Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Tadesse Lejisa

24 Establishment of Reference Interval for Serum Protein Electrophoresis of Apparently Healthy Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Demiraw Bikila, Tadesse Lejisa, Yosef Tolcha, Chala Bashea, Mehari Meles Tigist Getahun Genet Ashebir, Wossene Habtu, Feyissa Challa, Ousman Mohammed, Melkitu Kassaw, Adisu Kebede, Letebrhan G. Egzeabher, Endalkachew Befekadu, Mistire Wolde, Aster Tsegaye


Background: Even though several factors affect reference intervals (RIs), the company-derived values are currently in use in many laboratories worldwide. However, little or no data is available regarding serum protein RIs, mainly in resource-limited setting countries like Ethiopia. Objective: To establish a reference interval for serum protein electrophoresis of apparently healthy adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 297 apparently healthy adults from April-October 2019 in four selected sub-cities (Akaki, Kirkos, Arada, Yeka) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Laboratory analysis of collected samples was performed using Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyzer, while statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and med-cal software. Mann-Whitney test was used to check Partitions. Non-parametric method of reference range establishment was performed as per CLSI guideline EP28A3C. Result: The established RIs were: Albumin 53.83-64.59%, 52.24-63.55%; Alpha-1 globulin 3.04-5.40%, 3.44-5.60%; Alpha-2 globulin 8.0-12.67%, 8.44-12.87%; and Beta-1 globulin 5.01-7.38%, 5.14-7.86%. Moreover, Albumin to globulin ratio was 1.16-1.8, 1.09-1.74 for males and females, respectively. The combined RIs for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin were 2.54-4.90% and 12.40-21.66%, respectively. Conclusion: The established reference interval for serum protein fractions revealed gender-specific differences except for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin.

Keywords: serum protein electrophoresis, reference interval, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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23 Climate Change and Variability-Induced Resource Based Conflicts: The Case of the Issa, Ittu and Afar (Agro) Pastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Bamlaku Tadesse Mengistu


This article explores the link between climate change/variability and its adaptation/coping strategies with resource-based ethnic conflicts among the Afar, Issa-Somali, and Ittu-Oromo ethnic groups. The qualitative data were collected from community leaders, ordinary members of the communities, and administrative and political bodies at various levels through one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. The quantitative data were also collected through a household survey from the randomly selected 128 households drawn from the three districts of Mieso-Mullu, Mieso, and Amibara districts. The study shows that there is a causal relationship between resource scarcity impacted by climate change/variability and ethnic conflicts. The study reveals that the increasing nature of resource scarcity and environmental problems, and also the changing nature of ethnic diversity will aggravate the resource-based inter-ethnic conflicts.

Keywords: Eastern Ethiopia, ethnic conflict, climate change, Afar, Issa, Ittu

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22 Coexistence of Superconductivity and Spin Density Wave in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂

Authors: Tadesse Desta Gidey, Gebregziabher Kahsay, Pooran Singh


This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and Spin Density Wave (SDW)in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and by using quantum field theory Green’s function formalism, we have obtained mathematical expressions for superconducting transition temperature TC), spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), superconductivity order parameter (Sc), and spin density wave order parameter (sdw). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature (TC) versus superconducting order parameter (Sc) and spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), versus spin density wave order parameter (sdw) have been plotted. By combining the two phase diagrams, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and spin density wave (SDW) in ferropnictide Ba1−xKxFe2As2.

Keywords: Superconductivity, Spin density wave, Coexistence, Green function, Pnictides, Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂

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21 Effect of Chemical Concentration on the Rheology of Inks for Inkjet Printing

