Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 625

Search results for: III-V alloy

625 Effect of Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment, could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450 °C. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420 °C and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y, however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200 °C for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging

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624 Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: S. Wisutmethangoon, S. Pannaray, T. Plookphol, J. Wannasin


2024 Aluminium alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175 °C for 36 h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.

Keywords: 2024 aluminium alloy, gas induced semi solid, T6 heat treatment, aged hardening, transmission electron microscopy

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623 Microscopic and Mesoscopic Deformation Behaviors of Mg-2Gd Alloy with or without Li Addition

Authors: Jing Li, Li Jin, Fulin Wang, Jie Dong, Wenjiang Ding


Mg-Li dual-phase alloy exhibits better combination of yield strength and elongation than the Mg single-phase alloy. To exploit its deformation behavior, the deformation mechanisms of Mg-2Gd alloy with or without Li addition, i.e., Mg-6Li-2Gd and Mg-2Gd alloy, have been studied at both microscale and mesoscale. EBSD-assisted slip trace, twin trace, and texture evolution analysis show that the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy exhibits different microscopic deformation mechanisms with the Mg-2Gd alloy, i.e., mainly prismatic slip in the former one, while basal slip, prismatic slip and extension twin in the latter one. Further Schmid factor analysis results attribute this different intra-phase deformation mechanisms to the higher critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) value of extension twin and lower ratio of CRSSprismatic /CRSSbasal in the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy. Additionally, Li addition can induce dual-phase microstructure in the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy, leading to the formation of hetero-deformation induced (HDI) stress at the mesoscale. This can be evidenced by the hysteresis loops appearing during the loading-unloading-reloading (LUR) tensile tests and the activation of multiple slip activity in the α-Mg phase neighboring β-Li phase. The Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows higher yield strength is due to the harder α-Mg phase arising from solid solution hardening of Li addition, as well asthe strengthening of soft β-Li phase by the HDI stress during yield stage. Since the strain hardening rate of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy is lower than that of Mg-2Gd alloy after ~2% strain, which is partly due to the weak contribution of HDI stress, Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows no obvious increase of uniform elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.But since the β-Li phase is effective in blunting the crack tips, the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows ununiform elongation, which, thus, leads to the higher total elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.

Keywords: Mg-Li-Gd dual-phase alloy, phase boundary, HDI stress, dislocation slip activity, mechanical properties

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622 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina


Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure

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621 An Investigation of the Strength Deterioration of Forged Aluminum 6082 (T6) Alloy

Authors: Rajveer, Abhinav Saxena, Sanjeev Das


The study is focused on the strength of forged aluminum alloy (AA) 6082 (T6). Aluminum alloy 6082 belongs to Al-Mg-Si family which has a wide range of automotive applications. A decrease in the strength of AA 6082 alloy was observed after T6 treatment. The as-received (extruded), forged, and forged + heat treated samples were examined to understand the reason. These examinations were accomplished by optical (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It was observed that the defects had an insignificant effect on the alloy strength. The alloy samples were subjected to age hardening treatment and the time to achieve peak hardening was acquired. Standard tensile specimens were prepared from as-received (extruded), forged, forged + solutionized and forged + solutionized + age hardened. Tensile tests were conducted by Instron universal testing machine. It was observed that there was a significant drop in tensile strength in the case of solutionized sample. The detailed study of the fracture samples showed that the solutionizing after forging was not the best way to increase the strength of Al 6082 alloy.

Keywords: aluminum alloy 6082, strength, forging, age hardening

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620 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee


The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: tantalum, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy, electroplating

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619 Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, yttrium, FactSage®, microstructure, mechanical properties

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618 Microswitches with Sputtered Au, Aupd, Au-on-Aupt, and Auptcu Alloy - Electric Contacts

Authors: Nikolay Konukhov


This paper to report on a new analytic model for predicting microcontact resistance and the design, fabrication, and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metal contact switches with sputtered bimetallic (i.e., gold (Au)-on-Au-platinum (Pt), (Au-on-Au-(6.3at%)Pt)), binary alloy (i.e., Au-palladium (Pd), (Au-(3.7at%)Pd)), and ternary alloy (i.e., Au-Pt-copper (Cu), (Au-(5.0at%)Pt-(0.5at%)Cu)) electric contacts. The microswitches with bimetallic and binary alloy contacts resulted in contact resistance values between 1–2

Keywords: alloys, electric contacts, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microswitch

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
617 Relationship between Extrusion Ratio and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: C. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, G. A. Lee


Reducing resource consumption and carbon dioxide emission are recognized as urgent issues. One way of resolving these issues is to reduce product weight. Magnesium alloys are considered promising candidates because of their lightness. Various studies have been conducted on using magnesium alloy instead of conventional iron or aluminum in mechanical parts, due to the light weight and superior specific strength of magnesium alloy. However, even stronger magnesium alloys are needed for mechanical parts. One common way to enhance the strength of magnesium alloy is by extruding the ingot. In order to enhance the mechanical properties, magnesium alloy ingot were extruded at various extrusion ratios. Relationship between extrusion ratio and mechanical properties was examined on extruded material of magnesium alloy. And Textures and microstructures of the extruded materials were investigated.

Keywords: extrusion, extrusion ratio, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
616 Pressure Induced Phase Transition of Semiconducting Alloy TlxGa1-xAs

Authors: Madhu Sarwan, Ritu Dubey, Sadhna Singh


We have investigated the structural phase transition from Zinc-Blende (ZB) to Rock-Salt (RS) structure of TlxGa1-xAs by using Interaction Potential Model (IPM). The IPM consists of Coulomb interaction, Three-Body Interaction (TBI), Van Der Wall (vdW) interaction and overlap repulsive short range interaction. The structural phase transition has been computed by using the vegard’s law. The volume collapse is also computed for this alloy. We have also investigated the second order elastic constants with composition for the alloy TlxGa1-xAs.

