity and above indicated overexploitation. In this study, an index of 0.8 was considered as overexploitation. The results indicated that there is potential for higher abstraction rates compared to the current abstraction rates. GSI approach can be used in the management of groundwater aquifer to sustainably develop the resource and also provides water managers and policy makers with fundamental information on where future water developments can be carried out.

Keywords: development, groundwater, groundwater sustainability index, model

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
132 Impact of Interface Soil Layer on Groundwater Aquifer Behaviour

Authors: Hayder H. Kareem, Shunqi Pan

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The geological environment where the groundwater is collected represents the most important element that affects the behaviour of groundwater aquifer. As groundwater is a worldwide vital resource, it requires knowing the parameters that affect this source accurately so that the conceptualized mathematical models would be acceptable to the broadest ranges. Therefore, groundwater models have recently become an effective and efficient tool to investigate groundwater aquifer behaviours. Groundwater aquifer may contain aquitards, aquicludes, or interfaces within its geological formations. Aquitards and aquicludes have geological formations that forced the modellers to include those formations within the conceptualized groundwater models, while interfaces are commonly neglected from the conceptualization process because the modellers believe that the interface has no effect on aquifer behaviour. The current research highlights the impact of an interface existing in a real unconfined groundwater aquifer called Dibdibba, located in Al-Najaf City, Iraq where it has a river called the Euphrates River that passes through the eastern part of this city. Dibdibba groundwater aquifer consists of two types of soil layers separated by an interface soil layer. A groundwater model is built for Al-Najaf City to explore the impact of this interface. Calibration process is done using PEST 'Parameter ESTimation' approach and the best Dibdibba groundwater model is obtained. When the soil interface is conceptualized, results show that the groundwater tables are significantly affected by that interface through appearing dry areas of 56.24 km² and 6.16 km² in the upper and lower layers of the aquifer, respectively. The Euphrates River will also leak water into the groundwater aquifer of 7359 m³/day. While these results are changed when the soil interface is neglected where the dry area became 0.16 km², the Euphrates River leakage became 6334 m³/day. In addition, the conceptualized models (with and without interface) reveal different responses for the change in the recharge rates applied on the aquifer through the uncertainty analysis test. The aquifer of Dibdibba in Al-Najaf City shows a slight deficit in the amount of water supplied by the current pumping scheme and also notices that the Euphrates River suffers from stresses applied to the aquifer. Ultimately, this study shows a crucial need to represent the interface soil layer in model conceptualization to be the intended and future predicted behaviours more reliable for consideration purposes.

Keywords: Al-Najaf City, groundwater aquifer behaviour, groundwater modelling, interface soil layer, Visual MODFLOW

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
131 Application of Distributed Value Property Zones Approach on the Hydraulic Conductivity for Real Site Located in Al-Najaf Region, Iraq to Investigate the Groundwater Resources

Authors: Hayder H. Kareem, Ayad K. Hussein, Aseel A. Alkatib

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Groundwater accumulated at geological formations constitutes a worldwide vital water resource component which can be used to supply agriculture, industry, and domestic uses. The subsurface environment is affected by human activities; consequently, planning and sustainable management of aquifers require serious attention, especially as the world is exposed to the problem of global warming. Establishing accurate and efficient groundwater models will provide confident results for the behavior of the aquifer's system. The new approach, 'Distributed Value Property Zones,' available in Visual MODFLOW, is used to reconstruct the subsurface zones of the Al-Najaf region aquifer, and then its effect is compared with those manual and automated (PEST) approaches. Results show that the model has become more accurate with the use of the new approach, as the calibration and results analyses revealed. The assessment of the Al-Najaf region groundwater aquifer has revealed a degree of insufficiency of the required pumping demand, which reflects dry areas in both of the aquifer's layers. In addition, with pumping, the Euphrates River loses water of 7458 m³/day to the aquifer, while without pumping, it gains 28837 m³/day from the rainfall's recharge. The distributed value property zones approach achieves a precise groundwater model to assess the state of the Al-Najaf region aquifer.

Keywords: Al-Najaf region, distributed value property zones approach, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater modelling using visual MODFLOW

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
130 Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Muzyan Shahzad, Liu Jianxin, Asim Shahzad, Muhammad Sharjeel Raza, Sun Ya, Fanidi Meryem

Abstract:

Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).