Authors: M. G. Tadesse, J. Yu, Y. Chen, L. Wang, V. Nierstrasz, C. Loghin


Viscosity and surface tension are the fundamental rheological property of an ink for inkjet printing. In this work, we optimized the viscosity and surface tension of inkjet inks by varying the concentration of glycerol with water, PEDOT:PSS with glycerol and water, finally by adding the surfactant. The surface resistance of the sample was characterized by four-probe measurement principle. The change in volume of PEDOT:PSS in water, as well as the change in weight of glycerol in water has got a great influence on the viscosity on both temperature dependence and shear dependence behavior of the ink solution. The surface tension of the solution changed from 37 to 28 mN/m due to the addition of Triton. Varying the volume of PEDOT:PSS and the volume of glycerol in water has a great influence on the viscosity of the ink solution for inkjet printing. Viscosity drops from 12.5 to 9.5 mPa s with the addition of Triton at 25 oC. The PEDOT:PSS solution was found to be temperature dependence but not shear dependence as it is a Newtonian fluid. The sample was used to connect the light emitting diode (LED), and hence the electrical conductivity, with a surface resistance of 0.158 KΩ/square, was sufficient enough to give transfer current for LED lamp. The rheology of the inkjet ink is very critical for the successful droplet formation of the inkjet printing.

Keywords: shear rate, surface tension, surfactant, viscosity

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20 Synthesis and Evaluation of Some Novel 2-Aryl, 3-Substituted 4 (3H)-Quinazolinone Derivatives as Anti-Malarial and Anti-Leishmanial Agents

Authors: Alemu Tadesse Feroche


In this study, some novel 2, 3 distributed quinazoline -4 (3H) - one derivatives were synthesized using a three-step synthetic route. They were obtained in a good yield (59.5-85%) by applying different chemical reactions like cyclization and condensation reactions. The chemical structure of the final compounds was also verified by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1HNMR) and elemental microanalysis. The in vivo Antimalarial activity of these compounds on P. berghei infected mice was found to be moderate to high at an oral dose of 0.04846 mmol/kg /day. This dose is equal to 25 mg/kg of chloroquine phosphate, which causes 100% inhibition of the parasite. It is worth mentioning that most active compounds (E) -3 Phenyl -2- [2- (pyridine -4- yl) vinyl] -4 (3H) -quinazolinone IVa (64.02%, (E)-2-[2-(4 - Hydroxy-3 - methoxystyryl) - vinyl) -3 - phenyl-4 (3H) - quinazolinone IVc (77.25%) and (E)-2-[2-(Pyridin -4-yl)-vinyl]-3 phenenylamine-4(3H) quinazolinone IVe (73.54%) showed a dose dependent increase in present suppression in Antimalarial activities. Furthermore, the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. aethiopica isolate (CL/039/09). All tested compounds (IVa (0.03766 ug/ml), IVb (0.00538 ug/ml, IVc (0.00412 ug/ml, IVd (0.00110 ug/ml), IVe (0.03017 ug/ml) and IVf (0.03894 ug/ml)) showed excellent potency that is much better than amphotericin B (IC50 = 0,04359 ug/ml). The results of acute toxicity indicated that all test compounds (IVa – IVf) proved to be nontoxic and well tolerated by the experimental animals up to 300 mg/kg in oral and 140 mg/kg in parental studies.

Keywords: quinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative, in vivo, antimalarial activity, acute toxicity

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19 A Milky-White Stream Water Suitability for Drinking Purpose

Authors: Kassahun Tadesse, Megersa O. Dinka


Drinking water suitability study was conducted for a milky-white stream in remote areas of Ethiopia in order to understand its effect on human health. Water samples were taken from the water source and physicochemical properties were analyzed based on standard methods. The mean values of pH, total dissolved solids, sodium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, chloride, boron, and fluoride were within maximum permissible limits set for health. Whereas turbidity, calcium, irons, hardness, alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate contents were above the limits. The water is very hard water due to high calcium content. High sulfate content can cause noticeable taste and a laxative (gastrointestinal) effect. The nitrate content was very high and can cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) which is a temporary blood disorder in the bottle fed infants. Hence, parents should be advised not to give this water to infants. In conclusion, all physicochemical parameters except for nitrate are safe for health but may affect the appearance and taste, and wear water infrastructures. A high value of turbidity due to suspended minerals is the cause for milky-white colour. However, a mineralogical analysis of suspended sediments is required to identify the exact cause for white colour, and a study on sediment source was recommended.

