Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 244

Search results for: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

244 Prevalence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection and Rifampicin Resistance among Presumptive Tuberculosis Cases Visiting Tuberculosis Clinic of Adare General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Degineh Belachew Andarge, Tariku Lambiyo Anticho, Getamesay Mulatu Jara, Musa Mohammed Ali


Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable chronic disease causedby Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). About one-third of the world’s population is latently infected with MTB. TB is among the top 10 causes of mortality throughout the globe from a single pathogen. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis,rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and associated factors among presumptive tuberculosis cases attending the tuberculosis clinic of Adare General Hospital located in Hawassa city. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 321 tuberculosis suspected patients from April toJuly 2018. Socio-demographic, environmental, and behavioral data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Sputumspecimens were analyzed using GeneXpert. Data entry was made using Epi info version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors. A p-value less than 0.05 was taken as a cut point. Results: In this study, the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 98 (30.5%) with 95% confidence interval (25.5–35.8), and the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistantMycobacterium tuberculosis among the 98 Mycobacteriumtuberculosis confirmed cases was 4 (4.1%). The prevalence of rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosisamong the tuberculosis suspected patients was 1.24%. Participants who had a history of treatment with anti-tuberculosisdrugs were more likely to develop rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions: This study identified relatively high rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis amongtuberculosis suspected patients in the study area. Early detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be givenenough attention to strengthen the management of tuberculosis cases and improve direct observation therapy short-course and eventually minimize the spread of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis strain in the community.

Keywords: rifampicin resistance, mycobacterium tuberculosis, risk factors, prevalence of TB

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243 Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Daptomycin

Authors: Ji-Chan Jang


Tuberculosis is still major health problem because there is an increase of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of the disease. Therefore, the most urgent clinical need is to discover potent agents and develop novel drug combination capable of reducing the duration of MDR and XDR tuberculosis therapy. Three reference strains H37Rv, CDC1551, W-Beijing GC1237 and six clinical isolates of MDRTB were tested to daptomycin in the range of 0.013 to 256 mg/L. Daptomycin is resistant to all tested M. tuberculosis strains not only laboratory strains but also clinical MDR strains that were isolated at different source. Daptomycin will not be an antibiotic of choice for treating infection of Gram positive atypical slowly growing M. tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, daptomycin, resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
242 Testing Immunochemical Method for the Bacteriological Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

Authors: Assiya Madenovna Borsynbayeva, Kairat Altynbekovich Turgenbayev, Nikolay Petrovich Ivanov


In this article presents the results of rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis in comparison with classical bacteriological method. The proposed method of rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis than bacteriological method allows shortening the time of diagnosis to 7 days, to visualize the growth of mycobacteria in the semi-liquid medium and differentiate the type of mycobacterium. Fast definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its derivatives in the culture medium is a new and promising direction in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Keywords: animal diagnosis of tuberculosis, bacteriological diagnostics, antigen, specific antibodies, immunological reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
241 Enzyme Inhibition Activity of Schiff Bases Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Using Molecular Docking

Authors: Imran Muhammad


The main cause of infectious disease in the modern world is Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MT). To combat tuberculosis, new and efficient drugs are an urgent need in the modern world. Schif bases are potent for their biological pharmacophore activity. Thus we selected different Vanillin-based Schiff bases for their binding activity against target enzymes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is (DprE1 (decaprenyl phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2′-epimerase), and DNA gyrase subunit-A), using molecular docking. We evaluate the inhibition potential, interaction, and binding mode of these compounds with the target enzymes.

Keywords: schiff bases, tuberculosis, DNA gyrase, DprE1, docking

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240 Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tita Nofianti, Nur Rahayuningsih


Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis , docking, InhA, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide, synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
239 Inhibition of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Using High Throughput Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics Studies

Authors: Christy Rosaline, Rathankar Roa, Waheeta Hopper


Persistence of tuberculosis, emergence of multidrug-resistance and extensively drug-resistant forms of the disease, has increased the interest in developing new antitubercular drugs. Developing inhibitors for 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbDAH7Ps), an enzyme involved in shikimate pathway, gives a selective target for antitubercular agents. MtbDAH7Ps was screened against ZINC database, and shortlisted compounds were subjected to induce fit docking. Prime/Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area calculation was used to validate the binding energy of ligand-protein complex. Molecular Dynamics analysis for of the lead compounds–MtbDAH7Ps complexes showed that the backbone of MtbDAH7Ps in their complexes were stable. These results suggest that the shortlisted lead compounds ZINC04097114, ZINC15163225, ZINC16857013, ZINC06275603, and ZINC05331260 could be developed into novel drug leads to inhibit DAH7Ps in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Keywords: MtbDAH7Ps, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HTVS, molecular dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
238 The Great Mimicker: A Case of Disseminated Tuberculosis