Keywords: aquifer, Dar Zarrouk parameters, geoelectric layers, Tarbela Ghazi

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
129 Saline Water Transgression into Fresh Coastal Groundwater in the Confined Aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Adebo, Adedeji Adetoyinbo

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Groundwater is an important constituent of the hydrological cycle and plays a vital role in augmenting water supply to meet the ever-increasing needs of people for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Unfortunately, this important resource has in most cases been contaminated due to the advancement of seawater into the fresh groundwater. This is due to the high volume of water being abstracted in these areas as a result of a high population of coastal dwellers. The knowledge of salinity level and intrusion of saltwater into the freshwater aquifer is, therefore, necessary for groundwater monitoring and prediction in the coastal areas. In this work, an advection-dispersion saltwater intrusion model is used to study and simulate saltwater intrusion in a typical coastal aquifer. The aquifer portion was divided into a grid with elements and nodes. Map of the study area indicating well locations were overlain on the grid system such that these locations coincide with the nodes. Chlorides at these well were considered as initial nodal salinities. Results showed a highest and lowest increase in simulated chloride of 37.89 mg/L and 0.8 mg/L respectively. It also revealed that the chloride concentration of most of the considered well might climb unacceptable level in the next few years, if the current abstraction rate continues unabated.

Keywords: saltwater intrusion, coastal aquifer, nodal salinity, chloride concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
128 Groundwater Level Modelling by ARMA and PARMA Models (Case Study: Qorveh Aquifer)

Authors: Motalleb Byzedi, Seyedeh Chaman Naderi Korvandan

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Regarding annual statistics of groundwater level resources about current piezometers at Qorveh plains, both ARMA & PARMA modeling methods were applied in this study by the using of SAMS software. Upon performing required tests, a model was used with minimum amount of Akaike information criteria and suitable model was selected for piezometers. Then it was possible to make necessary estimations by using these models for future fluctuations in each piezometer. According to the results, ARMA model had more facilities for modeling of aquifer. Also it was cleared that eastern parts of aquifer had more failures than other parts. Therefore it is necessary to prohibit critical parts along with more supervision on taking rates of wells.

Keywords: qorveh plain, groundwater level, ARMA, PARMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
127 Spatial Analysis in the Impact of Aquifer Capacity Reduction on Land Subsidence Rate in Semarang City between 2014-2017

Authors: Yudo Prasetyo, Hana Sugiastu Firdaus, Diyanah Diyanah

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The phenomenon of the lack of clean water supply in several big cities in Indonesia is a major problem in the development of urban areas. Moreover, in the city of Semarang, the population density and growth of physical development is very high. Continuous and large amounts of underground water (aquifer) exposure can result in a drastically aquifer supply declining in year by year. Especially, the intensity of aquifer use in the fulfilment of household needs and industrial activities. This is worsening by the land subsidence phenomenon in some areas in the Semarang city. Therefore, special research is needed to know the spatial correlation of the impact of decreasing aquifer capacity on the land subsidence phenomenon. This is necessary to give approve that the occurrence of land subsidence can be caused by loss of balance of pressure on below the land surface. One method to observe the correlation pattern between the two phenomena is the application of remote sensing technology based on radar and optical satellites. Implementation of Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DINSAR) or Small Baseline Area Subset (SBAS) method in SENTINEL-1A satellite image acquisition in 2014-2017 period will give a proper pattern of land subsidence. These results will be spatially correlated with the aquifer-declining pattern in the same time period. Utilization of survey results to 8 monitoring wells with depth in above 100 m to observe the multi-temporal pattern of aquifer change capacity. In addition, the pattern of aquifer capacity will be validated with 2 underground water cavity maps from observation of ministries of energy and natural resources (ESDM) in Semarang city. Spatial correlation studies will be conducted on the pattern of land subsidence and aquifer capacity using overlapping and statistical methods. The results of this correlation will show how big the correlation of decrease in underground water capacity in influencing the distribution and intensity of land subsidence in Semarang city. In addition, the results of this study will also be analyzed based on geological aspects related to hydrogeological parameters, soil types, aquifer species and geological structures. The results of this study will be a correlation map of the aquifer capacity on the decrease in the face of the land in the city of Semarang within the period 2014-2017. So hopefully the results can help the authorities in spatial planning and the city of Semarang in the future.

