Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Getachew Belay

27 Innovative In-Service Training Approach to Strengthen Health Care Human Resources and Scale-Up Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Yewondwossen Tadesse, Susan Lehman, Zelalem Temesgen

Abstract:

In-service health trainings in Sub-Saharan Africa are mostly content-centered with higher disconnection with the real practice in the facility. This study intended to evaluate in-service training approach aimed to strengthen health care human resources. A combined web-based and face-to-face training was designed and piloted in Ethiopia with the diagnosis of tuberculosis. During the first part, which lasted 43 days, trainees accessed web-based material and read without leaving their work; while the second part comprised a one-day hands-on evaluation. Trainee’s competency was measured using multiple-choice questions, written-assignments, exercises and hands-on evaluation. Of 108 participants invited, 81 (75%) attended the course and 71 (88%) of them successfully completed. Of those completed, 73 (90%) scored a grade from A to C. The approach was effective to transfer knowledge and turn it into practical skills. In-service health training should transform from a passive one-time-event to a continuous behavioral change of participants and improvements on their actual work.

Keywords: Ethiopia, health care, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, training

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26 Discrimination between Defective and Non-Defective Coffee Beans Using a Laser Prism Spectrometer

Authors: A. Belay, B. Kebede

Abstract:

The concentration- and temperature-dependent refractive indices of solutions extracted from defective and non-defective coffee beans have been investigated using a He–Ne laser. The refractive index has a linear relationship with the presumed concentration of the coffee solutions in the range of 0.5–3%. Higher and lower values of refractive index were obtained for immature and non-defective coffee beans, respectively. The Refractive index of bean extracts can be successfully used to separate defective from non-defective beans.

Keywords: coffee extract, refractive index, temperature dependence

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25 Effect of Viscosity on Propagation of MHD Waves in Astrophysical Plasma

Authors: Alemayehu Mengesha, Solomon Belay

Abstract:

We determine the general dispersion relation for the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in an astrophysical plasma by considering the effect of viscosity with an anisotropic pressure tensor. Basic MHD equations have been derived and linearized by the method of perturbation to develop the general form of the dispersion relation equation. Our result indicates that an astrophysical plasma with an anisotropic pressure tensor is stable in the presence of viscosity and a strong magnetic field at considerable wavelength. Currently, we are doing the numerical analysis of this work.

Keywords: astrophysical, magnetic field, instability, MHD, wavelength, viscosity

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24 Understand and Redefine Lean Product Development

Authors: Alemu Moges Belay, Torgeir Welo, Jan Ola Strandhagen

Abstract:

Lean has long been linked with manufacturing, but its application claimed also by other functions such as product development and services. However, there is a challenge on understanding and defining lean in each function context. This paper aims to investigate the literature that focus mainly on PD process improvement, obtain better understanding and redefine LPD in systematic way. In addition to that, the paper attempts to summarize various proposed transformation strategies, definitions, identifying features of manufacturing and product development that would help to redefining lean in product development context. Finally we redefine LPD in organized way that encompasses different steps such as stage gate, communication and information, events, learning, innovation, knowledge and value creation.

Keywords: lean, lean manufacturing, lean product development, transformation, strategies

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23 Resilience Building, the Case of Dire Dawa Community, Ethiopia

Authors: Getachew Demesa Bexa

Abstract:

Building resilience to withstand extreme weather events through reduction and mitigation measures towards predicted disasters with appropriate contingency plans complemented by timely and effective emergency response demands committed and integrated/coordinated efforts. The 2006 flood disaster that claimed more than 200 people in Dire Dawa town shifted the paradigm from reactive to proactive engagement among government, NGOs and communities to contain future disasters through resilience building. Dire Dawa CMDRR Association is a model community organization that demonstrated the basic minimum and turning adversity into opportunity by mobilizing vulnerable community members. Meanwhile the birth of African Centre for Disaster Risk Management is a milestone in changing the image of the country and beyond in resilience building while linking relief and development.

Keywords: Dire Dawa, disaster, resilience, risk management

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22 Proximal Method of Solving Split System of Minimization Problem

Authors: Anteneh Getachew Gebrie, Rabian Wangkeeree

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to introduce iterative algorithm solving split system of minimization problem given as a task of finding a common minimizer point of finite family of proper, lower semicontinuous convex functions and whose image under a bounded linear operator is also common minimizer point of another finite family of proper, lower semicontinuous convex functions. We obtain strong convergence of the sequence generated by our algorithm under some suitable conditions on the parameters. The iterative schemes are developed with a way of selecting the step sizes such that the information of operator norm is not necessary. Some applications and numerical experiment is given to analyse the efficiency of our algorithm.