Authors: W. Ling, Mohamed Saufi Bin Awang


Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis post a major health problem worldwide. Central nervous system (CNS) infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis. Although with advancement in medical fields, we are yet to understand the pathophysiology of how mycobacterium tuberculosis was able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and infect the CNS. CNS TB may present with nonspecific clinical symptoms which can mimic other diseases/conditions; this is what makes the diagnosis relatively difficult and challenging. Public health has to be informed and educated about the spread of TB, and early identification of TB is important as it is a curable disease. Case Report: A young 21-year-old Malay gentleman was initially presented to us with symptoms of ear discharge, tinnitus, and right-sided headache for the past one year. Further history reveals that the symptoms have been mismanaged and neglected over the period of 1 year. Initial investigation reveals features of inflammation of the ear. Further imaging showed the feature of chronic inflammation of the otitis media and atypical right cerebral abscess, which has the same characteristic features and consistency. He further underwent a biopsy, and results reveal positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the otitis media. With the results and the available imaging, we were certain that this is likely a case of disseminated tuberculosis causing CNS TB. Conclusion: We aim to highlight the challenge and difficult face in our health care system and public health in early identification and treatment.

Keywords: central nervous system tuberculosis, intracranial tuberculosis, tuberculous encephalopathy, tuberculous meningitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
237 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali


Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Mycobcaterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
236 Antibody Reactivity of Synthetic Peptides Belonging to Proteins Encoded by Genes Located in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Genomic Regions of Differences

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa


The comparisons of mycobacterial genomes have identified several Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific genomic regions that are absent in other mycobacteria and are known as regions of differences. Due to M. tuberculosis-specificity, the peptides encoded by these regions could be useful in the specific diagnosis of tuberculosis. To explore this possibility, overlapping synthetic peptides corresponding to 39 proteins predicted to be encoded by genes present in regions of differences were tested for antibody-reactivity with sera from tuberculosis patients and healthy subjects. The results identified four immunodominant peptides corresponding to four different proteins, with three of the peptides showing significantly stronger antibody reactivity and rate of positivity with sera from tuberculosis patients than healthy subjects. The fourth peptide was recognized equally well by the sera of tuberculosis patients as well as healthy subjects. Predication of antibody epitopes by bioinformatics analyses using ABCpred server predicted multiple linear epitopes in each peptide. Furthermore, peptide sequence analysis for sequence identity using BLAST suggested M. tuberculosis-specificity for the three peptides that had preferential reactivity with sera from tuberculosis patients, but the peptide with equal reactivity with sera of TB patients and healthy subjects showed significant identity with sequences present in nob-tuberculous mycobacteria. The three identified M. tuberculosis-specific immunodominant peptides may be useful in the serological diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Keywords: genomic regions of differences, Mycobacterium tuberculossis, peptides, serodiagnosis

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235 Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate

Authors: Richa Mardianingrum, Srie R. N. Endah


In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis, docking, Inhibin alpha subunit, InhA, inhibition, synthesis, isonicotinohydrazide

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
234 In silico Analysis of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: A. Nusrath Unissa, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna


Altered drug binding may be an important factor in isoniazid (INH) resistance, rather than major changes in the enzyme’s activity as a catalase or peroxidase (KatG). The identification of structural or functional defects in the mutant KatGs responsible for INH resistance remains as an area to be explored. In this connection, the differences in the binding affinity between wild-type (WT) and mutants of KatG were investigated, through the generation of three mutants of KatG, Ser315Thr [S315T], Ser315Asn [S315N], Ser315Arg [S315R] and a WT [S315]) with the help of software-MODELLER. The mutants were docked with INH using the software-GOLD. The affinity is lower for WT than mutant, suggesting the tight binding of INH with the mutant protein compared to WT type. These models provide the in silico evidence for the binding interaction of KatG with INH and implicate the basis for rationalization of INH resistance in naturally occurring KatG mutant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, KatG, INH resistance, mutants, modelling, docking

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
233 Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium bovis and Its Zoonotic Potential in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Begna Tulu, Gobena Ameni