Keywords: aquifer, differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DINSAR), land subsidence, small baseline area subset (SBAS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
126 Thermal and Radon-222 Appraisal in Geothermal Aquifer System, Southeastern Tunisia

Authors: Agoubi Belgacem, Adel Kharroubi

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Geothermal groundwater is the main water source to supply various sectors in El Hamma city, southeastern Tunisia. This region was long the destination of thousands of people from Tunisia and neighboring countries for care and bathing. The main objective of this study is to understand the groundwater mineralization origins and factors that control. The second goal is the appraisal of radon in geothermal groundwater in the study area. For this aim, geothermal groundwater was sampled and collected from different locations (thermal baths and deep wells). Physical parameters were measured and major ions were analyzed. Results reveal three water types. The water first type has Na-Mg-Ca-SO4-Cl facies and T>55°C. The second water type dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 facies with a temperature < 45 °C. However the third water type is dominated by Ca-SO4-Na-Cl-Mg. The three water types may be controlled by depth and geology. The first represent groundwater from deep aquifer (lower cretaceous), the second type was the shallow aquifer and the first is mixed water from deep and shallow water with a temperature ranging from 45 to 55°C. Measured Radon shows that shallow aquifer has a higher 222Rn concentration (677 to 2903 Bq.m-3) than deep water (203 to 1100 Bq.m-3). R-222 in El Hamma thermal aquifer was controlled by structures, porosity and permeability of aquifers. Geostatistical analyses of hydrogeological data and radon activities confirm the vertical flow and communication between deep and shallow aquifers through vertical faults system.

Keywords: Radon-222, geothermal, water, environment, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
125 Geoelectical Resistivity Method in Aquifer Characterization at Opic Estate, Isheri-Osun River Basin, South Western Nigeria

Authors: B. R. Faleye, M. I. Titocan, M. P. Ibitola

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Investigation was carried out at Opic Estate in Isheri-Osun River Basin environment using Electrical Resistivity method to study saltwater intrusion into a fresh water aquifer system from the proximal estuarine water body. The investigation is aimed at aquifer characterisation using electrical resistivity method in order to provide the depth to which fresh water fit for both domestic and industrial consumption. The 2D Electrical Resistivity and Vertical Electrical Resistivity techniques alongside Laboratory analysis of water samples obtained from the boreholes were adopted. Three traverses were investigated using Wenner and Pole-Dipole array with multi-electrode system consisting of 84 electrodes and a spread of 581 m, 664 m and 830 m were attained on the traverses. The main lithologies represented in the study area are Sand, Clay and Clayey Sand of which Sand constitutes the aquifer in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding data obtained at different lateral distance on the traverses have indicated that the water in the aquifer in the subsurface is brackish. Brackish water is represented by lowelectrical resistivity value signature while fresh water is characterized by relatively high electrical resistivity and in some regionfresh water is existent at depth greater than 200 m. Results of laboratory analysis of samples showed that the pH, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solid and Conductivity indicated existence of water with poor quality, indicating that salinity, TDS and Conductivity is higher in the Northern part of the study area. The 2D electrical resistivity and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods indicate that fresh water region is at ≥200m depth. Aquifers not fit for domestic use in the study area occur downwards to about 200 m in depth. In conclusion, it is recommended that wells should be sunkbeyond 220 m for the possible procurement of portable fresh water.

Keywords: 2D electrical resistivity, aquifer, brackish water, lithologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
124 Analysis of the Aquifer Vulnerability of a Miopliocene Arid Area Using Drastic and SI Models

Authors: H. Majour, L. Djabri

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Many methods in the groundwater vulnerability have been developed in the world (methods like PRAST, DRIST, APRON/ARAA, PRASTCHIM, GOD). In this study, our choice dealt with two recent complementary methods using category mapping of index with weighting criteria (Point County Systems Model MSCP) namely the standard DRASTIC method and SI (Susceptibility Index). At present, these two methods are the most used for the mapping of the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater. Two classes of groundwater vulnerability in the Biskra sandy aquifer were identified by the DRASTIC method (average and high) and the SI method (very high and high). Integrated analysis has revealed that the high class is predominant for the DRASTIC method whereas for that of SI the preponderance is for the very high class. Furthermore, we notice that the method SI estimates better the vulnerability for the pollution in nitrates, with a rate of 85 % between the concentrations in nitrates of groundwater and the various established classes of vulnerability, against 75 % for the DRASTIC method. By including the land use parameter, the SI method produced more realistic results.

