Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: endocrine

122 Adverse Effects on Liver Function in Male Rats after Exposure to a Mixture of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides

Authors: Mohamed Amine Aiche, Elkhansa Yahia, Leila Mallem, Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

Abstract:

Exposure to endocrine disrupting (ED) during life may cause long-term health effects, the population is exposed to chemicals present in air, water, food and in a variety of consumer and personal care products. Previous research indicates that a wide range of pesticides may act as endocrine disrupters. The azole fungicides propiconazole and propineb have been shown to react through several endocrine disrupting mechanisms, and to induce various endocrine disrupting effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two fungicides; propiconazole and propineb tested separately and in combination, on liver function. The experimental was applied on male Wistar rats dosed orally with Propiconazole 60 mg/kg/day, Propineb 100 mg/kg/day and their mixture 30 mg Propiconazole/kg/day + 50 mg Propineb /kg/day for 4 weeks, for result, a significant increase in liver weights in both treated groups with propineb, propiconazole and their mixture by reference with controls group. Also, highly significant mean values of markers of liver function such as transaminases (ALT/AST) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in all treated groups. The antioxidant activity showed a significant decrease in the hepatic glutathione content (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in all treated groups.

Keywords: endocrine disrupting, pesticide mixture, propineb, propiconazole, liver, oxidative stress

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121 Endocrine Disruptors Effects on the 20-Hydroxyecdysone Concentration and the Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Gammarus sp.

Authors: Eric Gismondi, Aurelie Bigot-Clivot

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are well known to disrupt the development and the reproduction of exposed organisms. Although this point has been studied in vertebrate models, the limited knowledge of the endocrine system of invertebrates makes the evaluation of EDCs effects difficult. However, invertebrates represent the major part of aquatic ecosystems, such as amphipods Gammaridea, which are crucial for their functioning (e.g., litter degradation, food resource). Moreover, gammarids are hosts of parasites such as vertically-transmitted microsporidia (microsporidia VT), which could be confounding factors in assessment of EDC effects. Indeed, some microsporidia VT could have endocrine effects by their own present in the host since it was observed for example, a feminization of juvenile males, which become phenotypic females. This work evaluated the impact of ethinylestradiol (EE₂, estrogenic), cyproterone acetate (CPA, anti-androgenic), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT, anti-estrogenic) and 17α-methyltestosterone (17MT - androgenic), on the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration (i.e. 20HE - molt process) and the vitellogenin gene expression (i.e. reproduction) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, after a 96h laboratory exposure. In addition, the presence of microsporidia VT was verified in order to analyze the effect of this confounding factor. Results of this study shown that, although endocrine systems of invertebrates and vertebrates are different, EDCs proved in vertebrates could also affect biological functions hormonally controlled in invertebrates. Indeed, the molt process of crustaceans was disrupted in the first stage (i.e. 20-HE concentration) and therefore, could affect, at the long term, the population dynamic. In addition, it was observed that G. pulex was differently impacted according to the gender and parasitism, which underline the importance to take into account these confounding factors to better evaluate the EDCs impact on invertebrate populations.

Keywords: endocrine disruption, gammarus sp., molt, parasitism

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
120 Nanomaterial Based Electrochemical Sensors for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

Authors: Gaurav Bhanjana, Ganga Ram Chaudhary, Sandeep Kumar, Neeraj Dilbaghi

Abstract:

Main sources of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem are hormones, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, dioxins, personal-care products, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A, and parabens. These endocrine disrupting compounds are responsible for learning disabilities, brain development problems, deformations of the body, cancer, reproductive abnormalities in females and decreased sperm count in human males. Although discharge of these chemical compounds into the environment cannot be stopped, yet their amount can be retarded through proper evaluation and detection techniques. The available techniques for determination of these endocrine disrupting compounds mainly include high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These techniques are accurate and reliable but have certain limitations like need of skilled personnel, time consuming, interference and requirement of pretreatment steps. Moreover, these techniques are laboratory bound and sample is required in large amount for analysis. In view of above facts, new methods for detection of endocrine disrupting compounds should be devised that promise high specificity, ultra sensitivity, cost effective, efficient and easy-to-operate procedure. Nowadays, electrochemical sensors/biosensors modified with nanomaterials are gaining high attention among researchers. Bioelement present in this system makes the developed sensors selective towards analyte of interest. Nanomaterials provide large surface area, high electron communication feature, enhanced catalytic activity and possibilities of chemical modifications. In most of the cases, nanomaterials also serve as an electron mediator or electrocatalyst for some analytes.

Keywords: electrochemical, endocrine disruptors, microscopy, nanoparticles, sensors

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119 Endocrine Therapy-Induced Alopecia in Patients with Breast Cancer in Tunisia

Authors: Aref Zribi, Sonia Ben Nasr, Sana Fendri, Mahdi Balti, Abderazzek Haddaoui

Abstract:

Background: Despite their benefit, Endocrine therapies (ET) are known to have substantial adverse events (AEs) such as hot flashes, mood disorders and osteoarticular pain. ET induced alopecia(EIA) is less frequently noted by patients and is less reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to report ET alopecia characteristics and their influence on patient and treatment observance. Method: We conducted a retrospective study including luminal BC patients treated in the oncology department of the military hospital of Tunis between January 2015 and December 2020. Patients treated with previous chemotherapy-inducing alopecia were excluded. Results: 145 female patients were included. The median age was 59 years. EIA was reported in 44% of cases. Alopecia was attributed to aromatase inhibitors in 53% and tamoxifen in 21%. Severity was grade 1 in 80% and grade 2 in the remaining cases. ET discontinuation because of alopecia was noted in 6.5 % of patients. Moderate improvement of alopecia was observed with topical minoxidil and Thallium metallicum 9CH homeopathy during ET in 60% of patients. Conclusions: EIA is frequent in BC patients and should be considered to improve treatment observance and patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: endocrine therapy, alopecia, breast cancer, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
118 Steps of the Pancreatic Differentiation in the Grass Snake (Natrix natrix) Embryos