Keywords: Hilbert Space, minimization problems, Moreau-Yosida approximate, split feasibility problem

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21 Mosquito Repellent Finishing of Cotton Using Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Seed Oil Extract

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Tekalgn Gebremedhin Belay, Abrehaley Hagos Gebremariam

Abstract:

Mosquito repellent textiles are one of the most growing ways to advance the textile field by providing the needed characteristics of protecting against mosquitoes, especially in the tropical areas. These types of textiles ensure the protection of human beings from the mosquitoes and the mosquito-borne disease includes malaria, filariasis and dengue fever. In this work Schinus Molle oil (pepper tree oil) was used for mosquito repellent finish as a preformatted thing. This study focused on the penetration of mosquito repellent finish in textile applications as well as nature based alternatives to commercial chemical mosquito repellents in the market. Suitable techniques and materials to achieve mosquito repellency are discussed and pointed out according to our project. In this study textile, sample was treated with binder and schinus oil. The different property has been studied for effective mosquito repellency.

Keywords: cotton, Schinus molle seed oil, mosquito repellent, mosquito-borne diseases

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20 Interdependencies Of Culture, Economy, And Resource Availability ’ As 'Determinants Of Spatial Inequality In Cities

Authors: Shahna KC, Ar. Belay Menon, Ar. Taniya Joshua

Abstract:

As globalization in the era progresses, spatial inequality is turned to be one of the major concerns; the main intent of the Study is to focus on if there is any interdependencies of culture economy and resource availability on creating spatial inequality in cities. The paper tries to establish the relationship between spatial inequality – the quality of life – the DETERMINANT TRIAD (culture, economy, resource availability). Slum area of Dharavi is taken to evaluate the influence of these determinants on the quality of life as spatial inequality is evident there. Interdependencies of the determinants on creating spatial inequality is evaluated. For this, It is understood that these three parameters, i.e., culture, economy, resource availability, are determinants of urban design, each from the social, economic, environmental domains of sustainability, respectively. And there are studies individually on each of these aspects, how they determine the urban spaces, and how influential on the whole process of urbanization. Now extending the study towards the interdependencies of these three so as to find out how these trilogy shapes the urban form and space.

Keywords: spatial inequality, culture, economy, resource availability, quality of life

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19 Oxidation of Lignin for Production of Chemicals

Authors: Abayneh Getachew Demesa

Abstract:

Interest in renewable feedstock for the chemical industry has increased considerably over the last decades, mainly due to environmental concerns and foreseeable shortage of fossil raw materials. Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant source of bio-based raw material that is readily available and can be utilized as an alternative source for chemical production. Lignin accrues in enormous amounts as a by-product of the pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. It is estimated that 70 million tons of lignin are annually processed worldwide from the pulp and paper industry alone. Despite its attractive chemical composition, lignin is still insufficiently exploited and mainly regarded as bio-waste. Therefore, an environmentally benign process that can completely and competitively convert lignin into different value-added chemicals is needed to launch its commercial success on industrial scale. Partial wet oxidation by molecular oxygen has received increased attention as a potential process for production of chemicals from biomass wastes. In this paper, the production of chemicals by oxidation of lignin is investigated. The factors influencing the different types of products formed during the oxidation of lignin and their yields and compositions are discussed.

Keywords: biomass, lignin, waste, chemicals

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18 Modeling and Optimal Control of Pneumonia Disease with Cost Effective Strategies

Authors: Getachew Tilahun, Oluwole Makinde, David Malonza

Abstract:

We propose and analyze a non-linear mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of pneumonia disease in a population of varying size. The deterministic compartmental model is studied using stability theory of differential equations. The effective reproduction number is obtained and also the local and global asymptotically stability conditions for the disease free and as well as for the endemic equilibria are established. The model exhibit a backward bifurcation and the sensitivity indices of the basic reproduction number to the key parameters are determined. Using Pontryagin’s maximum principle, the optimal control problem is formulated with three control strategies; namely disease prevention through education, treatment and screening. The cost effectiveness analysis of the adopted control strategies revealed that the combination of prevention and treatment is the most cost effective intervention strategies to combat the pneumonia pandemic. Numerical simulation is performed and pertinent results are displayed graphically.

Keywords: cost effectiveness analysis, optimal control, pneumonia dynamics, stability analysis, numerical simulation

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17 An Assessment on the Economic Benefit of Cactus Crop in the Case of Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

Authors: Fikre Belay Tekulu

Abstract:

Cactus is a plant with very thick and fleshy stems. It is often covered with prickles, and it usually grows in desert and semi-desert areas of the world. Cactus has different benefits such as the source of food, medicine, chemical and income. Therefore, the objective of this research was to assess the economic benefit of cactus as a potential source of food for both humans and animals in the Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Tigray region of Ethiopia. For this study, questionnaires, structured interviews, field observations and documentary analysis were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households and concerned bodies. Probability and non - probability sampling methods were used in this study. The sample is selected using simple random sampling from the entire target of the population (1230, which is 135(11%). Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were used to describe the findings. Tables, charts and percentages were used in summarizing the quantitative data. The survey result shows that in the study area, out of the total area of the District, 1607.05 hectares of the land is covered by cactus crops. Even though the area is characterized by a potential on the cactus crop but the farmers used cactus crop only as of the diet for human beings and as forage for animals, particularly for cattle.