Keywords: hard water, laxative effect, methemoglobinemia, nitrate, physicochemical, water quality

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18 Pathogen Identification of Fusarium spp. and Chemotypes Associated with Wheat Crown Rot in Hebei Province of China

Authors: Kahsay Tadesse Mawcha, Na Zhang, Xu Yiying, Chang Jiaying, Wenxiang Yang


Fusarium crown rot (FCR) diseased wheat seedlings were collected from different wheat-growing counties in seven different regions (Baoding, Cangzhou, Handan, Hengshui, Langfang, Shijiazhuang, and Xingtai) in Hebei province, China from 2019 to 2020. One-hundred twenty-two Fusarium isolates were isolated from crown rot diseased wheat seedlings and identified morphologically, confirmation was undertaken molecularly, and species-specific PCR was utilized to verify the morphological identification of F. psuedograminearum, F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. culmorum. The predominant Fusarium species associated with wheat crown rot in the Hebei province were F. psuedograminearum, F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. culmorum with isolation frequency of 85.25%, 12.30%, 1.64%, and 0.81%, respectively. All the Fusarium strains isolated from the different wheat-growing fields were qualitatively tested for toxigenic chemotypes using toxin-specific primers and chemotaxonomically classified into DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, and NIV. Among F. psuedograminearum identified, 84.62% were classified as DON chemotypes, 6.73% as 15-ADON chemotypes, 3.84% as 3-ADON chemotypes, and 4.81% of them had NIV as detected by the toxin-specific PCR results. Most of the F. graminearum isolates produced 15-ADON, and only two isolates had NIV chemotypes. F. asiaticum and F. culmorum produce chemotype of 15-ADON and 3-ADON, respectively. Pathogenicity test results showed that F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum had strong pathogenicity, and F. asiaticum and F. culmorum had moderate pathogenicity to wheat in Hebei province.

Keywords: crown rot, pathogen, wheat, Fusarium species, mycotoxin

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17 The Abundance and Distribution of Locally Important Species Along Different Altitude: The Case of Mountain Damota, Wolaita South Ethiopia

Authors: Tamirat Solomon, Tadesse Faltamo, Belete Limani


This study was conducted on the mountain Damota of Wolaita to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of two locally important indigenous medicinal plants on the mountain landscape. A total of 130 plots measuring 20x20m were established along eight systematically laid transect lines. In each plot, the abundance and distribution of Hagenia abyssinica (tree) and Pentas schiperiana Vatke (shrub) were evaluated. The abundance and distribution of H. abyssinica were evaluated by measuring height and DBH for mature trees and counting seedlings and saplings, whereas the P. schiperiana Vatke was assessed for its abundance and distribution by counting in each plot. In the entire study plots, a total of 485 H. abyssinica and 760 P. schiperiana vatake were recorded. It was observed that the distribution of the species increased while the altitude increased and the highest abundance of the species was recorded at an altitude range between 2332 and 2661m.a.s.l. However, at the altitudes below 2320 m.a.s.l., the species distributions and abundance was decreased, indicating either the ecological preference of the species or the extraction of the local community surrounding the mountain influenced the species. On average, only 28 seedlings/ha of H. abyssinica and 146/ha of P. schiperiana vatke were recorded in the study areas showing the tendency of decline in the abundance and distribution of both species. Finally, we recommend management intervention for the socially important species which are under threat on the mountain landscape.

Keywords: indigenous medicinal plants, H.abyssinic, P. schiperiana, distribution, abundance, socio-economic importance

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16 Innovative In-Service Training Approach to Strengthen Health Care Human Resources and Scale-Up Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Yewondwossen Tadesse, Susan Lehman, Zelalem Temesgen


In-service health trainings in Sub-Saharan Africa are mostly content-centered with higher disconnection with the real practice in the facility. This study intended to evaluate in-service training approach aimed to strengthen health care human resources. A combined web-based and face-to-face training was designed and piloted in Ethiopia with the diagnosis of tuberculosis. During the first part, which lasted 43 days, trainees accessed web-based material and read without leaving their work; while the second part comprised a one-day hands-on evaluation. Trainee’s competency was measured using multiple-choice questions, written-assignments, exercises and hands-on evaluation. Of 108 participants invited, 81 (75%) attended the course and 71 (88%) of them successfully completed. Of those completed, 73 (90%) scored a grade from A to C. The approach was effective to transfer knowledge and turn it into practical skills. In-service health training should transform from a passive one-time-event to a continuous behavioral change of participants and improvements on their actual work.