Authors: Magdalena Kowalska, Weronika Rupik

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The pancreas is an important organ present in all vertebrate species. It contains two different tissues, exocrine and endocrine, that act as two glands in one. The development and differentiation of the pancreas in reptiles is poorly known in comparison to other vertebrates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the particular steps concerning the differentiation of the pancreas in the grass snake (Natrix natrix) embryos. For this, histological methods (including hematoxylin and eosin, and Heidenhain's AZAN staining), transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from serial paraffin sections were used. The results of this study indicated that the first step of pancreas development in Natrix was the connection of the two pancreatic buds: dorsal and ventral one. Then, duct walls in both buds started to be remodeled from the multilayered to single-layered epithelium. This remodeling started in the dorsal bud and was simultaneously with the differentiation of the duct lumens which occurred by the cavition. During this process, the cells that had no contact with the mesenchyme underwent cell death named anoikis. These findings indicated that the walls of ducts in the embryonic pancreas of the grass snake were initially formed by the abundant principal and single endocrine cells. Later the basal and goblet cells differentiated. Among the endocrine cells, as the first the B and A cells differentiated, then the D and PP cells. The next step of the pancreatic development was the withdrawing of the endocrine cells from the duct walls to form the pancreatic islets. The endocrine cells and islets were found only in the dorsal part of the pancreas in Natrix embryos what is different than in other vertebrate species. The islets were formed mainly by the A cells. Simultaneously, with the differentiation of the endocrine pancreas, the acinar tissue started to differentiate. The source of the acinar cells were pancreatic ducts similar as in other vertebrates. The acini formation began at the proximal part of the pancreas and went towards the caudal direction. Differentiating pancreatic ducts developed into the branched system that can be divided into extralobular, intralobular, and intercalated ducts, similarly as in other vertebrate species. However, the pattern of branching was different. In conclusions, particular steps of the pancreas differentiation in the grass snake were different than in other vertebrates. It can be supposed that these differences are related to the specific topography of the snake’s internal organs and their taxonomy position. All specimens used in the study were captured according to the Polish regulations concerning the protection of wild species. Permission was granted by the Local Ethics Commission in Katowice (41/2010; 87/2015) and the Regional Directorate for Environmental Protection in Katowice (WPN.6401.257.2015.DC).

Keywords: embryogenesis, organogenesis, pancreas, Squamata

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117 Stability Analysis for an Extended Model of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

Authors: Beata Jackowska-Zduniak

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We formulate and analyze a mathematical model describing dynamics of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid homoeostatic mechanism in endocrine system. We introduce to this system two types of couplings and delay. In our model, feedback controls the secretion of thyroid hormones and delay reflects time lags required for transportation of the hormones. The influence of delayed feedback on the stability behaviour of the system is discussed. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical examples of the model dynamics. This system of equations describes normal activity of the thyroid and also a couple of types of malfunctions (e.g. hyperthyroidism).

Keywords: mathematical modeling, ordinary differential equations, endocrine system, delay differential equation

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116 Association of Selected Biochemical Markers and Body Mass Index in Women with Endocrine Disorders

Authors: M. Mydlárová Blaščáková, J. Bernasovská, J. Poráčová, I. Boroňová

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Obesity is frequent attendant phenomenon of patients with endocrinological disease. Between BMI and endocrinological diseases is close correlation. In thesis we focused on the allocation of hormone concentration – PTH and TSH, CHOL a mineral element Ca in a blood serum. The examined group was formed by 100 respondents (women) aged 36 – 83 years, who were divided into two groups – control group (CG), group with diagnosed endocrine disease (DED). The concentration of PTH and TSH, Ca and CHOL was measured through the medium of analyzers Cobas e411 (Japan); Cobas Integra 400 (Switzerland). At individuals was measured body weight as well as stature and thereupon from those data we enumerated BMI. On the basis of Student T-test in biochemical parameter of PTH and Ca we found out significantly meaningful difference (p<0,05) between CG and DED. In CG we made a founding the association between BMI and PTH by means of correlation analysis.

Keywords: biochemical markers, hormones, obesity, women

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115 The Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors during Pregnancy and Relation to Steroid Hormones

Authors: L. Kolatorova, J. Vitku, K. Adamcova, M. Simkova, M. Hill, A. Parizek, M. Duskova

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances leaching from various industrial products, which are able to interfere with the endocrine system. Their harmful effects on human health are generally well-known, and exposure during fetal development may have lasting effects. Fetal exposure and transplacental transport of bisphenol A (BPA) have been recently studied; however, less is known about alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF), which have started to appear in consumer products. The human organism is usually exposed to the mixture of EDs, out of which parabens are otherwise known to transfer placenta. The usage of many cosmetic, pharmaceutical and consumer products during the pregnancy that may contain parabens and bisphenols has led to the need for investigation. The aim of the study was to investigate the transplacental transport of BPA, its alternatives, and parabens, and to study their relation to fetal steroidogenesis. BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben and 15 steroids including estrogens, corticoids, androgens and immunomodulatory ones were determined in 27 maternal (37th week of gestation) and cord plasma samples using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry methods. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly higher levels of BPA (p=0.0455) in cord plasma compared to maternal plasma. The results from multiple regression models investigated that in cord plasma, methylparaben, propylparaben and the sum of all measured parabens were inversely associated with testosterone levels. To our best knowledge, this study is the first attempt to determine the levels of alternative bisphenols in the maternal and cord blood, and also the first study reporting the simultaneous detection of bisphenols, parabens, and steroids in these biological fluids. Our study confirmed the transplacental transport of BPA, with likely accumulation in the fetal compartment. The negative association of cord blood parabens and testosterone levels highlights their possible risks, especially for the development of male fetuses. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project MH CR 17-30528 A from the Czech Health Research Council, MH CZ - DRO (Institute of Endocrinology - EÚ, 00023761) and by the MEYS CR (OP RDE, Excellent research - ENDO.CZ).