Keywords: DRASTIC, SI, GIS, Biskra sandy aquifer, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
123 Development of Three-Dimensional Groundwater Model for Al-Corridor Well Field, Amman–Zarqa Basin

Authors: Moayyad Shawaqfah, Ibtehal Alqdah, Amjad Adaileh

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Coridoor area (400 km2) lies to the north – east of Amman (60 km). It lies between 285-305 E longitude and 165-185 N latitude (according to Palestine Grid). It been subjected to exploitation of groundwater from new eleven wells since the 1999 with a total discharge of 11 MCM in addition to the previous discharge rate from the well field 14.7 MCM. Consequently, the aquifer balance is disturbed and a major decline in water level. Therefore, suitable groundwater resources management is required to overcome the problems of over pumping and its effect on groundwater quality. Three–dimensional groundwater flow model Processing Modeflow for Windows Pro (PMWIN PRO, 2003) has been used in order to calculate the groundwater budget, aquifer characteristics, and to predict the aquifer response under different stresses for the next 20 years (2035). The model was calibrated for steady state conditions by trial and error calibration. The calibration was performed by matching observed and calculated initial heads for year 2001. Drawdown data for period 2001-2010 were used to calibrate transient model by matching calculated with observed one, after that, the transient model was validated by using the drawdown data for the period 2011-2014. The hydraulic conductivities of the Basalt- A7/B2 aquifer System are ranging between 1.0 and 8.0 m/day. The low conductivity value was found at the north-west and south-western parts of the study area, the high conductivity value was found at north-western corner of the study area and the average storage coefficient is about 0.025. The water balance for the Basalt and B2/A7 formation at steady state condition with a discrepancy of 0.003%. The major inflows come from Jebal Al Arab through the basalt and through the limestone aquifer (B2/A7 12.28 MCMY aquifer and from excess rainfall is about 0.68 MCM/a. While the major outflows from the Basalt-B2/A7 aquifer system are toward Azraq basin with about 5.03 MCMY and leakage to A1/6 aquitard with 7.89 MCMY. Four scenarios have been performed to predict aquifer system responses under different conditions. Scenario no.2 was found to be the best one which indicates that the reduction the abstraction rates by 50% of current withdrawal rate (25.08 MCMY) to 12.54 MCMY. The maximum drawdowns were decreased to reach about, 7.67 and 8.38m in the years 2025 and 2035 respectively.

Keywords: Amman/Zarqa Basin, Jordan, groundwater management, groundwater modeling, modflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
122 Hydrogeological Study of Shallow and Deep Aquifers in Balaju-Boratar Area, Kathmandu, Central Nepal

Authors: Hitendra Raj Joshi, Bipin Lamichhane

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Groundwater is the main source of water for the industries of Balaju Industrial District (BID) and the denizens of Balaju-Boratar area. The quantity of groundwater is in a fatal condition in the area than earlier days. Water levels in shallow wells have highly lowered and deep wells are not providing an adequate amount of water as before because of higher extraction rate than the recharge rate. The main recharge zone of the shallow aquifer lies at the foot of Nagarjuna mountain, where recent colluvial debris are accumulated. Urbanization in the area is the main reason for decreasing water table. Recharge source for the deep aquifer in the region is aquiclude leakage. Sand layer above the Kalimati clay is the shallow aquifer zone, which is limited only in Balaju and eastern part of the Boratar, while the layer below the Kalimati clay spreading around Gongabu, Machhapohari, and Balaju area is considered as a potential area of deep aquifer. Over extraction of groundwater without considering water balance in the aquifers may dry out the source and can initiate the land subsidence problem. Hence, all the responsible of the industries in BID area and the denizens of Balaju-Boratar area should be encouraged to practice artificial groundwater recharge.

Keywords: aquiclude leakage, Kalimati clay, groundwater recharge

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
121 Geostatistical and Geochemical Study of the Aquifer System Waters Complex Terminal in the Valley of Oued Righ-Arid Area Algeria

Authors: Asma Bettahar, Imed Eddine Nezli, Sameh Habes

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Groundwater resources in the Oued Righ valley are represented like the parts of the eastern basin of the Algerian Sahara, superposed by two major aquifers: the Intercalary Continental (IC) and the Terminal Complex (TC). From a qualitative point of view, various studies have highlighted that the waters of this region showed excessive mineralization, including the waters of the terminal complex (EC Avg equal 5854.61 S/cm) .The present article is a statistical approach by two multi methods various complementary (ACP, CAH), applied to the analytical data of multilayered aquifer waters Terminal Complex of the Oued Righ valley. The approach is to establish a correlation between the chemical composition of water and the lithological nature of different aquifer levels formations, and predict possible connection between groundwater’s layers. The results show that the mineralization of water is from geological origin. They concern the composition of the layers that make up the complex terminal.