Keywords: cactus, economic, social, benefit

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16 Mother and Father Involvement and Students’ School Performance: A Study on Private Primary Schools in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia

Authors: Alemayehu Belay Emagnaw

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of mother and father involvement with students’ school performance and the effect of selected family demographic variables (mother and father education, family structure and sex of students) to the involvement of mothers and fathers in their children’s school performance. In addition, this study attempted to differentiate the level of involvement of mothers’ and fathers’ in their children’s school performance. The research was conducted in Bahirdar City, Ethiopia. A total of 175 students (boys were 85 and girls were 90) of grade 7th and 8th private primary schools were selected as respondents using stratified random sampling technique. The data were collected using a questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that fathers and mothers have significant involvement in their children’s school performance. A significant difference was also found between mothers and fathers involvement in their children’s school performance. Mothers were better involved in their children school performance than fathers. The analysis of inter-correlation between variables showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between mother and father education, mother and father involvement, and school performance whereas, family structure and sex of the child had no significant relationship with school performance.

Keywords: family structure, parental education, parental involvement, school performance

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15 The Dynamics of a 3D Vibrating and Rotating Disc Gyroscope

Authors: Getachew T. Sedebo, Stephan V. Joubert, Michael Y. Shatalov

Abstract:

Conventional configuration of the vibratory disc gyroscope is based on in-plane non-axisymmetric vibrations of the disc with a prescribed circumferential wave number. Due to the Bryan's effect, the vibrating pattern of the disc becomes sensitive to the axial component of inertial rotation of the disc. Rotation of the vibrating pattern relative to the disc is proportional to the inertial angular rate and is measured by sensors. In the present paper, the authors investigate a possibility of making a 3D sensor on the basis of both in-plane and bending vibrations of the disc resonator. We derive equations of motion for the disc vibratory gyroscope, where both in-plane and bending vibrations are considered. Hamiltonian variational principle is used in setting up equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions. The theory of thin shells with the linear elasticity principles is used in formulating the problem and also the disc is assumed to be isotropic and obeys Hooke's Law. The governing equation for a specific mode is converted to an ODE to determine the eigenfunction. The resulting ODE has exact solution as a linear combination of Bessel and Neumann functions. We demonstrate how to obtain an explicit solution and hence the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for annular disc with fixed inner boundary and free outer boundary. Finally, the characteristics equations are obtained and the corresponding eigenvalues are calculated. The eigenvalues are used for the calculation of tuning conditions of the 3D disc vibratory gyroscope.

Keywords: Bryan’s effect, bending vibrations, disc gyroscope, eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, tuning conditions

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14 Additive Carbon Dots Nanocrystals for Enhancement of the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell in Energy Applications Technology

Authors: Getachew Kuma Watiro

Abstract:

The need for solar energy is constantly increasing and it is widely available on the earth’s surface. Photovoltaic technology is one of the most capable of all viable energy technology and is seen as a promising approach to the control era as it is readily available and has zero carbon emissions. Inexpensive and versatile solar cells have achieved the conversion efficiency and long life of dye-sensitized solar cells, improving the conversion efficiency from the sun to electricity. DSSCs have received a lot of attention for Various potential commercial uses, such as mobile devices and portable electronic devices, as well as integrated solar cell modules. The systematic reviews were used to show the critical impact of additive C-dots in the Dye-Sensitized solar cell for energy application technology. This research focuses on the following methods to synthesize nanoparticles such as facile, polyol, calcination, and hydrothermal technique. In addition to these, there are additives C-dots by the Hydrothermal method. This study deals with the progressive development of DSSC in photovoltaic technology. The applications of single and heterojunction structure technology devices were used (ZnO, NiO, SnO2, and NiO/ZnO/N719) and applied some additives C-dots (ZnO/C-dots /N719, NiO/C-dots /N719, SnO2 /C-dots /N719 and NiO/ZnO/C-dots/N719) and the effects of C-dots were reviewed. More than all, the technology of DSSC with C-dots enhances efficiency. Finally, recommendations have been made for future research on the application of DSSC with the use of these additives.