Keywords: bisphenol, endocrine disruptor, paraben, pregnancy, steroid

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114 Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Inhibits by INT3 & Quercetin in MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy, S. Pradhan

Abstract:

Objectives: Imperviousness gainst estrogen treatments is a noteworthy reason for infection backslide and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast diseases. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal builds the reliance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 flagging. Here, we researched the commitment of Quercetin and INT3 motioning in endocrine-safe breast tumor cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine treatments safe (ETR) breast tumor: Tamoxifen-safe (TamR) and long haul estrogen-denied (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the transitory and intrusive limit of these cells by Transwell cells. Articulation of epithelial to mesenchymal move (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by constant PCR and western smudge investigation. Besides, we tried in-vitro hostile to Quercetin monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) and Gamma Secretase Inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT inversion remedial specialists. At last, we created stable Quercetin overexpressing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT components and reaction to Tamoxifen. Results: We found that ETR cells procured an Epithelial to Mesenchymal move (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we distinguished more elevated amount of INT3 however lower levels of INT1 and INT3 proposing a change to motioning through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Against Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were powerful in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 pivot and in part repressing the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell relocation and attack were weakened and the immature microorganism like populace was essentially decreased. Hereditary hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. At long last, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to Tamoxifen by INT3 initiation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives intrusive conduct. Hostile to Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen articulation of EMT particles decreasing cell obtrusiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates Tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and INT3 warrants further clinical Correlation as substantial restorative methodologies in endocrine-safe breast.

Keywords: endocrine, epithelial, mesenchymal, INT3, quercetin, MCF7

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113 An Electron Microscopic Study of Developing Human Fetal Pancreas

Authors: Gupta Renu, T. S. Roy

Abstract:

Introduction: For the prospect of successful replacement therapies in treatment of Diabetes mallitus it is necessary to know events occurring during normal human pancreas development. Literature of human pancreas development are few in number as well as mainly related to first trimester because of ethical and technical difficulties. So the study was conducted on 12 fetuses from 12 gestational weeks (GW) to 5 months of infant to know normal development of exocrine and endocrine part of human pancreas. Material and Methods: Human fetalpancreases were screened by haematoxyline and eosin staining and done electron microscopy for suitable specimens to know ultrastructural detail of fetal pancreas. Results:It was observed arborized tubules, the cells budding out from these tubules differentiated into primitive acini and islets in 12thGW. At 14 weeks scanty granules were observed in the endocrine cells which coincided with the capillary invasion of the islets. The ducts and acini were surrounded by well-organized connective tissue. The acinihad elongated cells, small amount of cytoplasm and large open face euchromatic nuclei with single nucleolus. The mature form of islets of Langerhans was observed close to the acini and duct in 20 GW fetus. Connective tissue around the duct was well organized.No significant developmental change was observed early postnatal, infant. Conclusion: The development of both component exocrine as well as endocrine part of human fetal pancreas was studied by light and electron microscopy. Observations suggested that the fetal pancreas contained mainly ducts, few acini, many centroacinar cells, and large undifferentiated tissue.

Keywords: gestational weeks (GW), acini, islets of Langerhans, ducts

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112 Evaluation of Gene Expression after in Vitro Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells

Authors: Mahmoud M. Zakaria, Omnia F. Elmoursi, Mahmoud M. Gabr, Camelia A. AbdelMalak, Mohamed A. Ghoneim

Abstract:

Many protocols were publicized for differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCS) into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in order to excrete insulin hormone ingoing to treat diabetes disease. Our aim is to evaluate relative gene expression for each independent protocol. Human bone marrow cells were derived from three volunteers that suffer diabetes disease. After expansion of mesenchymal stem cells, differentiation of these cells was done by three different protocols (the one-step protocol was used conophylline protein, the two steps protocol was depending on trichostatin-A, and the three-step protocol was started by beta-mercaptoethanol). Evaluation of gene expression was carried out by real-time PCR: Pancreatic endocrine genes, transcription factors, glucose transporter, precursor markers, pancreatic enzymes, proteolytic cleavage, extracellular matrix and cell surface protein. Quantitation of insulin secretion was detected by immunofluorescence technique in 24-well plate. Most of the genes studied were up-regulated in the in vitro differentiated cells, and also insulin production was observed in the three independent protocols. There were some slight increases in expression of endocrine mRNA of two-step protocol and its insulin production. So, the two-step protocol was showed a more efficient in expressing of pancreatic endocrine genes and its insulin production than the other two protocols.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, insulin producing cells, conophylline protein, trichostatin-A, beta-mercaptoethanol, gene expression, immunofluorescence technique

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111 Quercetin and INT3 Inhibits Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: S. Pradhan, D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy

Abstract:

Anti-estrogen treatment resistant is a noteworthy reason for disease relapse and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast cancers. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal increases the dependance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 signaling. Here, we researched the contribution of Quercetin and INT3 signaling in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine therapies resistant (ETR-) breast cancer: tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) and long term estrogen-deprived (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the migratory and invasive limit of these cells by Transwell assay. Expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Besides, we tried in vitro anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT reversal therapeutic agents. At last, we created stable Quercetin over expessing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT features and response to tamoxifen. Results:We found that ETR cells acquired an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we detected higher level of INT3 however lower levels of INT31 and INT32 proposing a switch to targeting through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were effective in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 axis and in part inhibiting the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell migration and invasion were weakened and the stem cell like population was considerably decreased. Genetic hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. Finally, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to tamoxifen by INT3 activation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives invasive conduct. Anti-Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen expression of EMT molecules decreasing cellular invasiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and/or INT3 warrants further clinical assessment as substantial therapeutic methodologies in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

Keywords: quercetin, INT3, mesenchymal transition, MCF7 breast cancer cells

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110 Evaluation on Estrogenic Effects of Diisononyl Adipate (DiNA) on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Shih-cheng Li, Ming-Yi Chung, Mei-Lien Chen

Abstract:

Background: Plasticizers, such as phthalates and adipates, were substances added to a material that provided flexibility and durability to plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Phthalates were generally recognized as an endocrine disrupter due to their estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Phthalates had the capacity to bind to estrogen receptors, and hence they might prolong menstrual cycles and increase the proportion of premature menopause. Recently, adipates such as di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) and di-isononyl adipate (DiNA) had replaced phthalates and were now used for food packaging. Methods: MCF-7 cell lines were treated with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di- 2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), or di-isononyl adipate (DiNA) (10-6 , 10-5 , and 10-4 mol/l), using 17β-estradiol (10-8 mol/l) as a positive control. After incubations of 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, the cells were tested using the alamarBlue assay. Results: The alamarBlue assay revealed that cell proliferation significantly increased after treatments of DEHP and DEHA for 24 hours at a concentration of 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/l. After more than 48 hours, cell proliferations in DEHP at 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/l significantly decreased compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that adipates, as well as phthalates, were capable of inducing cell proliferation. We further used MDA-MB-231 cell lines to confirm that the proliferation effect was generated through binding to estrogen receptors.