Keywords: complex terminal, mineralization, oued righ, statistical approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
120 Groundwater Quality in the Rhiss-Nekor Plain, Morocco: Impacts of Human Activities

Authors: Ali Ait Boughrous, Said Benyoussef, Hossain El Ouarghi, Moulay Abdelazize Aboulhassan, Samah Aitbnichou, Said Benguamra

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The Rhiss-Nekor aquifer represents a primary water source for the central Rif region. Many operating structures were built for irrigation and drinking water supply. Because of the vulnerability of this aquifer, a thorough knowledge of the environment is needed to evaluate and protect resources. This work aims at the quality assessment of the water table of the plain Ghiss-Nekor and determination of pollution sources in order to establish a map of the web. The plain-Rhiss Nekor, with an area of 100 km2, is located on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. It has a particular geological structure resulting from the opening of a graben at the end of the Tertiary, which is filled by the accumulation of hundreds of meters of sediment, generating considerable heterogeneity in deposits. This heterogeneity gives various hydrodynamic properties within the aquifer of the plain. The analysis of the water quality of twenty water points, well distributed over the plain, showed high natural salinity linked to the geological nature of the area. This salinity increases in the littoral area by the seawater intrusion phenomenon. This is accentuated by overexploitation of the ground water due to the growing demand. Some wells, located inland, are characterized by organic pollution caused by wastewater seepage from septic tanks and lost wells widespread in the region.

Keywords: anthropogenic factors, groundwater quality, marine intrusion, Rhiss-Nekor aquifer

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
119 Evolution of Chemistry in the Waters of Superposed Aquifer System Terminal Complex in the Valley of the Oued Righ - Arid Area Algeria

Authors: Asma Bettahar, Imed Eldine Nezli, Sameh Habes

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Groundwater resources in the Oued Righ valley are represented like the parts of the eastern basin of the Algerian Sahara, superposed by two major aquifers: the Intercalary Continental (IC) and the Terminal Complex (TC). From a qualitative point of view, various studies have highlighted that the waters of this region showed excessive mineralization, including the waters of the terminal complex (EC Avg equal 5854.61 S/cm). The present article is a statistical approach by two multi methods various complementary (ACP CAH), applied to the analytical data of multilayered aquifer waters Terminal Complex of the Oued Righ valley. The approach is to establish a correlation between the chemical composition of water and the lithological nature of different aquifer levels formations, and predict possible connection between groundwater’s layers. The results show that the mineralization of water is from geological origin. They concern the composition of the layers that make up the complex terminal.

Keywords: oued righ, complex terminal, infill continental, mineralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
118 The Sustainable Governance of Aquifer Injection Using Treated Coal Seam Gas Water in Queensland, Australia: Lessons for Integrated Water Resource Management

Authors: Jacqui Robertson

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The sustainable governance of groundwater is of the utmost importance in an arid country like Australia. Groundwater has been relied on by our agricultural and pastoral communities since the State was settled by European colonialists. Nevertheless, the rapid establishment of a coal seam gas (CSG) industry in Queensland, Australia, has had extensive impacts on the pre-existing groundwater users. Managed aquifer recharge of important aquifers in Queensland, Australia, using treated coal seam gas produced water has been used to reduce the impacts of CSG development in Queensland Australia. However, the process has not been widely adopted. Negative environmental outcomes are now acknowledged as not only engineering, scientific or technical problems to be solved but also the result of governance failures. An analysis of the regulatory context for aquifer injection using treated CSG water in Queensland, Australia, using Ostrom’s Common Pool Resource (CPR) theory and a ‘heat map’ designed by the author, highlights the importance of governance arrangements. The analysis reveals the costs and benefits for relevant stakeholders of artificial recharge of groundwater resources in this context. The research also reveals missed opportunities to further active management of the aquifer and resolve existing conflicts between users. The research illustrates the importance of strategically and holistically evaluating innovations in technology that impact water resources to reveal incentives that impact resource user behaviors. The paper presents a proactive step that can be adapted to support integrated water resource management and sustainable groundwater development.

Keywords: managed aquifer recharge, groundwater regulation, common-pool resources, integrated water resource management, Australia

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
117 Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of the Different Aquiferous Layers in Oban Basement Complex Area (SE Nigeria)

Authors: Azubuike Ekwere

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The shallow and deep aquiferous horizons of the fractured and weathered crystalline basement Oban Massif of south-eastern Nigeria were studied during the dry and wet seasons. The criteria were ascertaining hydrochemistry relative to seasonal and spatial variations across the study area. Results indicate that concentrations of major cations and anions exhibit the order of abundance; Ca>Na>Mg>K and HCO3>SO4>Cl respectively, with minor variations across sampling seasons. Major elements Ca, Mg, Na and K were higher for the shallow aquifers than the deep aquifers across seasons. The major anions Cl, SO4, HCO3, and NO3 were higher for the deep aquifers compared to the shallow ones. Two water types were identified for both aquifer types: Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Na-Cl-SO4. Most of the parameters considered were within the international limits for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes. Assessment by use of sodium absorption ratio (SAR), percent sodium (%Na) and the wilcox diagram reveals that the waters are suitable for irrigation purposes.