Keywords: Ethiopia, health care, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, training

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15 Conjunctive Use of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia

Authors: Megersa Olumana Dinka, Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse


Irrigation suitability of shallow groundwater (SGW) was investigated by taking thirty groundwater samples from piezometers and hand-dug wells in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE) (Ethiopia). Many physicochemical parameters (Mg²⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, CO₃-, SO4²⁻, HCO₃⁻, Cl⁻, TH, EC, TDS and pH) were analyzed following standard procedures. Different irrigation indices (MAR, SSP, SAR, RSC, KR, and PI) were also used for SGW suitability assessment. If all SGW are blended and used for irrigation, the salinity problem would be slight to moderate, and 100% of potential sugarcane yield could be obtained. The infiltration and sodium ion toxicity problems of the blended water would be none to moderate, and slight to moderate, respectively. As sugarcane is semi-tolerant to sodium toxicity, no significant sodium toxicity problem would be expected from the use of blended water. Blending SGW would also reduce each chloride and boron ion toxicity to none. In general, the rating of SGW was good to excellent for irrigation in terms of average EC (salinity), and excellent in terms of average SAR (infiltration). The SGW of the WSSE was categorized under C3S1 (high salinity and low sodium hazard). In conclusion, the conjunctive use of groundwater for irrigation would help to reduce the potential effect of waterlogging and salinization and their associated problems on soil and sugarcane production and productivity. However, a high value of SSP and RSC indicate a high possibility of infiltration problem. Hence, it is advisable to use the SGW for irrigation after blending with surface water. In this case, the optimum blending ratio of the surface to SGW sources has to be determined for sustainable sugarcane productivity.

Keywords: blending, infiltration, salinity, sodicity, sugarcane, toxicity

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14 Application of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model for Forecasting Monthly Flows in Waterval River, South Africa

Authors: Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse, Megersa Olumana Dinka


Reliable future river flow information is basic for planning and management of any river systems. For data scarce river system having only a river flow records like the Waterval River, a univariate time series models are appropriate for river flow forecasting. In this study, a univariate Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was applied for forecasting Waterval River flow using GRETL statistical software. Mean monthly river flows from 1960 to 2016 were used for modeling. Different unit root tests and Mann-Kendall trend analysis were performed to test the stationarity of the observed flow time series. The time series was differenced to remove the seasonality. Using the correlogram of seasonally differenced time series, different SARIMA models were identified, their parameters were estimated, and diagnostic check-up of model forecasts was performed using white noise and heteroscedasticity tests. Finally, based on minimum Akaike Information (AIc) and Hannan-Quinn (HQc) criteria, SARIMA (3, 0, 2) x (3, 1, 3)12 was selected as the best model for Waterval River flow forecasting. Therefore, this model can be used to generate future river information for water resources development and management in Waterval River system. SARIMA model can also be used for forecasting other similar univariate time series with seasonality characteristics.

Keywords: heteroscedasticity, stationarity test, trend analysis, validation, white noise

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13 Design and Development of Ssvep-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Limb Disabled Patients

Authors: Zerihun Ketema Tadesse, Dabbu Suman Reddy


Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) give the possibility for disabled people to communicate and control devices. This work aims at developing steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for patients with limb disabilities. In hospitals, devices like nurse emergency call devices, lights, and TV sets are what patients use most frequently, but these devices are operated manually or using the remote control. Thus, disabled patients are not able to operate these devices by themselves. Hence, SSVEP-based BCI system that can allow disabled patients to control nurse calling device and other devices is proposed in this work. Portable LED visual stimulator that flickers at specific frequencies of 7Hz, 8Hz, 9Hz and 10Hz were developed as part of this project. Disabled patients can stare at specific flickering LED of visual stimulator and Emotiv EPOC used to acquire EEG signal in a non-invasive way. The acquired EEG signal can be processed to generate various control signals depending upon the amplitude and duration of signal components. MATLAB software is used for signal processing and analysis and also for command generation. Arduino is used as a hardware interface device to receive and transmit command signals to the experimental setup. Therefore, this study is focused on the design and development of Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for limb disabled patients, which helps them to operate and control devices in the hospital room/wards.