Keywords: MCF-7, phthalate, adipate, endocrine disrupter

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109 Phthalates Exposure in Children with Central Precocious Puberty (CPP) or Constitutional Delays in Growth

Authors: Yen-An Tsai, Ching-Ling Lin, Jia-Woei Hou, Mei-Lien Chen

Abstract:

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) adversely affect the endocrine system. Phthalates, also called phthalic acid esters (PAEs), are manmade chemicals that are used as stabilizing agents in personal care products such as perfumes, lotions, and cosmetics. The aim was to explore whether PAEs exposure was associated with central precocious puberty (CPP) or constitutional delays in growth (CDGP). This case-control study included 48 female with CPP, 37 male with constitutional delays in growth, and 127 normal children and was conducted from December 2011 to August 2014. All participants completed a structured questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and secondary sexual characteristics. The analytical method was based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with isotope dilution for the quantitative detection of several phthalate metabolites in human urine. The risk of CPP with mep, mnbp, LMW >50th percentile were higher than those with 50th percentile were higher than those with <50 percentile in model 2. In model 1, we only found higher CDGP risk in mep, mnbp, and ΣPAEs. It shows that high phthalate exposure may associate with CDGP. In this case-control study, we found PAEs exposure was associated with central precocious puberty (CPP) or constitutional delays in growth.

Keywords: phthalates, puberty, delays, growth

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108 Sensing Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals by Virus-Based Structural Colour Nanostructure

Authors: Lee Yujin, Han Jiye, Oh Jin-Woo

Abstract:

The adverse effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has attracted considerable public interests. The benzene-like EDCs structure mimics the mechanisms of hormones naturally occurring in vivo, and alters physiological function of the endocrine system. Although, some of the most representative EDCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and phthalates compounds already have been prohibited to produce and use in many countries, however, PCBs and phthalates in plastic products as flame retardant and plasticizer are still circulated nowadays. EDCs can be released from products while using and discarding, and it causes serious environmental and health issues. Here, we developed virus-based structurally coloured nanostructure that can detect minute EDCs concentration sensitively and selectively. These structurally coloured nanostructure exhibits characteristic angel-independent colors due to the regular virus bundle structure formation through simple pulling technique. The designed number of different colour bands can be formed through controlling concentration of virus solution and pulling speed. The virus, M-13 bacteriophage, was genetically engineered to react with specific ECDs, typically PCBs and phthalates. M-13 bacteriophage surface (pVIII major coat protein) was decorated with benzene derivative binding peptides (WHW) through phage library method. In the initial assessment, virus-based color sensor was exposed to several organic chemicals including benzene, toluene, phenol, chlorobenzene, and phthalic anhydride. Along with the selectivity evaluation of virus-based colour sensor, it also been tested for sensitivity. 10 to 300 ppm of phthalic anhydride and chlorobenzene were detected by colour sensor, and showed the significant sensitivity with about 90 of dissociation constant. Noteworthy, all measurements were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and exhibited clear discrimination ability upon exposure to 2 categories of EDCs (PCBs and phthalates). Because of its easy fabrication, high sensitivity, and the superior selectivity, M-13 bacteriophage-based color sensor could be a simple and reliable portable sensing system for environmental monitoring, healthcare, social security, and so on.

Keywords: M-13 bacteriophage, colour sensor, genetic engineering, EDCs

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107 Development of a Bi-National Thyroid Cancer Clinical Quality Registry

Authors: Liane J. Ioannou, Jonathan Serpell, Joanne Dean, Cino Bendinelli, Jenny Gough, Dean Lisewski, Julie Miller, Win Meyer-Rochow, Stan Sidhu, Duncan Topliss, David Walters, John Zalcberg, Susannah Ahern

Abstract:

Background: The occurrence of thyroid cancer is increasing throughout the developed world, including Australia and New Zealand, and since the 1990s has become the fastest increasing malignancy. Following the success of a number of institutional databases that monitor outcomes after thyroid surgery, the Australian and New Zealand Endocrine Surgeons (ANZES) agreed to auspice the development of a bi-national thyroid cancer registry. Objectives: To establish a bi-national population-based clinical quality registry with the aim of monitoring and improving the quality of care provided to patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer in Australia and New Zealand. Patients and Methods: The Australian and New Zealand Thyroid Cancer Registry (ANZTCR) captures clinical data for all patients, over the age of 18 years, diagnosed with thyroid cancer, confirmed by histopathology report, that have been diagnosed, assessed or treated at a contributing hospital. Data is collected by endocrine surgeons using a web-based interface, REDCap, primarily via direct data entry. Results: A multi-disciplinary Steering Committee was formed, and with operational support from Monash University the ANZTCR was established in early 2017. The pilot phase of the registry is currently operating in Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia, with over 30 sites expected to come on board across Australia and New Zealand in 2018. A modified-Delphi process was undertaken to determine the key quality indicators to be reported by the registry, and a minimum dataset was developed comprising information regarding thyroid cancer diagnosis, pathology, surgery, and 30-day follow up. Conclusion: There are very few established thyroid cancer registries internationally, yet clinical quality registries have shown valuable outcomes and patient benefits in other cancers. The establishment of the ANZTCR provides the opportunity for Australia and New Zealand to further understand the current practice in the treatment of thyroid cancer and reasons for variation in outcomes. The engagement of endocrine surgeons in supporting this initiative is crucial. While the pilot registry has a focus on early clinical outcomes, it is anticipated that future collection of longer-term outcome data particularly for patients with the poor prognostic disease will add significant further value to the registry.