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cells, heterojunction’s structure, carbon dot, conversion efficiency

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13 Performance of Visual Inspection Using Acetic Acid for Cervical Cancer Screening as Compared to HPV DNA Testingin Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Agajie Likie Bogale, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Getnet Mitike Kassie, Girmay Medhin, Jemal Haidar Ali, Nega Berhe Belay

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of visual inspection using acetic acid compared with HPV DNA testing among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Methods: Acomparative cross-sectional study was conducted to address the aforementioned objective. Data were collected from January to October 2021 to compare the performance of these two screening modalities. Trained clinicians collected cervical specimens and immediately applied acetic acid for visual inspection. The HPV DNA testing was done using Abbott m2000rt/SP by trained laboratory professionals in accredited laboratories. A total of 578 HIV positive women with age 25-49 years were included. Results: Test positivity was 8.9% using VIA and 23.3% using HPV DNA test. The sensitivity and specificity of the VIA test were 19.2% and 95.1%, respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values of the VIA test were 54.4% and 79.4%, respectively. The strength of agreement between the two screening methods was poor (k=0.184), and the area under the curve was 0.572. The burden of genetic distribution of high risk HPV16 was 3.8%, and mixed HPV16& other HR HPV was 1.9%. Other high risk HPV types were predominant in this study (15.7%). Conclusion: The high positivity result using HPV DNA testing compared with VIA, and low sensitivity of VIA are indicating that the implementation of HPV DNA testing as the primary screening strategy is likely to reduce cervical cancer cases and deaths of women in the country.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening, HPV DNA, VIA, Ethiopia

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12 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek

Abstract:

Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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11 Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Urban Sprawl: a Case Study of Adigrat City, Ethiopia

Authors: Fikre Belay Tekulu

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This thesis presents the socio-economic and environmental impacts of urban sprawl in the case of Adigrat city, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. The main objective of this research is to assess major causes, trends, and socio-economic and environmental impacts of the urban sprawl of Adigrat city. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods as questionnaires, interviews, and observation used for data collection. Simple random sampling has been used to select the participants. The land use and land cover change for agricultural land and forest and grassland resource analysis is done with the aid of GIS. Urban sprawl is mainly caused by the rapid population growth, increase in the living and property cost in the core of the city, land demand and land speculation and the growth of transport, and an increase in income of people and demand of more living space. The study indicates 15726.24 hectares (515.49 percent) of new land added to the city jurisdiction from its adjacent Gantafeshum Wereda between 1986 and 2018. The population of Adigrat city increased by 9.045 percent per year, while the city expanded 16.01 percent per annum and theLCR was 0.0233 hectares per person between 1986 and 2018. Built-up area increased by 35.27 percent per annum, while agricultural land, forests, and grassland cover decreased by 1.68 percent and 1.26 percent per annum, respectively, in the last thirty three years. This rapid growth of urban sprawl brought social-economic and environmental change in the city that has been observed by the city residents. Therefore, the city administration should need strong, integrated, effective, and efficient work with its neighbor rural area and also done timely preparation, implementation, supervision, and evaluation of the structural plan of the city to bring out sustainable development of the city.

Keywords: causes, trends, urban sprawl, land use and land cover, GIS

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10 Risk Factors Associated with Dengue Fever Outbreak in Diredawa Administration City, Ethiopia, October 2015: A Case Control Study

Authors: Luna Degife, Desalegn Belay, Yoseph Worku, Tigist Tesfaye, Assefa Tufa, Abyot Bekele, Zegeye Hailemariam, Abay Hagos

Abstract:

Half of the world’s population is at risk of Dengue Fever (DF), a highly under-recognized and underreported mosquito-borne viral disease with high prevalence in the tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, an estimated 50 to 200 million cases and 20, 000 DF deaths occur annually as per the world health organization report. In Ethiopia, the first outbreak occurred in 2013 in Diredawa administration city. Afterward, three outbreaks have been reported from the eastern part of the country. We received a report of the fifth DF outbreak for Ethiopia and the second for Diredawa city on October 4, 2015. We conducted the investigation to confirm the outbreak, identify the risk factors for the repeatedly occurrence of the disease and implement control measures. We conducted un- matched case-control study and defined a suspected DF case as any person with fever of 2-7 days and 2 or more of the following: a headache, arthralgia, myalgia, rash, or bleeding from any part of the body. Controls were residents of Diredawa city without DF symptoms. We interviewed 70 Cases and 140 controls from all health facilities in Diredawa city from October 7 to 15; 2015. Epi Info version 7.1.5.0 was used to analyze the data and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess risk factors for DF. Sixty-nine blood samples were collected for Laboratory confirmation.The mean age for cases was 23.7±9.5 standard deviation (SD) and for controls 31.2±13 SD. Close contact with DF patient (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=5.36, 95% confidence interval(CI): 2.75-10.44), nonuse of long-lasting insecticidal nets (AOR=2.74, 95% CI: 1.06-7.08) and availability of stagnant water in the village (AOR=3.61, 95% CI:1.31-9.93) were independent risk factors associated with higher rates of the disease. Forty-two samples were tested positive. Endemicity of DF is becoming a concern for Diredawa city after the first outbreak. Therefore, effective vector control activities need to be part of long-term preventive measures.