Keywords: SSVEP-BCI, Limb Disabled Patients, LED Visual Stimulator, EEG signal, control devices, hospital room/wards

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12 Leadership, Resource Based Conflicts and Its Resolution Practices among the Pastoral Groups in Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Bamlaku Tadesse Mengistu


Resource-based inter-ethnic conflicts are common in eastern Ethiopia among the Afar, Ittu-Oromo, and Issa-Somali pastoral groups. The qualitative data required for the study were collected from community leaders, ordinary members of the communities, and administrative and political bodies at various levels through one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. The quantitative data were also collected through a household survey from the 128 households drawn from the three districts of Meiso-Mullu, Meiso, and Amibara. This research tried to assess the triggering factors of inter-ethnic violent conflicts and tensions observed and other motivating factors that encourage the rival groups to instigate the recent conflicts. The research revealed some of the triggering factors that instigate violent conflicts among the rival groups such as the bad actions of conflict entrepreneurs/rent seekers, the incidence of plunder (banditry), the encroachment of farmers’ to pastoral lands/vice versa, the destruction of farmers’ crops by pastoralists’ livestock, and among others. The roles of conflict entrepreneurs such as low and medium level administrators/leaders, illicit arms traffickers, local level elites, and among others are very much significant in fueling up inter-ethnic conflicts and tensions. Leaders of various levels wrongly agitate the politicization of ethnicity and ethnic identity as well as regional boundaries as they are political boundaries rather than administrative boundaries.

Keywords: eastern ethiopia, resource competition, ethnic conflict, AFAR, ISSA and ITTU.

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11 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontal Disease among Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2018

Authors: Addisu Tadesse Sahile, Tennyson Mgutshini


Background: Periodontal disease is a common, complex, inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting soft and hard tissues of the periodontium and a major public health problem across developed and developing countries. Objectives: The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of periodontal disease and associated factors among diabetes patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 388 diabetes patients selected by systematic random sampling method from March to May 2018. The study was conducted at two conveniently selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected with pre-tested, structured and translated questionnaire then entered to SPSS version 23 software for analysis. Descriptive statistics as a summary, in line with chi-square and binary logistics regression to identify factors associated with periodontal disease, were applied. A 95% CI with a p-value less than 5% was used as a level of significance. Results: Ninety-one percent (n=353) of participants had periodontal disease while oral examination was done in six regions. While only 9% (n=35) of participants were free of periodontal disease. The number of tooth brushings per day, correct techniques of brushing, malocclusion, and fillings that are defective were associated with periodontal disease at p < 0.05. Conclusion and recommendation: A higher prevalence of periodontal disease among diabetes patient was observed. The frequency of tooth brushing, correct techniques of brushing, malocclusion and defective fillings were associated with periodontal disease. Emphasis has to be given to oral health of diabetes patients by every concerned body so as to control the current higher burden of periodontal disease in diabetes.

Keywords: periodontal disease, risk factors, diabetes mellitus, Addis Ababa

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10 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Stunting among 6-59 Months Children in Pastoral Community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia 2016

Authors: Sisay Shine, Frew Tadesse, Zemenu Shiferaw, Lema Mideksa


Background: Stunting is one of the most important public health problems in Ethiopia with an estimated 44.4% of children less than five years of age are stunted. Thus, this study aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of stunting among 6-59 months children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. Objective of the study: To assess prevalence and associated factors of stunting among 6-59 months children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods: Community based cross sectional study design was done among 770 children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone. Systematic sampling techniques were used to select households and took child mother pair from each selected households. Data was collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level of significance. Result: Prevalence of stunting among 6-59 months age children was 31.9%. Sex (AOR: 1.47, 95%CI 1.02, 2.11), age (AOR: 2.10, 95%CI 1.16, 3.80), maternal education (AOR: 3.42, 95%CI 1.58, 7.41), maternal occupation (AOR: 3.10, 95%CI 1.85, 5.19), monthly income (AOR: 1.47, 95%CI 1.03, 2.09), PNC visits (AOR: 1.59, 95%CI 1.07, 2.37), source of water (AOR: 3.41, 95%CI 1.96, 5.93), toilet availability (AOR: 1.71, 95%CI 1.13, 2.58), first milk feeding (AOR: 3.37, 95%CI 2.27, 5.02) and bottle feeding (AOR: 2.07, 95%CI 1.34, 3.18) were significant predictors of stunting. Conclusion and recommendations: Prevalence of stunting among 6-59 months children was high 31.9%. Lack maternal education, not feeding first milk, unsafe water supply, absence toilet availability and bottle feeding can increase the risk of stunting. So, educating mothers on child feeding practice, sanitation and important of first milk can reduce stunting.