Keywords: thyroid cancer, clinical registry, population health, quality improvement

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106 Annual Audit for the Year 2021 for Patients with Hyperparathyroidism: Not as Rare an Entity as We Believe

Authors: Antarip Bhattacharya, Dhritiman Maitra

Abstract:

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of hypercalcemia due to autonomous production of parathormone (PTH) and the third most common endocrine disorder. Upto 2% of postmenopausal women could have this condition. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by hypercalcemia with a high or insufficiently suppressed level of parathyroid hormone and is caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma in 85-90% of patients. PHPT may also be caused by parathyroid hyperplasia (involving multiple glands) or parathyroid carcinoma. Associated morbidities and sequelae include decreased bone mineral density, fractures, kidney stones, hypertension, cardiac comorbidities and psychiatric disorder which entail huge costs for treatment. In the year 2021, by virtue of running a Breast and Endocrine Surgery clinic in a Tier 1 city at a tertiary care hospital, the opportunity to be associated with patients of hyperparathyroidism came our way. Here, we shall describe the spectrum of clinical presentations and customisation of treatment for parathyroid diseases with reference to the above patients. A retrospective analysis of the data of all patients presenting with symptoms of parathyroid diseases was made and classified according to the cause. 13 patients had presented with symptoms of hyperparathyroidism and each case presented with unique symptoms and necessitated detailed evaluation. The treatment or surgery offered to each patient was tailored to his/her individual disease and led to favourable outcomes. Diseases affecting parathyroid are not as rare as we believe. Each case merits detailed clinical evaluation, investigations and tailoring of suitable treatment with regard to medical management and extent of surgery. Intra-operative frozen section/iOPTH monitoring are really useful adjuncts for intra-operative decision making.

Keywords: hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid adenoma, parathyroid surgery, PTH

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105 Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol a, Phtalates and Its Metabolites in Human Urine, by Tandem SPE Coupled to GC-MS

Authors: L. Correia-Sá, S. Norberto, Conceição Calhau, C. Delerue-Matos, V. F. Domingues

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic compounds that even though being initially designed for a specific function are now being linked with a wide range of side effects. The list of possible EDCs is growing and includes phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA). Phthalates are one of the most widely used plasticizers to improve the extensibility, elasticity and workability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl acetates, etc. Considered non-toxic and harmless additives for polymers, they were used unrestrainedly all over the world for several decades. However, recent studies have indicated that some phthalates and their metabolic products are reproductive and developmental toxicants in animals and suspected endocrine disruptors in humans. BPA (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) is a high production volume chemical mainly used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Although BPA was initially considered to be a weak environmental estrogen, nowadays it is known that this compound can stimulate several cellular responses at very low levels of concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on tandem SPE to evaluate the presence of phthalates, metabolites and BPA in human urine samples. The analyzed compounds included: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), BPA, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and. mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) (MEOHP). Two SPE cartridges were applied both from Phenomenex, the strata X polymeric reversed phase and the strata X A (Strong anion). Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Thermo GC ULTRA GC-MS/MS. Good recoveries and linear calibration curves were obtained. After validation, the methodology was applied to human urine samples for phthalates, metabolites and BPA evaluation.

Keywords: Bisphenol A (BPA), gas chromatography, metabolites, phtalates, SPE, tandem mode

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104 The Endocrinology of Obesity and Dejenerative Joint Disease

Authors: Kebret Kebede, Anthony Scinta

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Obesity is the most prevalent global problem that continues to rise at alarming rates both in the industrialized and developing countries. Adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue that secretes numerous chemical signals, hormones, lipids, cytokines and coagulation factors as well as prompting insulin resistance which is a primary contributor to Type II Diabetes- one of its most common adverse effects on health. Other hormones whose levels are linked to obesity and nutritional state are leptin, IGF-1, and adiponectin. Several studies indicate that obesity is the leading cause of high levels of cholesterol that leads to fatty liver disease, gallstones, hypertension, increased risk for cancer and degenerative joint disease that primarily affects the weight bearing joints of the lower extremities. The activation of inflammatory pathways promotes synovial pathology that results in accelerated degeneration of the joints. The study examines the prevalence of obesity in the US female population in comparison to that of the developing world and its emergence as a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in degenerative disease of the hip and knee joints that has resulted in staggering healthcare cost. Studies have shown that as the prevalence of obesity rises, we continue to see a rise in degenerative joint disease. The percentage of arthritis cases linked directly to obesity has risen from 3 percent in 1971 to 18 percent in 2002. A person with obesity is around 60 percent more likely to develop arthritis than someone of normal body weight. In women, obesity is associated with increased mortality from breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer that may accompany debilitating joint diseases and restricted mobility.

Keywords: obesity, endocrine, degenerative, mortality, joint diseases, cancer, debilitating, mobility

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103 Synthesis of Fullerene Nanorods for Detection of Ethylparaben an Endocrine Disruptor in Cosmetics

Authors: Jahangir Ahmad Rather, Emad A. Khudaish, Ahsanulhaq Qurashi, Palanisamy Kannan

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Chemical modification and assembling of fullerenes are fundamentally important for the application of fullerenes as functional molecules and in molecular devices and organic electronic devices. We have synthesized fullerene nanorods C60NRs conjugate via liquid-liquid interface and the synthesized C60NRs was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The C60NRs were immobilized on glassy carbon electrode via surface bound diazonium salts as an impact strategy. This method involves electrografting of p–nitrophenyl to give GCE–Ph–NO2 and then the terminal nitro-group was chemically reduced to GCE–Ph–NH2 in a presence of sodium borohydride/gold–polyaniline nanocomposite (NaBH4/Au–PANI). The Au–PANI composite was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, UV-vis, SEM and EDX techniques. The C60NRs were immobilized on GCE–Ph–NH2 via amination reaction which involves N-H addition across a π-bond on [60] fullerene. The immobilized C60NRs/GCE was subjected to electrochemical reduction in 1.0 M KOH to yield ERC60NRs/GCE sensor. The developed sensor shows high electrocatalytic activity for the detection of ethylparaben (EP) over a concentration range from 0.01 to 0.52 µM with a detection limit (LOD) 3.8 nM. The amount of EP present in the nourishing repair cream (OlAY®) was determined by standard addition method at the developed ERC60NRs/GCE sensor. The total concentration of EP was found to be 0.011 µM (0.1%) and is within the permissible limit of 0.19 % EP in cosmetics according to the European scientific committee (SCCS) on consumer safety on 22 March 2011 (SCCS/1348/11).