Keywords: dengue fever, Diredawa, outbreak, risk factors, second

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9 Developing Wearable EMG Sensor Designed for Parkinson's Disease (PD) Monitoring, and Treatment

Authors: Bulcha Belay Etana

Abstract:

Electromyography is used to measure the electrical activity of muscles for various health monitoring applications using surface electrodes or needle electrodes. Recent developments in electromyogram signal acquisition using textile electrodes open the door for wearable health monitoring which enables patients to monitor and control their health issues outside of traditional healthcare facilities. The aim of this research is therefore to develop and analyze wearable textile electrodes for the acquisition of electromyography signals for Parkinson’s patients and apply an appropriate thermal stimulus to relieve muscle cramping. In order to achieve this, textile electrodes are sewn with a silver-coated thread in an overlapping zigzag pattern into an inextensible fabric, and stainless steel knitted textile electrodes attached to a sleeve were prepared and its electrical characteristics including signal to noise ratio were compared with traditional electrodes. To relieve muscle cramping, a heating element using stainless steel conductive yarn Sewn onto a cotton fabric, coupled with a vibration system were developed. The system was integrated using a microcontroller and a Myoware muscle sensor so that when muscle cramping occurs, measured by the system activates the heating elements and vibration motors. The optimum temperature considered for treatment was 35.50c, so a Temperature measurement system was incorporated to deactivate the heating system when the temperature reaches this threshold, and the signals indicating muscle cramping have subsided. The textile electrode exhibited a signal to noise ratio of 6.38dB while the signal to noise ratio of the traditional electrode was 7.05dB. The rise time of the developed heating element was about 6 minutes to reach the optimum temperature using a 9volt power supply. The treatment of muscle cramping in Parkinson's patients using heat and muscle vibration simultaneously with a wearable electromyography signal acquisition system will improve patients’ livelihoods and enable better chronic pain management.

Keywords: electromyography, heating textile, vibration therapy, parkinson’s disease, wearable electronic textile

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8 Impact of Climate Variability on Household's Crop Income in Central Highlands and Arssi Grain Plough Areas of Ethiopia

Authors: Arega Shumetie Ademe, Belay Kassa, Degye Goshu, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo

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Currently the world economy is suffering from one critical problem, climate change. Some studies done before identified that impact of the problem is region specific means in some part of the world (temperate zone) there is improvement in agricultural performance but in some others like in the tropics there is drastic reduction in crop production and crop income. Climate variability is becoming dominant cause of short-term fluctuation in rain-fed agricultural production and income of developing countries. The purely rain-fed Ethiopian agriculture is the most vulnerable sector to the risks and impacts of climate variability. Thus, this study tried to identify impact of climate variability on crop income of smallholders in Ethiopia. The research used eight rounded unbalanced panel data from 1994- 2014 collected from six villages in the study area. After having all diagnostic tests the research used fixed effect method of regression. Based on the regression result rainfall and temperature deviation from their respective long term averages have negative and significant effect on crop income. Other extreme devastating shocks like flood, storm and frost, which are sourced from climate variability, have significant and negative effect on crop income of households’. Parameters that notify rainfall inconsistency like late start, variation in availability at growing season, and early cessation are critical problems for crop income of smallholder households as to the model result. Given this, impact of climate variability is not consistent in different agro-ecologies of the country. Rainfall variability has similar impact on crop income in different agro-ecology, but variation in temperature affects cold agro-ecology villages negatively and significantly, while it has positive effect in warm villages. Parameters that represent rainfall inconsistency have similar impact in both agro-ecologies and the aggregate model regression. This implies climate variability sourced from rainfall inconsistency is the main problem of Ethiopian agriculture especially the crop production sub-sector of smallholder households.

Keywords: climate variability, crop income, household, rainfall, temperature

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7 Investigation of Wind Farm Interaction with Ethiopian Electric Power’s Grid: A Case Study at Ashegoda Wind Farm

Authors: Fikremariam Beyene, Getachew Bekele

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Ethiopia is currently on the move with various projects to raise the amount of power generated in the country. The progress observed in recent years indicates this fact clearly and indisputably. The rural electrification program, the modernization of the power transmission system, the development of wind farm is some of the main accomplishments worth mentioning. As it is well known, currently, wind power is globally embraced as one of the most important sources of energy mainly for its environmentally friendly characteristics, and also that once it is installed, it is a source available free of charge. However, integration of wind power plant with an existing network has many challenges that need to be given serious attention. In Ethiopia, a number of wind farms are either installed or are under construction. A series of wind farm is planned to be installed in the near future. Ashegoda Wind farm (13.2°, 39.6°), which is the subject of this study, is the first large scale wind farm under construction with the capacity of 120 MW. The first phase of 120 MW (30 MW) has been completed and is expected to be connected to the grid soon. This paper is concerned with the investigation of the wind farm interaction with the national grid under transient operating condition. The main concern is the fault ride through (FRT) capability of the system when the grid voltage drops to exceedingly low values because of short circuit fault and also the active and reactive power behavior of wind turbines after the fault is cleared. On the wind turbine side, a detailed dynamic modelling of variable speed wind turbine of a 1 MW capacity running with a squirrel cage induction generator and full-scale power electronics converters is done and analyzed using simulation software DIgSILENT PowerFactory. On the Ethiopian electric power corporation side, after having collected sufficient data for the analysis, the grid network is modeled. In the model, a fault ride-through (FRT) capability of the plant is studied by applying 3-phase short circuit on the grid terminal near the wind farm. The results show that the Ashegoda wind farm can ride from voltage deep within a short time and the active and reactive power performance of the wind farm is also promising.