Keywords: shallow aquifer, deep aquifer, seasonal variation, hydrochemistry, Oban massif, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
116 Groundwater Potential in the Central Part of Al Jabal Al Akhdar Area, Ne Libya

Authors: Maged El Osta, Milad Masoud

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Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the north-eastern part of Libya represents a region with promising ecological underpinning for grazing and other agricultural developments. The groundwater potential of both Upper Cretaceous and Eocene aquifers was studied based the available literature and a complete database for about 112 water wells drilled in the period 2003-2009. In this research, the hydrogeological methods will be integrated with the Geographic Information System (GIS) that played a main role in highlighting the spatial characteristics of the groundwater system. The results indicate that the depth to water for the Upper Cretaceous aquifer ranges from 150 to 458 m, and the piezometric surface decreases from over 500 m (m.s.l) in the northern parts to -20 m (m.s.l) in southeastern part. Salinity ranges between 303 and 1329 mg/l indicating that groundwater belongs to the slightly fresh water class. In the Eocene aquifer, the depth to groundwater ranges from 120 to 290.5 m and the potentiometric level decreases gradually southwards from 220 to -51 m (m.s.l) and characterized by steep slope in the southeastern part of the study area, where the aquifer characterized by relatively high productivity (specific capacity ranges between 10.08 and 332.3 m2/day). The groundwater salinity within this aquifer ranges between 198 and 2800 mg/l (fresh to brackish water class). The annual average rainfall (from 280 to 500 mm) plays a significant role in the recharge of the two aquifers. The priority of groundwater quality and potentiality increases towards the central and northern portions of the concerned area.

Keywords: Eocene and Upper Cretaceous aquifers, rainfall, potentiality, Geographic Information System (GIS)

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115 Assessment the Infiltration of the Wastewater Ponds and Its Impact on the Water Quality of Pleistocene Aquifer at El Sadat City Using 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Water Chemistry

Authors: Abeer A. Kenawy, Usama Massoud, El-Said A. Ragab, Heba M. El-Kosery

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2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and hydrochemical study have been conducted at El Sadat industrial city. The study aims to investigate the area around the wastewater ponds to determine the possibility of water percolation from the wastewater ponds to the Pleistocene aquifer and to inspect the effect of this seepage on the groundwater chemistry. Pleistocene aquifer is the main groundwater reservoir in this area, where El Sadat city and its vicinities depend totally on this aquifer for water supplies needed for drinking, agricultural, and industrial activities. In this concern, seven ERT profiles were measured around the wastewater ponds. Besides, 10 water samples were collected from the ponds and the nearby groundwater wells. The water samples have been chemically analyzed for major cations, anions, nutrients, and heavy elements. Also, the physical parameters (pH, Alkalinity, EC, TDS) of the water samples were measured. Inspection of the ERT sections shows that they exhibit lower resistivity values towards the water ponds and higher values in opposite sides. In addition, the water table was detected at shallower depths at the same sides of lower resistivity. This could indicate a wastewater infiltration to the groundwater aquifer near the oxidation ponds. Correlation of the physical parameters and ionic concentrations of the wastewater samples with those of the groundwater samples indicates that; the ionic levels are randomly varying and no specific trend could be obtained. In addition, the wastewater samples shows some ionic levels lower than those detected in other groundwater samples. Besides, the nitrate level is higher in samples taken from the cultivated land than the wastewater samples due to the over using of nitrogen fertilizers. Then, we can say that the infiltrated water from wastewater ponds are not the main controller of the groundwater chemistry in this area, but rather the variable ionic concentrations could be attributed to local, natural, and anthropogenic processes.