Understanding the types of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) strains circulating in a country and exploring its zoonotic potential has significant contribution in the effort to design control strategies. The main aim of this study was to review and compile the results of studies conducted on M. bovis genotyping and its zoonotic potential of M. bovis in Ethiopia. A systematic search and review of articles published on M. bovis strains in Ethiopia were made. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were considered for the search while the keywords used were 'Mycobacteria,' 'Mycobacterium bovis,' 'Bovine Tuberculosis' and 'Ethiopia.' Fourteen studies were considered in this review and a total of 31 distinct strains of M. bovis (N=211) were obtained; the most dominant strains were SB0133 (N=62, 29.4%), SB1176 (N=61, 28.9%), and followed by SB0134 and SB1476 each (N=18, 8.5%). The clustering rate of M. bovis strains was found to be 42.0%. On the other hand, 6 strains of M. bovis were reported from human namely; SB0665 (N=4), SB0303 (N=2), SB0982 (N=2), SB0133 (N=1), SB1176 (N=1), and 1 new strain. Similarly, a total of 8 strains (N=13) of M. tuberculosis bacteria were also identified from animal subjects; namely SIT149 (N=3), SIT1 (N=2), SIT1688 (n=2), SIT262 (N=2), SIT53 (N=1), SIT59 (N=1), and one new-Ethiopian strain. The result showed that the genetic diversity of M. bovis strains reported from Ethiopia are less diversified and highly clustered. And also the result underlines that there is an ongoing active transmission of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis between human and animals in Ethiopia because a significant number strains of both type of bacteria were reported from human and animals.

Keywords: mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, zoonotic potential, genetic diversity, Ethiopia

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232 Detection of Mycobacteria spp by PCR in Raw Milk Samples Collected from Iran

Authors: Shokoufeh Roudashti, Shahin Bahari, Fakhri Haghi, Habib Zeighami, Ghazal Naderi, Paniz Shirmast


Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. Mycobacterium MTBC is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The disease can transmit to human by direct contact with the infected animals, drinking unpasteurized milk and consumption of uncooked meat. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk. Tuberculosis MTBC is the predominant infectious cause of morbidity and morality worldwide, It is estimated that one third of the world population (approx. 1.8 billion persons) is infected with M. tuberculosis and each year there are 8 million new cases worldwide. The aim of this study, to detect Mycobacterium MTBC in raw milk samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: In the present study, 60 raw milk samples were collected from rural areas in Zanjan, Iran. After extraction of DNAs and using special primers for Is6110 gene as a marker, PCR was applied to detect the presence or non-presence of the related gene. Results: According to the findings of this study, 8 (13.5 %) out of 60 milk samples were positive for Mycobacterium spp (P < 0.1). Conclusions: The Outbreak of genus Mycobacteria spp in milk samples were determined to be relatively high in Zanjan, Iran.

Keywords: Mycobacteria spp, raw milk, PCR, Zanjan

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
231 Functional Characterization of Transcriptional Regulator WhiB Proteins of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Authors: Sonam Kumari


Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, possesses a remarkable feature of entering into and emerging from a persistent state. The mechanism by which Mtb switches from the dormant state to the replicative form is still poorly characterized. Proteome studies have given us an insight into the role of certain proteins in giving stupendous virulence to Mtb, but numerous dotsremain unconnected and unaccounted. The WhiB family of proteins is one such protein that is associated with developmental processes in actinomycetes.Mtb has seven such proteins (WhiB1 to WhiB7).WhiB proteins are transcriptional regulators; their conserved C-terminal HTH motif is involved in DNA binding. They regulate various essential genes of Mtbby binding to their promoter DNA. Biophysical Analysis of the effect of DNA binding on WhiB proteins has not yet been appropriately characterized. Interaction with DNA induces conformational changes in the WhiB proteins, confirmed by steady-state fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. ITC has deduced thermodynamic parameters and the binding affinity of the interaction. Since these transcription factors are highly unstable in vitro, their stability and solubility were enhanced by the co-expression of molecular chaperones. The present study findings help determine the conditions under which the WhiB proteins interact with their interacting partner and the factors that influence their binding affinity. This is crucial in understanding their role in regulating gene expression in Mtbandin targeting WhiB proteins as a drug target to cure TB.