Keywords: squirrel cage induction generator, active and reactive power, DIgSILENT PowerFactory, fault ride-through capability, 3-phase short circuit

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6 Epidemiology of Low Back Pain among Nurses Working in Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mengestie Mulugeta Belay, Serebe Abay Gebrie, Biruk Lambbiso Wamisho, Amare Worku

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain (LBP) related to nursing profession, is a very common public health problem throughout the world. Various risk factors have been implicated in the etiology and LBP is assumed to be of multi-factorial origin as individual, work-related and psychosocial factors can contribute to its development. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors of LBP among nurses working in Addis Ababa City Public Hospitals, Ethiopia, in the year 2015. Settings: Addis Ababa University, Black-Lion (‘Tikur Anbessa’) Hospital-BLH, is the country’s highest tertiary level referral and teaching Hospital. The three departments in connection with this study: Radiology, Pathology and Orthopedics, run undergraduate and residency programs and receive referred patients from all over the country. Methods: A cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted throughout the period October-December, 2015. Sample was chosen by simple random sampling technique by taken the lists of nurses from human resource departments as a sampling frame. A well-structured, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantifiable information. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, back pain features, consequences of back pain, work-related and psychosocial factors. The collected data was entered into EpiInfo version 3.5.4 and was analyzed by SPSS. A probability level of 0.05 or less and 95% confidence level was used to indicate statistical significance. Ethical clearance was obtained from all respected administrative bodies, Hospitals and study participants. Results: The study included 395 nurses and gave a response rate of 91.9%. The mean age was 30.6 (±8.4) years. Majority of the respondents were female (285, 72.2%). Nearly half of the participants (n=181, 45.8% (95% CI (40.8%- 50.6%))) were complained low back pain. There was statistical significant association between low back pain and working shift, physical activities at work; sleep disturbance and felt little pleasure by doing things. Conclusion: A high prevalence of low back pain was found among nurses working in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals. Recognition and preventive measures like providing resting periods should be taken to reduce the risk of low back pain in nurses working in Public hospitals.

Keywords: low back pain, risk factors, nurses, public hospitals

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5 Harnessing Clinical Trial Capacity to Mitigate Zoonotic Diseases: The Role of Expert Scientists in Ethiopia

Authors: Senait Belay Adugna, Mirutse Giday, Tsegahun Manyazewal

Abstract:

Background: The emergence and resurgence of zoonotic diseases have continued to be a major threat to global health and the economy. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable due to agricultural expansions and the domestication of animals by humans. Scientifically sound clinical trials are important to find better ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat zoonotic diseases, while there is a lack of evidence to inform the clinical trials’ capacity and practice in countries highly affected by the diseases. This study aimed to investigate researchers’ perceptions and experiences in conducting clinical trials on zoonotic diseases in Ethiopia. Methods: This study employed a descriptive, qualitative study design. It included major academic and research institutions in Ethiopia that had active engagements in veterinary and public health research. It included the National Veterinary Institute, the National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, the College of Veterinary Medicine at Addis Ababa University, the Ethiopian Public Health Institute, the Armauer Hansen Research Institute, and the College of Health Sciences at Addis Ababa University. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 senior researcher investigators in the institutions who hold a proven exhibit primarily leading research activities or research units. Data were collected from October 2019 to April 2020. Data analysis was undertaken using open code 4.03 for qualitative data analysis. Results: Five major themes, with 18 sub-themes, emerged from the in-depth interview in connection. These were: challenges in the prevention, control, and treatment of zoonotic diseases; One Health approach to mitigate zoonotic diseases; personal and institutional experiences in conducting clinical trials on zoonotic diseases; barriers in conducting clinical trials towards zoonotic diseases; and strategies that promote conducting clinical trials on zoonotic diseases. Conducting clinical trials on zoonotic diseases in Ethiopia is hampered by a lack of clearly articulated ethics and regulatory frameworks, trial experts, financial resources, and good governance. Conclusions: In Ethiopia, conducting clinical trials on zoonotic diseases deserves due attention. Strengthening institutional and human resources capacity is a precondition to harnessing effective implementation of clinical trials on zoonotic diseases in the country. In Ethiopia, where skilled human resource is scarce, the One Health approach has the potential to form multidisciplinary teams to systematically improve clinical trials capacity and outcomes in the country.