Keywords: dietary, environmental, healthcare, socio-demographic, stunting

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9 Assessing and Identifying Factors Affecting Customers Satisfaction of Commercial Bank of Ethiopia: The Case of West Shoa Zone (Bako, Gedo, Ambo, Ginchi and Holeta), Ethiopia

Authors: Habte Tadesse Likassa, Bacha Edosa


Customer’s satisfaction was very important thing that is required for the existence of banks to be more productive and success in any organization and business area. The main goal of the study is assessing and identifying factors that influence customer’s satisfaction in West Shoa Zone of Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (Holeta, Ginchi, Ambo, Gedo and Bako). Stratified random sampling procedure was used in the study and by using simple random sampling (lottery method) 520 customers were drawn from the target population. By using Probability Proportional Size Techniques sample size for each branch of banks were allocated. Both descriptive and inferential statistics methods were used in the study. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to see the significance of factors affecting customer’s satisfaction in this study. SPSS statistical package was used for data analysis. The result of the study reveals that the overall level of customer’s satisfaction in the study area is low (38.85%) as compared those who were not satisfied (61.15%). The result of study showed that all most all factors included in the study were significantly associated with customer’s satisfaction. Therefore, it can be concluded that based on the comparison of branches on their customers satisfaction by using odd ratio customers who were using Ambo and Bako are less satisfied as compared to customers who were in Holeta branch. Additionally, customers who were in Ginchi and Gedo were more satisfied than that of customers who were in Holeta. Since the level of customers satisfaction was low in the study area, it is more advisable and recommended for concerned body works cooperatively more in maximizing satisfaction of their customers.

Keywords: customers, satisfaction, binary logistic, complain handling process, waiting time

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8 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen


Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, bleeding events, meta-analysis, novel oral anticoagulants

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7 Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Eguale, Ephrem Engdawork, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Dainel Asrat, Hile Alemayehu, John Gunn


Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.

Keywords: salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, fecal prevalence

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6 Patient-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes among major depression disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study.

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz


Background: there was paucity of data on the self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs), level of adherence and clinical outcomes with antidepressants among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study sought to determine the level of adherence for and clinical outcome with antidepressants and the magnitude of ADRs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was employed on MDD patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar university hospital psychiatry clinic. All patients who were available during the study period were included under the study population. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale was employed to assess the adverse drug reaction. The rate of medication adherence was determined using morisky medication adherence measurement scale eight. Clinical Outcome of patients was measured by using patient health questionnaire. Multivariable logistic carried out to determine factors for adherence and patient outcome. Results: two hundred seventy patients were participated in the study. More than half of the respondents were males 122(56.2%). The mean age of the participants was 30.94 ± 8.853. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications 124(57.1%). About 186(85.7%) of patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain 29(13.2). Around 198(92.2%) ADRs were probable and 19(8.8%) were possible. Patients with long standing MDD had high risk of non-adherence COR: 2.458[4.413-4.227], AOR: 2.424[1.185-4.961]. More than one-half 125(57.6) of respondents showed improved outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence was found to be associated with reduced risk of progression of the diseases COR: 0.37[0.110-5.379] and AOR: 0.432[0.201-0.909]. Conclusion: Patient reported adverse drug reactions were more prevalent in major depressive disorder patients. Adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. However, the clinical outcome was relatively higher. Long standing depression was associated with non-adherence. In addition, clinical outcome of patients were affected by non-adherence. Therefore, adherence enhancing interventions should be provided to improve medication adherence and patient outcome.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, clinical outcomes, Ethiopia, prospective study, medication adherence