Keywords: tuberculosis, WhiB proteins, mycobacterium tuberculosis, nucleic acid binding

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230 Synthesis of New Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs

Authors: M. S. Deshpande, Snehal D. Bomble


Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly contagious disease that is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. More than sixty years ago, the introduction of the first anti-TB drugs for the treatment of TB (streptomycin (STR), p-aminosalcylic acid (PAS), isoniazid (INH), and then later ethambutol (EMB) and rifampicin (RIF)) gave optimism to the medical community, and it was believed that the disease would be completely eradicated soon. Worldwide, the number of TB cases has continued to increase, but the incidence rate has decreased since 2003. Recently, highly drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged worldwide. The prolonged use of classical drugs developed a growing resistance and these drugs have gradually become less effective and incapable to meet the challenges, especially those of multi drug resistant (MDR)-TB, extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB, and HIV-TB co-infections. There is an unmet medical need to discover newer synthetic molecules and new generation of potent drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis which will shorten the time of treatment, be potent and safe while effective facing resistant strains and non-replicative, latent forms, reduce adverse side effect and not interfere in the antiretroviral therapy. This paper attempts to bring out the review of anti-TB drugs, and presents a novel method of synthesizing new anti-tuberculosis drugs and potential compounds to overcome the bacterial resistance and combat the re-emergence of tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, mycobacterium, multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB, extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
229 Investigation of Rifampicin and Isoniazid Resistance Mutated Genes in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolated From Patients

Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Amin Mousavi Sagharchi, Alireza Mahmoudi Nasab, Tim Bakker


Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the most intelligent bacterium that existed in the world to our best knowledge. This bacterium can cause tuberculosis (TB) which is responsible for its spread speed and murder of millions of people around the world. MTB has the practical function to escape from anti-tuberculosis drugs (AT), for this purpose, it handles some mutations in the main genes and creates new patterns for inhibited genes. Method and materials: Researchers have their best tries to safely isolate MTB from the sputum specimens of 35 patients in some hospitals in the Tehran province and detect MTB by culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and microscopic examination. DNA was extracted from the established bacterial colony by enzymatic extraction method. It was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, reverse hybridization, and evaluation for detection of resistance genes; generally, researchers apply GenoType MTBDRplus assay. Results: Investigations of results declare us that 21 of the isolated specimens (about 60%) have mutation in rpoB gene, which resisted to rifampicin (most prevalence), and 8 of them (about 22.8%) have mutation in katG or inhA genes which resisted to isoniazid. Also, 4 of them (about 11.4%) don't have any mutation, and 2 of them (about 5.7%) have mutation in every three genes, which makes them resistant to the two drugs mentioned above. Conclusion: Rifampicin and isoniazid are two essential AT that using in the first line of treatment. Resistance in rpoB, and katG, and inhA genes related to mentioned drugs lead to ineffective treatment.

Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis, drug resistance, isoniazid, rifampicin

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228 Disseminated Tuberculosis: Experience from Tuberculosis Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Center at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in the Philippines

Authors: Jamie R. Chua, Christina Irene D. Mejia, Regina P. Berba


Disseminated tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis involving two or more non-contiguous sites identified through bacteriologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Over the five year period included in the study, the UP-PGH TB DOTS clinic had total of 3,967 referrals, and the prevalence of disseminated tuberculosis is 1% (68/3967). The mean age was 33.9 years (range 19-64 years) with a male: female ratio of 1:1. 67% (52 patients) had no predisposing comorbid illness or immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (19%), back pain (13%), abdominal enlargement (11%) and mass (10.2%). Anemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and high-normal serum calcium were common biochemical and hematologic findings. Around 36% (25) of patients were diagnosed clinically with disseminated tuberculosis despite lacking bacteriologic evidence of multi-organ involvement. The lungs (86%) is still the most commonly involved site, followed by intestinal (22%), vertebral/Pott’s (27%), and pelvic/genital (19%). The mean time from presentation to initiation of therapy was 22 days (SD 32.7). Only 18 patients (29.3%) were properly recorded to have been referred to local TB DOTs facilities. Of the 68 patients, only 16% (11 patients) continued follow-up at PGH, and all had documented treatment completion. Treatment outcomes of the remaining were unknown. Due to the variety of involved sites, a high index of suspicion is required. Knowledge on clinical features, common radiographic findings, and histopathologic characteristics of disseminated TB is important as bacteriologic evidence of infection is not always apparent.

Keywords: disseminated tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, miliary tuberculosis, tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
227 A Unified Model for Orotidine Monophosphate Synthesis: Target for Inhibition of Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: N. Naga Subrahmanyeswara Rao, Parag Arvind Deshpande


Understanding nucleotide synthesis reaction of any organism is beneficial to know the growth of it as in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to design anti TB drug. One of the reactions of de novo pathway which takes place in all organisms was considered. The reaction takes places between phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and orotate catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and divalent metal ion gives orotdine monophosphate, a nucleotide. All the reaction steps of three experimentally proposed mechanisms for this reaction were considered to develop kinetic rate expression. The model was validated using the data for four organisms. This model could successfully describe the kinetics for the reported data. The developed model can serve as a reliable model to describe the kinetics in new organisms without the need of mechanistic determination. So an organism-independent model was developed.