Keywords: Ethiopia, clinical triak, zoonoses, disease

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4 Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strains and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Cases of Child Diarrhea at Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Benyam Zenebe, Tesfaye Sisay, Gurja Belay, Workabeba Abebe

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence and antibiogram of pathogenic E. coli strains, which cause diarrhea vary from region to region, and even within countries in the same geographical area. In Ethiopia, diagnostic approaches to E. coli induced diarrhea in children less than five years of age are not standardized. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of pathogenic E. coli strains in child diarrhea and determine the antibiograms of the isolates in children less than 5 years of age with diarrhea at Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A purposive study that included 98 diarrheic children less than five years of age was conducted at Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences, TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to detect pathogenic E. coli biotypes. Stool culture was used to identify presumptive E. coliisolates. Presumptive isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed on confirmed E. coli isolates by the disk diffusion method. DNA was extracted from confirmed isolates by a heating method and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction or the presence of virulence genes. Amplified PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Data were collected on child demographics and clinical conditions using administered questionnaires. The prevalence of E. coli strains from the total diarrheic children, and the prevalence of pathogenic strains from total E. coli isolates along with their susceptibility profiles; the distribution of pathogenic E.coli biotypes among different age groups and between the sexes were determined by using descriptive statistics. Result: Out of 98 stool specimens collected from diarrheic children less than 5 years of age, 75 presumptive E. coli isolates were identified by culture; further confirmation by biochemical tests showed that only 56 of the isolates were E. coli; 29 of the isolates were found in male children and 27 of them in female children. Out of the 58 isolates of E. coli, 25 pathotypes belonging to different classes of pathogenic strains: STEC, EPEC, EHEC, EAEC were detected by using the PCR technique. Pathogenic E. coli exhibited high rates of antibiotic resistance to many of the antibiotics tested. Moreover, they exhibited multiple drug resistance. Conclusion: This study found that the isolation rate of E. coli and the involvement of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic E. coli in diarrheic children is prominent, and hence focus should be given on the diagnosis and antimicrobial sensitivity testing of pathogenic E. coli at Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital. Among antibiotics tested, Cefotitan could be a drug of choice to treat E. coli.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility profile, children, diarrhea, E. coli, pathogenic

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3 Variation among East Wollega Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Landraces for Quality Attributes

Authors: Getachew Weldemichael, Sentayehu Alamerew, Leta Tulu, Gezahegn Berecha

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Coffee quality improvement program is becoming the focus of coffee research, as the world coffee consumption pattern shifted to high-quality coffee. However, there is limited information on the genetic variation of C. Arabica for quality improvement in potential specialty coffee growing areas of Ethiopia. Therefore, this experiment was conducted with the objectives of determining the magnitude of variation among 105 coffee accessions collected from east Wollega coffee growing areas and assessing correlations between the different coffee qualities attributes. It was conducted in RCRD with three replications. Data on green bean physical characters (shape and make, bean color and odor) and organoleptic cup quality traits (aromatic intensity, aromatic quality, acidity, astringency, bitterness, body, flavor, and overall standard of the liquor) were recorded. Analysis of variance, clustering, genetic divergence, principal component and correlation analysis was performed using SAS software. The result revealed that there were highly significant differences (P<0.01) among the accessions for all quality attributes except for odor and bitterness. Among the tested accessions, EW104 /09, EW101 /09, EW58/09, EW77/09, EW35/09, EW71/09, EW68/09, EW96 /09, EW83/09 and EW72/09 had the highest total coffee quality values (the sum of bean physical and cup quality attributes). These genotypes could serve as a source of genes for green bean physical characters and cup quality improvement in Arabica coffee. Furthermore, cluster analysis grouped the coffee accessions into five clusters with significant inter-cluster distances implying that there is moderate diversity among the accessions and crossing accessions from these divergent inter-clusters would result in hetrosis and recombinants in segregating generations. The principal component analysis revealed that the first three principal components with eigenvalues greater than unity accounted for 83.1% of the total variability due to the variation of nine quality attributes considered for PC analysis, indicating that all quality attributes equally contribute to a grouping of the accessions in different clusters. Organoleptic cup quality attributes showed positive and significant correlations both at the genotypic and phenotypic levels, demonstrating the possibility of simultaneous improvement of the traits. Path coefficient analysis revealed that acidity, flavor, and body had a high positive direct effect on overall cup quality, implying that these traits can be used as indirect criteria to improve overall coffee quality. Therefore, it was concluded that there is considerable variation among the accessions, which need to be properly conserved for future improvement of the coffee quality. However, the variability observed for quality attributes must be further verified using biochemical and molecular analysis.