Keywords: diazonium salt reduction, ethylparaben (EP), endocrine disruptor, fullerene nanorods (C60NRs), gold–polyaniline nanocomposite (Au–PANI)

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102 Occurrence and Fate of EDCs in Wastewater and Aquatic Environments in the West Bank of Palestine

Authors: Wa`d Odeh, Alon Tal, Alfred Abed Rabbo, Nader Al Khatib, Shai Arnon

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The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in raw sewage and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been increasingly studied in the last few decades. Higher risks are said to characterize situations where raw sewage streams are found to be flowing, or where partial and inadequate wastewater treatment exists. Such conditions are prevalent in the West Bank area of Palestine. To our knowledge, no previous data concerning the occurrence and fate of EDCs in the aquatic environment has ever been systematically evaluated in the region. Hence, the main objective of this study was to identify the occurrence and concentrations of major EDCs in raw sewage, wastewater effluents produced by treatment plants and in the receiving environments, including streams and groundwater in the West Bank, Palestine. Water samples were collected and analyzed for four times during the years of 2013 and 2014. Two large-scale conventional activated sludge WWTPs, two wastewater watercourses, one naturally perennial stream, and five groundwater locations close to wastewater sources were sampled and analyzed by GC/MS following EPA methods (525.2). Five EDCs (estriol, estrone, testosterone, bisphenol A, and octylphenol) were detected in trace concentrations (ng/l) in wastewater streams and at inputs to WWTPs. WWTPs were not able to achieve complete removal of all EDCs, and EDCs were still found in the effluents. In this regard, the most significant environmental estrogenic impact was due to estrone concentrations. Nevertheless, no EDCs were detected in groundwater. Yet, in order for effluents to be reused, significant improvement in treatment infrastructure should be a top priority for environmental managers in the region.

Keywords: endocrine disrupting compounds, raw sewage streams, conventional activated sludge WWTPs, WWTPs effluents

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101 Microbial Electrochemical Remediation System: Integrating Wastewater Treatment with Simultaneous Power Generation

Authors: Monika Sogani, Zainab Syed, Adrian C. Fisher

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Pollution of estrogenic compounds has caught the attention of researchers as the slight increase of estrogens in the water bodies has a significant impact on the aquatic system. They belong to a class of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and are able to mimic hormones or interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. The microbial electrochemical remediation system (MERS) is employed here for exploiting an electrophototrophic bacterium for evaluating the capacity of biodegradation of ethinylestradiol hormone (EE2) under anaerobic conditions with power generation. MERS using electro-phototrophic bacterium offers a tailored solution of wastewater treatment in a developing country like India which has a huge solar potential. It is a clean energy generating technology as they require only sunlight, water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide to operate. Its main feature that makes it superior over other technologies is that the main fuel for this MERS is sunlight which is indefinitely present. When grown in light with organic compounds, these photosynthetic bacteria generate ATP by cyclic photophosphorylation and use carbon compounds to make cell biomass (photoheterotrophic growth). These cells showed EE2 degradation and were able to generate hydrogen as part of the process of nitrogen fixation. The two designs of MERS were studied, and a maximum of 88.45% decrease in EE2 was seen in a total period of 14 days in the better design. This research provides a better insight into microbial electricity generation and self-sustaining wastewater treatment facilities. Such new models of waste treatment aiming waste to energy generation needs to be followed and implemented for building a resource efficient and sustainable economy.

Keywords: endocrine disrupting compounds, ethinylestradiol, microbial electrochemical remediation systems, wastewater treatment

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100 Oxidative and Hormonal Disruptions Underlie Bisphenol A: Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rabbits

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Tarek K. Abouzed, Mousa A. Ayoub

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The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA), in the environment can cause serious health problems. However, there are controversial opinions. This study investigated the reproductive, metabolic, oxidative and immunologic-disrupting effects of bisphenol A in male rabbits. Rabbits were divided into five groups. The first four rabbit groups were administered oral BPA (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. The fifth group was administered corn oil as the vehicle. BPA significantly decreased serum testosterone, estradiol and the free androgen index (FAI) and significantly increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) compared with the placebo group. The higher doses of BPA showed a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). A significant increase in blood glucose levels was identified in the BPA groups. The non-significant difference in insulin levels is a novel finding. The cumulative testicular toxicity of BPA was clearly demonstrated by the dose-dependent decrease in absolute testes weight, primary measures of semen quality and a significant increase in testicular malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, BPA significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) at the highest concentration. Our results suggest that BPA, especially at higher doses, is associated with many adverse effects on metabolism, oxidative stress, immunity, sperm quality and markers of androgenic action. These results may reflect the estrogenic effects of BPA, which we hypothesize could be related, in part, to an inhibitory effect on testicular steroidogenesis. The induction of oxidative stress by BPA may play an additional role in testicular toxicity. These results suggest that BPA poses a threat to endocrine and reproductive functions.