Keywords: mechanism, nucleotide, organism, tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
226 An Attenuated Quadruple Gene Mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Imparts Protection against Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs

Authors: Shubhita Mathur, Ritika Kar Bahal, Priyanka Chauhan, Anil K. Tyagi


Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine available for protection against tuberculosis confers highly variable protection ranging from 0%-80%. Thus, novel vaccine strains need to be evaluated for their potential as a vaccine against tuberculosis. We had previously constructed a triple gene mutant of M. tuberculosis (MtbΔmms), having deletions in genes encoding for phosphatases mptpA, mptpB, and sapM that are involved in host-pathogen interaction. Though vaccination with Mtb∆mms strain induced protection in the lungs of guinea pigs, the mutant strain was not able to control the hematogenous spread of the challenge strain to the spleens. Additionally, inoculation with Mtb∆mms resulted in some pathological damage to the spleens in the early phase of infection. In order to overcome the pathology caused by MtbΔmms in the spleens of guinea pigs and also to control the dissemination of the challenge strain, MtbΔmms was genetically modified by disrupting bioA gene to generate MtbΔmmsb strain. Further, in vivo attenuation of MtbΔmmsb was evaluated, and its protective efficacy was assessed against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge in guinea pigs. Our study demonstrates that Mtb∆mmsb mutant was highly attenuated for growth and virulence in guinea pigs. Vaccination with Mtb∆mmsb mutant generated significant protection in comparison to sham-immunized animals at 4 and 12 weeks post-infection in lungs and spleens of the infected animals. Our findings provide evidence that deletion of genes involved in signal transduction and biotin biosynthesis severely attenuates the pathogen and the single immunization with the auxotroph was able to provide significant protection as compared to sham-immunized animals. The protection imparted by Mtb∆mmsb fell short in comparison to the protection observed in BCG-immunized animals. This study nevertheless indicates the importance of attenuated multiple gene deletion mutants of M. tuberculosis in generating protection against tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG, MtbΔmmsb, bioA, guinea pigs

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
225 Health Education and Information: A Panacea to Tuberculosis Prevention and Eradication in Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi Joseph Fasoranti


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Nigeria, being one of the ten leading causes of hospital admissions and a leading cause of death in adults, especially among the economically productive age group. This paper critically examined the importance of health education towards the eradication and prevention of tuberculosis in Nigeria. It was reviewed and discussed under the following subheadings; Global burden of tuberculosis in Nigeria, concept, definition and etiology of tuberculosis, Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, diagnosis of tuberculosis, causative agent, modes of infection and incubation period, risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis Dots and stop TB programmes in Nigeria Treatment and prevention of tuberculosis TB treatment strategies, Dealing with treatment problems in Nigeria Stigmatization against Tuberculosis Patients Health education as a tool for achieving free tuberculosis country. Emphasis for Tb control has been placed on the development of improved vaccines, diagnostic and treatment courses but less on health education and awareness. Although the need for these tools is indisputable, the obstacle facing the spread of TB go beyond technological. The findings of this study may stimulate health system policy makers, Government and non- governmental organizations, donor agencies and other stakeholders in planning and designing health education intervention programs on the control and eradication of tuberculosis. It therefore recommended that Government should implement health education as part of the DOTs, this will thus empower the tuberculosis patients on ways to live healthy, lifestyle, in doing this, they will recover fast and prevent them from spreading the disease.

Keywords: tuberculosis, health education, panacea, Nigeria, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
224 The Role of Immunologic Diamonds in Dealing with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis; Responses of Immune Cells in Affliction to the Respiratory Tuberculosis

Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Amin Mousavi Sagharchi, Elham Javanroudi


Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a known disease with hidden features caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). This disease, which is one of the 10 deadliest in the world, has caused millions of deaths in recent decades. Furthermore, TB is responsible for infecting about 30% population of world. Like any infection, TB can activate the immune system by locating and colonization in the human body, especially in the alveoli. TB is granulomatosis, so MTB can absorb the host’s immune cells and other cells to form granuloma. Method: Different databases (e.g., PubMed) were recruited to prepare this paper and fulfill our goals to search and find effective papers and investigations. Results: Immune response to MTB is related to T cell killers and contains CD1, CD4, and CD8 T lymphocytes. CD1 lymphocytes can recognize glycolipids, which highly exist in the Mycobacterial fatty cell wall. CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages form granuloma, and it is the main line of immune response to Mycobacteria. On the other hand, CD8 cells have cytolytic function for directly killing MTB by secretion of granulysin. Other functions and secretion to the deal are interleukin-12 (IL-12) by induction of expression interferon-γ (INF-γ) for macrophages activation and creating a granuloma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by promoting macrophage phagolysosomal fusion. Conclusion: Immune cells in battle with MTB are macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, and natural killer (NK) cells. These immune cells can recognize the Mycobacterium by various receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) located in the cell surface. In human alveoli exist about 50 dendritic macrophages, which have close communication with other immune cells in the circulating system and epithelial cells to deal with Mycobacteria. Against immune cells, MTB handles some factors (e.g., cordfactor, O-Ag, lipoarabinomannan, sulfatides, and adenylate cyclase) and practical functions (e.g., inhibition of macrophages).

Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, immune responses, immunological mechanisms, respiratory tuberculosis

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223 Biocompatible Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Efficient Delivery Vehicle for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Lipids to Induce Potent Cytokines and Antibody Response through Activation of γδ T-Cells in Mice

Authors: Ishani Das, Avinash Padhi, Sitabja Mukherjee, Santosh Kar, Avinash Sonawane


Activation of cell mediated and humoral immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are critical for protection. Herein, we show that mice immunized with Mtb lipid bound chitosan nanoparticles(NPs) induce secretion of prominent Th1 and Th2 cytokines in lymph node and spleen cells, and also induced significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgM in comparison to control mice measured by ELISA. Furthermore, significantly enhanced γδ-T cell activation was observed in lymph node cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan-NPs as compared to mice immunized with chitosan-NPs alone or Mtb lipid liposomes through flow cytometric analysis. Also, it was observed that in comparison to CD8+ cells, significantly higher CD4+ cells were present in both the lymph node and spleen cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan NP. In conclusion, this study represents a promising new strategy for efficient delivery of Mtb lipids using chitosan NPs to trigger enhanced cell mediated and antibody response against Mtb lipids.

Keywords: antibody response, chitosan nanoparticles, cytokines, mycobacterium tuberculosis lipids

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
222 Refinement of Existing Benzthiazole lead Targeting Lysine Aminotransferase in Dormant Stage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: R. Reshma srilakshmi, S. Shalini, P. Yogeeswari, D. Sriram


Lysine aminotransferase is a crucial enzyme for dormancy in M. tuberculosis. It is involved in persistence and antibiotic resistance. In present work, we attempted to develop benzthiazole derivatives as lysine aminotransferase inhibitors. In our attempts, we also unexpectedly arrived at an interesting compound 21 (E)-4-(5-(2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-cyanovinyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzoic acid which even though has moderate activity against persistent phase of mycobacterium, it has significant potency against active phase. In the entire series compound 22 (E)-4-(5-(2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-cyanovinyl)thiophen-2-yl)isophthalic acid emerged as potent molecule with LAT IC50 of 2.62 µM. It has a significant log reduction of 2.9 and 2.3 fold against nutrient starved and biofilm forming mycobacteria. It was found to be inactive in MABA assay and M.marinum induced zebra fish model. It is also devoid of cytotoxicity. Compound 22 was also found to possess bactericidal effect which is independent of concentration and time. It was found to be effective in combination with Rifampicin in 3D granuloma model. The results are very encouraging as the hit molecule shows activity against active as well as persistent forms of tuberculosis. The identified hit needs further more pharmacokinetic and dynamic screening for development as new drug candidate.

Keywords: benzothiazole, latent tuberculosis, LAT, nutrient starvation

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221 Identification of Promiscuous Epitopes for Cellular Immune Responses in the Major Antigenic Protein Rv3873 Encoded by Region of Difference 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa


Rv3873 is a relatively large size protein (371 amino acids in length) and its gene is located in the immunodominant genomic region of difference (RD)1 that is present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but deleted from the genomes of all the vaccine strains of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and most other mycobacteria. However, when tested for cellular immune responses using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy subjects, this protein was found to be a major stimulator of cell mediated immune responses in both groups of subjects. In order to further identify the sequence of immunodominant epitopes and explore their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restriction for epitope recognition, 24 peptides (25-mers overlapping with the neighboring peptides by 10 residues) covering the sequence of Rv3873 were synthesized chemically using fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry and tested in cell mediated immune responses. The results of these experiments helped in the identification of an immunodominant peptide P9 that was recognized by people expressing varying HLA-DR types. Furthermore, it was also predicted to be a promiscuous binder with multiple epitopes for binding to HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ alleles of HLA-class II molecules that present antigens to T helper cells, and to HLA-class I molecules that present antigens to T cytotoxic cells. In addition, the evaluation of peptide P9 using an immunogenicity predictor server yielded a high score (0.94), which indicated a greater probability of this peptide to elicit a protective cellular immune response. In conclusion, P9, a peptide with multiple epitopes and ability to bind several HLA class I and class II molecules for presentation to cells of the cellular immune response, may be useful as a peptide-based vaccine against tuberculosis.

Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, PPE68, peptides, vaccine

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220 Functional Characterization of Rv1019, a Putative TetR Family Transcriptional Regulator of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Rv

Authors: Akhil Raj Pushparajan, Ranjit Ramachandran, Jijimole Gopi Reji, Ajay Kumar Ramakrishnan


Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is one of the leading causes of death by an infectious disease. In spite of the availability of effective drugs and a vaccine, TB is a major health concern and was declared a global emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO). The success of intracellular pathogens like Mtb depends on its ability to overcome the challenging environment in the host. Gene regulation controlled by transcriptional regulators (TRs) plays a crucial role for the bacteria to adapt to the host environment. In vitro studies on gene regulatory mechanisms during dormancy and reactivation have provided insights into the adaptations employed by Mtb to survive in the host. Here we present our efforts to functionally characterize Rv1019, a putative TR of Mtb H37Rv which was found to be present at significantly varying levels during dormancy and reactivation in vitro. The expression of this protein in the dormancy-reactivation model was validated by qRT-PCR and western blot. By DNA- protein interaction studies and reporter assays we found that under normal laboratory conditions of growth this protein behaves as an auto-repressor and tetracycline was found to abrogate this repression by interfering with its ability to bind DNA. Further, by cDNA analysis, we found that this TR is co-transcribed with its downstream genes Rv1020 (mfd) and Rv1021 (mazG) which are involved in DNA damage response in Mtb. Constitutive expression of this regulator in the surrogate host M. smegmatis showed downregulation of the orthologues of downstream genes suggested that Rv1019 could negatively regulate these genes. Our finds also show that M. smegmatis expressing Rv1019 is sensitive to DNA damage suggests the role of this protein in regulating DNA damage response induced by oxidative stress. Because of its role in regulating DNA damage response which may help in the persistence of Mtb, Rv1019 could be used as a prospective target for therapeutic intervention to fight TB.

Keywords: auto-repressor, DNA repair, mycobacterium smegmatis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis

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219 Virtual Screening of Potential Inhibitors against Efflux Pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Gagan Dhawan


Mycobacterium tuberculosis was described as ‘captain of death’ with an inherent property of multiple drug resistance majorly caused by the competent mechanism of efflux pumps. In this study, various open source tools combining chemo-informatics with bioinformatics were used for efficient in-silico drug designing. The efflux pump, Rv1218c, belonging to the ABC transporter superfamily, which is predicted to be a tetronasin-transporter in M. tuberculosis was targeted. Recent studies have shown that Rv1218c forms a complex with two more efflux pumps (Rv1219c and Rv1217c) to provide multidrug resistance to the bacterium. The 3D structure of the protein was modeled (as the structure was unavailable in the previously collected databases on this gene). The TMHMM analysis of this protein in TubercuList has shown that this protein is present in the outer membrane of the bacterium. Virtual screening of compounds from various publically available chemical libraries was performed on the M. tuberculosis protein using various open source tools. These ligands were further assessed where various physicochemical properties were evaluated and analyzed. On comparison of different physicochemical properties, toxicity and docking, the ligand 2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[4, 5, 6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydropyran-3-yl] oxy-tetrahydropyran-3, 4, 5-triol was found to be best suited for further studies.

Keywords: drug resistance, efflux pump, molecular docking, virtual screening

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218 Purification and Pre-Crystallization of Recombinant PhoR Cytoplasmic Domain Protein from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Rv

Authors: Oktira Roka Aji, Maelita R. Moeis, Ihsanawati, Ernawati A. Giri-Rachman


Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and extensively drug-resistant strains have become a major public concern. One of the potential candidates for drug target is the cytoplasmic domain of PhoR Histidine Kinase, a part of the Two Component System (TCS) PhoR-PhoP in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TCS PhoR-PhoP relay extracellular signal to control the expression of 114 virulent associated genes in Mtb. The 3D structure of PhoR cytoplasmic domain is needed to screen novel drugs using structure based drug discovery. The PhoR cytoplasmic domain from Mtb H37Rv was overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), then purified using IMAC Ni-NTA Agarose his-tag affinity column and DEAE-ion exchange column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified protein was estimated to be 37 kDa after SDS-PAGE analysis. This sample was used for pre-crystallization screening by applying sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Natrix (HR2-116) 48 solutions crystal screen kit at 25ºC. Needle-like crystals were observed after the seventh day of incubation in test solution No.47 (0.1 M KCl, 0.01 M MgCl2.6H2O, 0.05 M Tris-Cl pH 8.5, 30% v/v PEG 4000). Further testing is required for confirming the crystal.