Keywords: accessions, Coffea arabica, cluster analysis, correlation, principal component

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2 Implementing Quality Improvement Projects to Enhance Contraception and Abortion Care Service Provision and Pre-Service Training of Health Care Providers

Authors: Munir Kassa, Mengistu Hailemariam, Meghan Obermeyer, Kefelegn Baruda, Yonas Getachew, Asnakech Dessie

Abstract:

Improving the quality of sexual and reproductive health services that women receive is expected to have an impact on women’s satisfaction with the services, on their continued use and, ultimately, on their ability to achieve their fertility goals or reproductive intentions. Surprisingly, however, there is little empirical evidence of either whether this expectation is correct, or how best to improve service quality within sexual and reproductive health programs so that these impacts can be achieved. The Recent focus on quality has prompted more physicians to do quality improvement work, but often without the needed skill sets, which results in poorly conceived and ultimately unsuccessful improvement initiatives. As this renders the work unpublishable, it further impedes progress in the field of health care improvement and widens the quality chasm. Moreover, since 2014, the Center for International Reproductive Health Training (CIRHT) has worked diligently with 11 teaching hospitals across Ethiopia to increase access to contraception and abortion care services. This work has included improving pre-service training through education and curriculum development, expanding hands-on training to better learn critical techniques and counseling skills, and fostering a “team science” approach to research by encouraging scientific exploration. This is the first time this systematic approach has been applied and documented to improve access to high-quality services in Ethiopia. The purpose of this article is to report initiatives undertaken, and findings concluded by the clinical service team at CIRHT in an effort to provide a pragmatic approach to quality improvement projects. An audit containing nearly 300 questions about several aspects of patient care, including structure, process, and outcome indicators was completed by each teaching hospital’s quality improvement team. This baseline audit assisted in identifying major gaps and barriers, and each team was responsible for determining specific quality improvement aims and tasks to support change interventions using Shewart’s Cycle for Learning and Improvement (the Plan-Do-Study-Act model). To measure progress over time, quality improvement teams met biweekly and compiled monthly data for review. Also, site visits to each hospital were completed by the clinical service team to ensure monitoring and support. The results indicate that applying an evidence-based, participatory approach to quality improvement has the potential to increase the accessibility and quality of services in a short amount of time. In addition, continued ownership and on-site support are vital in promoting sustainability. This approach could be adapted and applied in similar contexts, particularly in other African countries.

Keywords: abortion, contraception, quality improvement, service provision

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1 Reducing Road Traffic Accident: Rapid Evidence Synthesis for Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Tesfaye Dagne, Dagmawit Solomon, Firmaye Bogale, Yosef Gebreyohannes, Samson Mideksa, Mamuye Hadis, Desalegn Ararso, Ermias Woldie, Tsegaye Getachew, Sabit Ababor, Zelalem Kebede

Abstract:

Globally, road traffic accident (RTA) is causing millions of deaths and injuries every year. It is one of the leading causes of death among people of all age groups and the problem is worse among young reproductive age group. Moreover the problem is increasing with an increasing number of vehicles. The majority of the problem happen in low and middle income countries (LMIC), even if the number of vehicles in these countries is low compared to their population. So, the objective of this paper is to summarize the best available evidence on interventions that can reduce road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Method: A rapid evidence synthesis approach adapted from the SURE Rapid Response Service was applied to search, appraise and summarize the best available evidence on effective intervention in reducing road traffic injury. To answer the question under review, we searched for relevant studies from databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, TRANSPORT, Health system evidence, Epistemonikos, and SUPPORT summary. The following key terms were used for searching: Road traffic accident, RTA, Injury, Reduc*, Prevent*, Minimiz*, “Low and middle-income country”, LMIC. We found 18 articles through a search of different databases mentioned above. After screening for the titles and abstracts of the articles, four of them which satisfy the inclusion criteria were included in the final review. Then we appraised and graded the methodological quality of systematic reviews that are deemed to be highly relevant using AMSTAR. Finding: The identified interventions to reduce road traffic accidents were legislation and enforcement, public awareness/education, speed control/ rumble strips, road improvement, mandatory motorcycle helmet, graduated driver license, street lighting. Legislation and Enforcement: Legislation focusing on mandatory motorcycle helmet usage, banning cellular phone usage when driving, seat belt laws, decreasing the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) level from 0.06 g/L to 0.02 g/L bring the best result where enforcement is there. Public Awareness/Education: focusing on seat belt use, child restraint use, educational training in health centers and schools/universities, and public awareness with media through the distribution of videos, posters/souvenirs, and pamphlets are effective in the short run. Speed Control: through traffic calming bumps, or speed bumps, rumbled strips are effective in reducing accidents and fatality. Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet: is associated with reduction in mortality. Graduated driver’s license (GDL): reduce road traffic injury by 19%. Street lighting: is a low-cost intervention which may reduce road traffic accidents.

Keywords: evidence synthesis, injury, rapid review, reducing, road traffic accident

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