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5 Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Risk Factors among Fishermen at Lake Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Menjetta, Daniel Dana, Serkadis Debalke


Schistosomiasis/Bilharziasis is one of the neglected tropical parasitic diseases caused by different species of genus Schistosoma. Among the species, S. mansoni (causative agents of intestinal schistosomiasis) is one of the causes of severe intestinal parasitic infections with high public and medical importance in Ethiopia. There is a scarcity of information about the status of S. mansoni infection among the fisherman in our study area and in the country at large. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of S.mansoni infection among fishermen at Lake Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the fishermen from April to June 2013 in Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 243 fishermen were included by systematic sampling from the lists of the fishermen members in the registration book of fishermen associations in the Hawassa Town. Data on socio-demographic features and risk factors were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and processed using Kato-Katz thick smear techniques and examined between 30- 40 minute for hookworm and after 24 hours for S. mansoni and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The overall prevalence of S.mansoni among the fishermen was 29.21% (71/243), and the mean intensity of infection was 158.88 egg per gram (EPG). The prevalence of intestinal helminths including S. mansoni was 69.54% (169/243). Moreover, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was 40.74% (99/243), 35.80% (87/243) and 5.76% (14/243) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm species, respectively. Almost similar prevalence of S.mansoni, 31.82%, 31.75%, 31.94% were recorded in age groups of 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. Fishermen who are swimming always were 2.92 times [95% CI: 1.554, 5.502] more likely to acquire S. mansoni infection than other water contacting habit of the study participants. The results of the current investigation indicated the moderate endemicity of S. mansoni among the fishermen at Lake Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Fishermen could be the potential risk group for S. mansoni infection and might be responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni to other segments of the communities. Since the high prevalence of STH was recorded among the fishermen, integrated prevention and control strategies from different sectors might be important to tackle the problem.

Keywords: S. mansoni, soil transmitted helminths, fishermen, Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia

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4 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe


It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: electroflotation, fine bubbles, pyrite, ultrafine particles

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3 Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Risk Factors for Salmonella Species and Escherichia Coli from Raw Meat at Butchery Houses in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Dawit Gebreegziabiher Hagos, Atsebaha Gebrekidan Kahsay, Mahumd Abdulkader


Background: Salmonella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are important foodborne pathogens affecting humans and animals. They are among the most important causes of infection that are associated with the consumption of contaminated food. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors for Salmonella species and E. coli in raw meat from butchery houses of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019. Socio-demographic data and risk factors were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Meat samples were collected aseptically from the butchery houses and transported using icebox to Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Sciences for the isolation and identification of Salmonella species and E. coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data obtained were cleaned and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 and logistic regression models with odds ratio were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 153 out of 384 (39.8%) of the meat specimens were found to be contaminated. The contamination of Salmonella species and E. coli were 15.6% (n=60) and 20.8%) (n=80), respectively. Mixed contamination (Salmonella species and E. coli) was observed in 13 (3.4 %) of the analyzed. Poor washing hands regularly (AOR = 8.37; 95% CI: 2.75-25.50) and not using gloves during meat handling (AOR=11. 28; 95% CI:(4.69 27.10) were associated with overall bacterial contamination. About 100% of the tested isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, Co trimoxazole , sulphamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacine of E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively, while the resistance of amoxyclav_amoxicillin and erythromycin were both isolated bacteria species. The overall multidrug resistance pattern for Salmonella and E. coli were 51.4% (n=19) and 31.8% (14), respectively. Conclusion: Of the 153 (153/384) contaminated raw meat, 60 (15.6%) and 80 (20.8%) were contaminated by Salmonella species and E. coli, respectively. Poor handwashing practice and not using glove during meat handling showed a significant association with bacterial contamination. Multidrug-resistant showed in Salmonella species, and E. coli were 19 (51.4%) and 14 (31.8%), respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility test, butchery houses, E. coli, raw meat, salmonella species

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2 Entomopathogenic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents: Review Paper