Keywords: tuberculosis, two component system, histidine kinase, needle-like crystals

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217 Protective Effect of Diosgenin against Silica-Induced Tuberculosis in Rat Model

Authors: Williams A. Adu, Cynthia A. Danquah, Paul P. S. Ossei, Selase Ativui, Michael Ofori, James Asenso, George Owusu


Background Silicosis is an occupational disease of the lung that is caused by chronic exposure to silica dust. There is a higher frequency of co-existence of silicosis with tuberculosis (TB), ultimately resulting in lung fibrosis and respiratory failure. Chronic intake of synthetic drugs has resulted in undesirable side effects. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin that has been shown to exert a therapeutic effect on lung injury. Therefore, we investigated the ability of diosgenin to reduce the susceptibility of silica-induced TB in rats. Method Silicosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 50 mg/kg crystalline silica in Sprague Dawley rats. Different doses of diosgenin (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg), Mycobacterium smegmatis and saline were administered for 30 days. Afterwards, 5 of the rats from each group were sacrificed, and the 5 remaining rats in each group, except the control, received Mycobacterium smegmatis. Treatment of diosgenin continued until the 50th day, and the rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The result was analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Graph-pad prism Result At a half-maximal inhibition concentration of 48.27 µM, diosgenin inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis. There was a marked decline in the levels of immune cell infiltration and cytokines production. Lactate dehydrogenase and total protein levels were significantly reduced compared to control. There was an increase in the survival rate of the treatment group compared to the control. Conclusion Diosgenin ameliorated silica-induced pulmonary tuberculosis by declining the levels of inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and, in effect, significantly reduced the susceptibility of rats to pulmonary TB.

Keywords: silicosis, tuberculosis, diosgenin, fibrosis, crystalline silica

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216 Design and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamate Racemase (MurI) Inhibitors

Authors: Prasanthi Malapati, R. Reshma, Vijay Soni, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram


In the present study, we attempted to develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibitors by exploring the pharmaceutically underexploited enzyme targets which are majorly involved in cell wall biosynthesis of mycobacteria. For this purpose, glutamate racemase (coded by MurI gene) was selected. This enzyme racemize L-glutamate to D-glutamate required for the construction of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall synthesis process. Furthermore this enzyme is neither expressed nor its product, D-glutamate is normally found in mammals, and hence designing inhibitors against this enzyme will not affect the host system as well act as potential antitubercular drugs. A library of BITS in house compounds were screened against Mtb MurI enzyme. Based on docking score, interactions and synthetic feasibility one hit lead was identified. Further optimization of lead was attempted and its derivatives were synthesized. Forty eight derivatives of 2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole and 2-phenylbenzo[d]thiazole were synthesized and evaluated for Mtb MurI inhibition study, in vitro activities against Mtb, cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cell line. Chemical derivatization of the lead resulted in compounds NR-1213 AND NR-1124 as the potent M. tuberculosis glutamate racemase inhibitors with IC50 of 4-5µM which are remarkable and were found to be non-cytotoxic. Molecular dynamics, dormant models and cardiotoxicity studies of the most active molecules are in process.

Keywords: cell wall biosynthesis, dormancy, glutamate racemase, tuberculosis

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215 Analysis of Ancient Bone DNA Samples From Excavations at St Peter’s Burial Ground, Blackburn

Authors: Shakhawan K. Mawlood, Catriona Pickard, Benjamin Pickard


In summer 2015 the remains of 800 children are among 1,967 bodies were exhumed by archaeologists at St Peter's Burial Ground in Blackburn, Lancashire. One hundred samples from these 19th century ancient bones were selected for DNA analysis. These comprised samples biased for those which prior osteological evidence indicated a potential for microbial infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (causing tuberculosis, TB) or Treponema pallidum (causing Syphilis) species, as well a random selection of other bones for which visual inspection suggested good preservation (and, therefore, likely DNA retrieval).They were subject to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays aimed at detecting traces of DNA from infecting mycobacteria, with the purpose both of confirming the palaeopathological diagnosis of tuberculosis and determining in individual cases whether disease and death was due to M. tuberculosis or other reasons. Our secondary goal was to determine sex determination and age prediction. The results demonstrated that extraction of vast majority ancient bones DNA samples succeeded.

Keywords: ancient bone, DNA, tuberculosis, age prediction

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