Keywords: El Sadat city, ERT, hydrochemistry, percolation, wastewater ponds

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114 Contribution to the Hydrogeochemical Investigations on the Wajid Aquifer System, Southwestern Part of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed, Ezat Korany, Abdelaziz Al Basam, Osama Kasem

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The arid climate, low rate of precipitations and population reflect the increasing of groundwater uses as the main source of water in Saudi Arabia. The Wajid Aquifer System represents a regional groundwater aquifer system along the edge of the crystalline Arabian Shield near the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The aquifer extends across the border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen from the Asir –Yemen Highlands to the Rub al Khali Depression and possibly to the Gulf coast (at the southwestern tip). The present work is representing a hydrogeochemical investigation on the Wajid Aquifer System. The studied area is being classified into three zones. The 1st zone is West of Wadi Ad Dawasir (Northern part of the studied area), the 2nd is Najran-Asir Zone (southern part of the studied area), and the 3rd zone is the intermediate -central zone (occupying the central area between the last two zones). The groundwater samples were collected and chemically analyzed for physicochemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH), alkalinity (pH), total dissolved solids (TDS), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42- and Cl-), and trace elements. Some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (Na%), potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio, hydrochemical coefficients, hydrochemical formula, ion dominance, salt combinations and water types were also calculated in order to evaluate the quality of the groundwater resources in the selected areas for different purposes. The distribution of the chemical constituents and their interrelationships are illustrated by different hydrochemical graphs. Groundwater depths and the depth to water were measured to study the effect of discharge on both the water level and the salinity of the studied groundwater wells. A detailed comparison between the three studied zones according to the variations shown by the chemical and field investigations are discussed in detailed within the work.

Keywords: Najran-Asir, Wadi Ad Dawasir, Wajid Aquifer System, effect of discharge

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113 Groundwater Utilization and Sustainability: A Case Study of Pydibheemavaram Industrial Area, India

Authors: G. Venkata Rao, R. Srinivasa Rao, B. Neelima Sri Priya

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The over extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifers, result in reduction of groundwater resource and lowering of water level. In general, the depletion of groundwater level enhances the landward migration of saltwater wedge. Now a days the ground water extraction increases by year to year because increased population and industrialization. The ground water is the only source of irrigation, domestic and Industrial purposes at Pydibhimavaram industrial area, which is located in the coastal belt of Srikakulam district, India of Latitudes 18.145N 83.627E and Longitudes 18.099N 83.674E. The present study has been attempted to calculate amount of water getting recharged into this aquifer, status of rainfall pattern for the past two decades and the runoff is calculated by using Khosla’s formula with available rainfall and temperature in the study area. A decision support model has been developed on the basis of Monthly Extractions of the water from the ground through bore wells and the Net Recharge of the aquifer. It is concluded that the amount of extractions is exceeding the amount of recharge from May to October in a given year which will in turn damage the water balance in the subsurface layers.

Keywords: aquifer, decision support model, groundwater extraction, run off estimation and rainfall

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112 Characterization of the Groundwater Aquifers at El Sadat City by Joint Inversion of VES and TEM Data

Authors: Usama Massoud, Abeer A. Kenawy, El-Said A. Ragab, Abbas M. Abbas, Heba M. El-Kosery

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Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Transient Electro Magnetic (TEM) survey have been applied for characterizing the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat industrial area. El-Sadat city is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. It has been constructed more than three decades ago at about 80 km northwest of Cairo along the Cairo–Alexandria desert road. Groundwater is the main source of water supplies required for domestic, municipal, and industrial activities in this area due to the lack of surface water sources. So, it is important to maintain this vital resource in order to sustain the development plans of this city. In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along three profiles trending NE–SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line–line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geo-electrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

Keywords: El Sadat city, joint inversion, VES, TEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
111 Water Dumpflood into Multiple Low-Pressure Gas Reservoirs