Keywords: bisphenol A, oxidative stress, rabbits, semen quality, steroidogenesis

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99 Assessing Acute Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Potential of Selected Packages Internal Layers Extracts

Authors: N. Szczepanska, B. Kudlak, G. Yotova, S. Tsakovski, J. Namiesnik

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In the scientific literature related to the widely understood issue of packaging materials designed to have contact with food (food contact materials), there is much information on raw materials used for their production, as well as their physiochemical properties, types, and parameters. However, not much attention is given to the issues concerning migration of toxic substances from packaging and its actual influence on the health of the final consumer, even though health protection and food safety are the priority tasks. The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of particular foodstuff packaging type, food production, and storage conditions on the degree of leaching of potentially toxic compounds and endocrine disruptors to foodstuffs using the acute toxicity test Microtox and XenoScreen YES YAS assay. The selected foodstuff packaging materials were metal cans used for fish storage and tetrapak. Five stimulants respectful to specific kinds of food were chosen in order to assess global migration: distilled water for aqueous foods with a pH above 4.5; acetic acid at 3% in distilled water for acidic aqueous food with pH below 4.5; ethanol at 5% for any food that may contain alcohol; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and artificial saliva were used in regard to the possibility of using it as an simulation medium. For each packaging three independent variables (temperature and contact time) factorial design simulant was performed. Xenobiotics migration from epoxy resins was studied at three different temperatures (25°C, 65°C, and 121°C) and extraction time of 12h, 48h and 2 weeks. Such experimental design leads to 9 experiments for each food simulant as conditions for each experiment are obtained by combination of temperature and contact time levels. Each experiment was run in triplicate for acute toxicity and in duplicate for estrogen disruption potential determination. Multi-factor analysis of variation (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of the three main factors solvent, temperature (temperature regime for cup), contact time and their interactions on the respected dependent variable (acute toxicity or estrogen disruption potential). From all stimulants studied the most toxic were can and tetrapak lining acetic acid extracts that are indication for significant migration of toxic compounds. This migration increased with increase of contact time and temperature and justified the hypothesis that food products with low pH values cause significant damage internal resin filling. Can lining extracts of all simulation medias excluding distilled water and artificial saliva proved to contain androgen agonists even at 25°C and extraction time of 12h. For tetrapak extracts significant endocrine potential for acetic acid, DMSO and saliva were detected.

Keywords: food packaging, extraction, migration, toxicity, biotest

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98 Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) as an Evolutionary Mismatch Disorder: An Argument for the Significance of Hyperandrogenism on Reproductive Fitness in Ancestral Populations

Authors: Courtney Manthey-Pierce, Anna Warrener

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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disruptive disorder in females. PCOS is primarily characterized by polycystic ovaries, anovulation, hirsutism, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenism. Despite negative reproductive consequences for females from anovulation and endocrine dysfunction, genes associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS are highly hereditable (h2 = 0.72). An evolutionary mismatch occurs when a trait that evolved in one environment has become maladaptive in another environment. The idea that PCOS is an evolutionary mismatch disease has been promoted by several researchers. Each trait of the resulting PCOS phenotype should be investigated individually in order to demonstrate an evolutionary mismatch. Hyperandrogenism is often regarded as the main characteristic of PCOS Hyperandrogenism may have aided with conception in older females, increased bone mineral density, and supported prolonged breastfeeding in nutritionally distressed populations. Because of the high prevalence of PCOS in the modern world, approximately 6%, it is often argued that PCOS emerged in an ancestral population prior to the migration out of Africa approximately 200,000 years ago. This environment would be characterized by sporadic periods of nutrition deficit and resource hardships as the climate began changing. Presently, modern society is characterized by obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The prevalence of obesity renders hyperandrogenism PCOS useless as there are no periods of nutritional distress requiring androgens for increased reproductive rates. In an ancestral environment, hyperandrogenism would likely lead to sporadic anovulation and mild secondary symptoms, however high levels of androgens in a modern environment led to prolonged if not permanent infertility and excessive secondary problems. Thus, hyperandrogenism related to PCOS appears to meet evolutionary mismatch criteria. Seen in this light, PCOS may be effectively treated as a probably evolutionary mismatch.

Keywords: evolutionary mismatch, heritability, hyperandrogenism, mismatch disorder

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97 Effects of Potassium Sorbate on Some Sexual Maturation Parameters in Immature Female Wistar Rats

Authors: Elisabeth Louise Ndjengue Mindang, Charline Florence Awounfack, Derek Tantoh Ndinteh, Rui W. M. Krause, Dieudonne Njamen

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The evolution of human fertility over the last 50 years has shown considerable problems due to a growing number of couples that find it difficult to procreate without medical assistance. In Africa, this inability to conceive affect 30 to 40% of couples. A number of contaminants in the environment are thought to contribute significantly to the observed infertility epidemic. Methods: On this basis, the impact of 40-days unique oral administration (between 9 and 10 am) of potassium sorbate (at of 12.5, 45, and 78 mg/kg BW doses) was evaluated on sexual maturation and hematologic parameters on immature Wistar rats (21-22 days of age). At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed. Vaginal opening was evaluated before the sacrifice. After the sacrifice, relative weight of reproductive organs, pituitary gonadotrophin level (LH and FSH), and sexuals steroids (estrogen and progesterone), cholesterol level in ovaries, folliculogenesis, and some hematological parameters were evaluated. Results: Compared to the control group, no significant variation was observed in the body weight of the animals treated with patassium sorbate. On the other hand, potassium sorbate, a significantly lower percentage (25%) of vaginal-opening in these rats, was observed from day 46 of age (p <0.01); likewise, a significant decrease was observed on the relative weight of the ovaries (p <0.01), number of primary follicles (p <0.01), and a significant increase of follicle number (p <0.001) at 78 mg/kg BW have been obseved. Potassium sorbate always decreased the number of white blood cells (p <0.05). Taken together, these results confirm the disturbing effects on the endocrine system, causing a decrease in fertility by increasing the number of follicles in atresia. A deleterious effect on the immune system was also observed. Overall, these results validate at least in part the global observations on the growing decline in fertility in populationsfeeding increasingly on industrial processed foods.

Keywords: potassium sorbate, early puberty, folliculogenesis, endocrine disruptor, immatur wistar rat

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96 Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Chedly Tizaoui, Hussain Mohammed, Lobna Mansouri, Nidal Hilal, Latifa Bousselmi

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The degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was studied using heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Activated carbon was used as a catalyst. The degradation of DEP with ozone alone was slow while catalytic ozonation increased degradation rates. Second-order reaction kinetics was used to describe the experimental data, and the corresponding rate constant values were 1.19 and 3.94 M-1.s-1 for ozone and ozone/activated carbon respectively.