Authors: Tadesse Kebede Dabsu


Insect pest is one the major limiting factor for sustainable food production. To overtake insect pest problem, since Second World War, producers have used excessive insecticide for insect pest management. However, in the era of 21st Century, the excessive use of insecticide caused insect resistant, insecticide bioaccumulation, insecticide hazard to environment, human health problem, and the like. Due to these problems, research efforts have been focused on the development of environmental free sustainable insect pest management method. To minimize all above mentioned risk utilizing of biological control such as entomopathogenicmicroorganism include bacteria, virus, fungus, and their productsare the best option for suppress insect population below certain density level. The objective of this review was to review the updated available studies and recent developments on the entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB) as biological control of insect pest and challenge of using them for control of insect pest. EPB’s mechanisms of insecticidal activities, type, taxonomy, and history are included in this paper body. EPB has been successfully used for the suppression of populations of insect pests. Controlling of harmful insect by entomopathogenic bacteria is an effective, low bioaccumulation in environment and food, very specific, reduce resistance risk in insect pest, economically and sustainable method of major insect pest management method. Identified and reported as potential major common type of entomopathogenic bacteria include Bacillus thuringiensis, Photorhabdus sp., Xenorhabdus spp.Walbachiaspp, Actinomycetesspp.etc. These bacteria being enter into insect body through natural opening or by vector release toxin protein inside of insect and disrupt the cell’s content cause natural mortality under natural condition. As per reported by different scientists, insect orders like Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Dipterahave been successful controlled by entomopathogenic bacteria. As per coming across in different scientific research journals, much of the work was emphasised on Bacillus thuringiensisbsp. Therefore, for commercial production like Bacillus thuringiensi, detail research should be done on other bacteria species. The efficacy and practical application of EPB are restricted to some crops and greenhouse area, but their field application at farmers’ level very less. So still much work needs to be done to the practical application of the EPB at widely application. Their efficacy, pathogenicity, and host range test should be tested under environmental condition.

Keywords: insect pest, entomopathogenic bacteria, biological control, agent

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1 Evaluation of the Pathogenicity Test of Some Entomopathogenic Fungus Isolates against Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick) Larvae [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae])

Authors: Tadesse Kebede, Orkun Baris Kovanci


Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta) is one of the most economically important insect pest in tomatoes production. The use of biological control such as entomopathogen fungi isolates would be a long-term and cost-effective solution to control insects pest. Therefore, identifying the most virulent and pathogenic entomopathogen fungi is one of the basic requirements for effective management options to combat Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta). Furthermore, the pathogenicity and virulence difference among entomopathogenfungus strains is not widely well investıgated. The current study was therefore initiated to test the pathogenicity of some entomopathogenic fungus isolates against Tutaabsoluta. The experiment was conducted at Bursa Uludag University, Agiculutre faculty, horticulture department glasshouse in 2020/2021. Tutabasoluta adult were collected, and masslarvae were reared in a growth chamber. Then, ten third instar larvae were inoculated with four entomopathogen fungi isolates (Beuaveriabassania Ak-10, Beuaveriabassania Ak-14, Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11, and Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-12) with different inoculum suspension (0, 1x10⁶, 1x10⁷,,4 × 10⁸, 4× 10⁹ and 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml) in a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with three replication. Mortality data assessment was done on the 3rd, 5thand 7th days after treatment and analyzed. The analysis of variance for mortality rate revealed significant variations (p<0.05) among entomoptahogen fungi isolates and conidia concentrations. The results revealed thatMetarhziumanisoplai Ak-12was found to show the lowest mortality percentage80.77%, highest LC50 2.3x108, and the longest incubation period, LT50, 4.9 and LT90, 9.9daysand considered to be less pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Beuaveriabassania Ak-10 isolate showed the highest mortality percentage, 91%, and the lowest LT50, 4, and LT90, 7.6 values at 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml, followed by Beuaveriabassania Ak-14 and being considered as the most aggressive bio-agent. Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11 was determined as moderately virulent, having a mortality rate 27-81%. Results also revealed that among conidia concentrations, 1x10⁹ and 1x10¹⁰ suspensions is the most effective, while 1x10⁶ conidia/ml concentration is the least effective. Hence, results indicated that EPF tested were effective against T. absoluta larvae. As the current work revealed the potential variation among entomopathogen fungi isolates and concentration against third instar larvae.

Keywords: tuta absoluta, tomato, metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, biological control

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