Authors: S. Lertsakulpasuk, S. Athichanagorn

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As depletion-drive gas reservoirs are abandoned when there is insufficient production rate due to pressure depletion, waterflooding has been proposed to increase the reservoir pressure in order to prolong gas production. Due to high cost, water injection may not be economically feasible. Water dumpflood into gas reservoirs is a new promising approach to increase gas recovery by maintaining reservoir pressure with much cheaper costs than conventional waterflooding. Thus, a simulation study of water dumpflood into multiple nearly abandoned or already abandoned thin-bedded gas reservoirs commonly found in the Gulf of Thailand was conducted to demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method and to determine the most suitable operational parameters for reservoirs having different system parameters. A reservoir simulation model consisting of several thin-layered depletion-drive gas reservoirs and an overlying aquifer was constructed in order to investigate the performance of the proposed method. Two producers were initially used to produce gas from the reservoirs. One of them was later converted to a dumpflood well after gas production rate started to decline due to continuous reduction in reservoir pressure. The dumpflood well was used to flow water from the aquifer to increase pressure of the gas reservoir in order to drive gas towards producer. Two main operational parameters which are wellhead pressure of producer and the time to start water dumpflood were investigated to optimize gas recovery for various systems having different gas reservoir dip angles, well spacings, aquifer sizes, and aquifer depths. This simulation study found that water dumpflood can increase gas recovery up to 12% of OGIP depending on operational conditions and system parameters. For the systems having a large aquifer and large distance between wells, it is best to start water dumpflood when the gas rate is still high since the long distance between the gas producer and dumpflood well helps delay water breakthrough at producer. As long as there is no early water breakthrough, the earlier the energy is supplied to the gas reservoirs, the better the gas recovery. On the other hand, for the systems having a small or moderate aquifer size and short distance between the two wells, performing water dumpflood when the rate is close to the economic rate is better because water is more likely to cause an early breakthrough when the distance is short. Water dumpflood into multiple nearly-depleted or depleted gas reservoirs is a novel study. The idea of using water dumpflood to increase gas recovery has been mentioned in the literature but has never been investigated. This detailed study will help a practicing engineer to understand the benefits of such method and can implement it with minimum cost and risk.

Keywords: dumpflood, increase gas recovery, low-pressure gas reservoir, multiple gas reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
110 Study of Sub-Surface Flow in an Unconfined Carbonate Aquifer in a Tropical Karst Area in Indonesia: A Modeling Approach Using Finite Difference Groundwater Model

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas

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Due to its porous nature, karst terrains – geomorphologically developed from dissolved formations, is vulnerable to water shortage and deteriorated water quality. Therefore, a solid comprehension on sub-surface flow of karst landscape is essential to assess the long-term availability of groundwater resources. In this paper, a single-continuum model using a finite difference model, MODLFOW, was constructed to represent an unconfined carbonate aquifer in a tropical karst island of Rote in Indonesia. The model, spatially discretized in 20 x 20 m grid cells, was calibrated and validated using available groundwater level and atmospheric variables. In the calibration and validation steps, Parameter Estimation (PEST) and geostatistical pilot point methods were employed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific yield values. The results show that the model is able to represent the sub-surface flow indicated by good model performances both in calibration and validation steps. The final model can be used as a robust representation of the system for future study on climate and land use scenarios.

Keywords: carbonate aquifer, karst, sub-surface flow, groundwater model

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109 Sustainable Use of Fresh Groundwater Lens of Pleistocene Aquifer in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

Authors: Tran Thanh Le, Pham Trong Duc

Abstract:

The fresh groundwater lens of the Pleistocene aquifer in Nam Dinh was formed since 12,900 years ago. Currently, the Pleistocene aquifer has been continuously exploited on average of 154,163m3/day, distributed mainly in the districts of Nghia Hung, Hai Hau, a part of Truc Ninh, Y Yen, Nam Truc and Giao Thuy. The groundwater level is still on a declining trend, saltwater intrusion in this freshwater lens can occur if the growth rate in exploitation is maintained. This study focused on groundwater sustainable use by means of 4 groups of criteria including: Groundwater quality and pollution; Aquifers’ productivity and capacity; Environment impacts due to exploitation (groundwater level decline, land subsidence due to water exploitation); Social and economic impacts. Using a combination of methods including field surveys, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, isotope and numerical models to determine safe groundwater exploitation thresholds for the whole study area has been determined to be 544,314m3/day and the actual exploitation amount is currently about 30% compared to the safe exploitation threshold. However, it should also be noted that the current groundwater exploitation threshold and level of its exploitation compared to the safe exploitation threshold of each locality are not the same. From this result, the groundwater exploitation threshold map of the study area was established to serve the management, licensing and orientation of groundwater exploitation.

Keywords: criteria, groundwater, fresh groundwater lens, pleistocene, Nam Dinh

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108 Capture Zone of a Well Field in an Aquifer Bounded by Two Parallel Streams

Authors: S. Nagheli, N. Samani, D. A. Barry

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In this paper, the velocity potential and stream function of capture zone for a well field in an aquifer bounded by two parallel streams with or without a uniform regional flow of any directions are presented. The well field includes any number of extraction or injection wells or a combination of both types with any pumping rates. To delineate the capture envelope, the potential and streamlines equations are derived by conformal mapping method. This method can help us to release constrains of other methods. The equations can be applied as useful tools to design in-situ groundwater remediation systems, to evaluate the surface–subsurface water interaction and to manage the water resources.

Keywords: complex potential, conformal mapping, image well theory, Laplace’s equation, superposition principle

Procedia PDF Downloads 344