Keywords: ozone, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, diethyl phthalate, endocrine disrupting chemicals

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95 Nano-Sized Iron Oxides/ZnMe Layered Double Hydroxides as Highly Efficient Fenton-Like Catalysts for Degrading Specific Pharmaceutical Agents

Authors: Marius Sebastian Secula, Mihaela Darie, Gabriela Carja

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Persistent organic pollutant discharged by various industries or urban regions into the aquatic ecosystems represent a serious threat to fauna and human health. The endocrine disrupting compounds are known to have toxic effects even at very low values of concentration. The anti-inflammatory agent Ibuprofen is an endocrine disrupting compound and is considered as model pollutant in the present study. The use of light energy to accomplish the latest requirements concerning wastewater discharge demands highly-performant and robust photo-catalysts. Many efforts have been paid to obtain efficient photo-responsive materials. Among the promising photo-catalysts, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) attracted significant consideration especially due to their composition flexibility, high surface area and tailored redox features. This work presents Fe(II) self-supported on ZnMeLDHs (Me =Al3+, Fe3+) as novel efficient photo-catalysts for Fenton-like catalysis. The co-precipitation method was used to prepare ZnAlLDH, ZnFeAlLDH and ZnCrLDH (Zn2+/Me3+ = 2 molar ratio). Fe(II) was self-supported on the LDHs matrices by using the reconstruction method, at two different values of weight concentration. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the structural, textural, and micromorphology of the catalysts. The Fe(II)/ZnMeLDHs nano-hybrids were tested for the degradation of a model pharmaceutical agent, the anti-inflammatory agent ibuprofen, by photocatalysis and photo-Fenton catalysis, respectively. The results point out that the embedment Fe(II) into ZnFeAlLDH and ZnCrLDH lead to a slight enhancement of ibuprofen degradation by light irradiation, whereas in case of ZnAlLDH, the degradation process is relatively low. A remarkable enhancement of ibuprofen degradation was found in the case of Fe(II)/ZnMeLDHs by photo-Fenton process. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0405.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, heterogeneous Fenton, micropollutant, photocatalysis

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94 Assessment of the Impact of Atmospheric Air, Drinking Water and Socio-Economic Indicators on the Primary Incidence of Children in Altai Krai

Authors: A. P. Pashkov

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The number of environmental factors that adversely affect children's health is growing every year; their combination in each territory is different. The contribution of socio-economic factors to the health status of the younger generation is increasing. It is the child’s body that is most sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, responding to this with a deterioration in health. Over the past years, scientists have determined the influence of environmental factors and the incidence of children. Currently, there is a tendency to study regional characteristics of the interaction of a combination of environmental factors with the child's body. The aim of the work was to identify trends in the primary non-infectious morbidity of the children of the Altai Territory as a unique region that combines territories with different levels of environmental quality indicators, as well as to assess the effect of atmospheric air, drinking water and socio-economic indicators on the incidence of children in the region. An unfavorable tendency has been revealed in the region for incidence of such nosological groups as neoplasms, including malignant ones, diseases of the endocrine system, including obesity and thyroid disease, diseases of the circulatory system, digestive diseases, diseases of the genitourinary system, congenital anomalies, and respiratory diseases. Between some groups of diseases revealed a pattern of geographical distribution during mapping and a significant correlation. Some nosologies have a relationship with socio-economic indicators for an integrated assessment: circulatory system diseases, respiratory diseases (direct connection), endocrine system diseases, eating disorders, and metabolic disorders (feedback). The analysis of associations of the incidence of children with average annual concentrations of substances that pollute the air and drinking water showed the existence of reliable correlation in areas of critical and intense degree of environmental quality. This fact confirms that the population living in contaminated areas is subject to the negative influence of environmental factors, which immediately affects the health status of children. The results obtained indicate the need for a detailed assessment of the influence of environmental factors on the incidence of children in the regional aspect, the formation of a database, and the development of automated programs that can predict the incidence in each specific territory. This will increase the effectiveness, including economic of preventive measures.

Keywords: incidence of children, regional features, socio-economic factors, environmental factors

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93 Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Its Association with Birth Outcomes

Authors: Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Hai-Wei Liang, Chun-Hao Lai, Mei-Lien Chen

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Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in consumer products, such as inner coatings of cans and polycarbonated bottles. BPA is considered to be an endocrine disrupting substance (EDs) that affects normal human hormones and may cause adverse effects on human health. Pregnant women and fetuses are susceptible groups of endocrine disrupting substances. Prenatal exposure to BPA has been shown to affect the fetus through the placenta. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential health risk of fetal exposure to BPA during pregnancy. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the urinary concentration of BPA in pregnant women, and (2) to investigate the association between BPA exposure during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Methods: This study recruited 117 pregnant women and their fetuses from 2012 to 2014 from the Taiwan Maternal- Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Maternal urine samples were collected in the third trimester and questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits and medical conditions of the participants. Information about birth outcomes of the fetus was obtained from medical records. As for chemicals analysis, BPA concentrations in urine were determined by off-line solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The urinary concentrations were adjusted with creatinine. The association between maternal concentrations of BPA and birth outcomes was estimated using the logistic regression model. Results: The detection rate of BPA is 99%; the concentration ranges (μg/g) from 0.16 to 46.90. The mean (SD) BPA levels are 5.37(6.42) μg/g creatinine. The mean ±SD of the body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference and gestational age at birth are 3105.18 ± 339.53 g, 49.33 ± 1.90 cm, 34.16 ± 1.06 cm, 32.34 ± 1.37 cm and 38.58 ± 1.37 weeks, respectively. After stratifying the exposure levels into two groups by median, pregnant women in higher exposure group would have an increased risk of lower body weight (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.271-1.193), smaller chest circumference (OR=0.70, 95%CI=0.335-1.47) and shorter gestational age at birth newborn (OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.191-1.114). However, there are no associations between BPA concentration and birth outcomes reach a significant level (p < 0.05) in statistics. Conclusions: This study presents prenatal BPA profiles and infants in northern Taiwan. Women who have higher BPA concentrations tend to give birth to lower body weight, smaller chest circumference or shorter gestational age at birth newborn. More data will be included to verify the results. This report will also present the predictors of BPA concentrations for pregnant women.

Keywords: bisphenol A, birth outcomes, biomonitoring, prenatal exposure

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