Keywords: III-V alloy, elastic moduli, phase transition, semiconductors

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615 Phase Equilibria in Zn-Al-Sn Alloy for Lead-free Solder Application

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: lead-free solder, zn-al-sn alloy, phase equilibrium, rolling, microstructure, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
614 Effect of Chromium Behavior on Mechanical and Electrical Properties Of P/M Copper-Chromium Alloy Dispersed with VGCF

Authors: Hisashi Imai, Kuan-Yu Chen, Katsuyoshi Kondoh, Hung-Yin Tsai, Junko Umeda


Microstructural and electrical properties of copper-chromium alloy (Cu-Cr) dispersed with vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) process have been investigated. Cu-0.7 mass% Cr pre-alloyed powder (Cu-Cr) made by water atomization process was used as raw materials, which contained solid solute Cr elements in Cu matrix. The alloy powder coated with un-bundled VGCF by using oil coating process was consolidated at 1223 K in vacuum by spark plasma sintering, and then extruded at 1073 K. The extruded Cu-Cr alloy (monolithic alloy) had 209.3 MPa YS and 80.4 IACS% conductivity. The extruded Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composites revealed a small decrease of YS compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr alloy. On the other hand, the composite had a higher electrical conductivity than that of the monolithic alloy. For example, Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composite sintered for 5 h showed 182.7 MPa YS and 89.7 IACS% conductivity. In the case of Cu-Cr with VGCFs composites, the Cr concentration was observed around VGCF by SEM-EDS analysis, where Cr23C6 compounds were detected by TEM observation. The amount of Cr solid solution in the matrix of the Cu-Cr composites alloy was about 50% compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr sintered alloy, and resulted in the remarkable increment of the electrical conductivity.

Keywords: powder metallurgy Cu-Cr alloy powder, vapor-grown carbon fiber, electrical conductivity

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613 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema


A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

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612 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun


This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, titanium, SEM, wear

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611 An ANOVA Approach for the Process Parameters Optimization of Al-Si Alloy Sand Casting

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Manish Nagpal


This research paper aims to propose a novel approach using ANOVA technique for the strategic investigation of process parameters and their effects on the mechanical properties of Aluminium alloy cast. The two process parameters considered here were permeability of sand and pouring temperature of aluminium alloy. ANOVA has been employed for the first time to determine the effects of these selected parameters on the impact strength of alloy. The experimental results show that this proposed technique has great potential for analyzing sand casting process. Using this approach we have determined the treatment mean square, response mean square and mean square of error as 8.54, 8.255 and 0.435 respectively. The research concluded that at the 5% level of significance, permeability of sand is the more significant parameter influencing the impact strength of cast alloy.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, pouring temperature, permeability of sand, impact strength, ANOVA

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610 Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Nonflammable Mg Alloy

Authors: Myoung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


Tensile specimens of nonflammable AZ91D Mg alloy were fabricated in this study via cold chamber die-casting process. Dimensions of tensile specimens were 25mm in length, 4mm in width, and 0.8 or 3.0mm in thickness. Microstructure observation was conducted before and after tensile tests at room temperature. In the die casting process, various injection distances from 150 to 260mm were employed to obtain optimum process conditions. Distribution of Al12Mg17 phase was the key factor to determine the mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy. Specimens with 3mm of thickness showed superior mechanical properties to those with 0.8mm of thickness. Closed networking of Al12Mg17 phase along grain boundary was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy.

Keywords: non-flammable magnesium alloy, AZ91D, die-casting, microstructure, mechanical properties

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609 Evaluation of Formability of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Ramezani M., Neitzert T.


This paper investigates mechanical properties and formability of the AZ61 magnesium alloy at high temperatures. Tensile tests were performed at elevated temperatures of up to 400ºC. The results showed that as temperature increases, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease significantly, while the material experiences an increase in ductility (maximum elongation before break). A finite element model has been developed to further investigate the formability of the AZ61 alloy by deep drawing a square cup. Effects of different process parameters such as punch and die geometry, forming speed and temperature as well as blank-holder force on deep drawability of the AZ61 alloy were studied and optimum values for these parameters are achieved which can be used as a design guide for deep drawing of this alloy.

Keywords: AZ61, formability, magnesium, mechanical properties

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608 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long


Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness

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607 Preparation of Alumina (Al2O3) Particles and MMCS of (Al-7% Si– 0.45% Mg) Alloy Using Vortex Method

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi


The aim of this research is to study the manner of alumina (Al2O3) particles dispersion with (2-10) mm size in (Al-7%Si-0.45% Mg) base of alloy melt employing of classical casting method. The mechanism of particles diffusions by melt turning and stirring that makes vortexes help the particles entrance in the matrix of base alloy also has been studied. The samples of metallic composites (MMCs) with dispersed particles percentages (4% - 6% - 8% - 10% - 15% and 20%) are prepared. The effect of the particles dispersion on the mechanical properties of produced samples were carried out by tension & hardness tests. It is found that the ultimate tensile strength of the produced composites can be increased by increasing the percentages of alumina particles in the matrix of the base alloy. It becomes (232 Mpa) at (20%) of added particles. The results showed that the average hardness of prepared samples increasing with increases the alumina content. Microstructure study of prepared samples was carried out. The results showed particles location and distribution of it in the matrix of base alloy. The dissolution of Alumina particles into liquid base alloy was clear in some cases.

Keywords: base alloy, matrix, hardness, thermal properties, base metal MMCs

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606 The Creep and Fracture Behavior of Additively Manufactured Inconel 625

Authors: Michael Kassner


Elevated-temperature creep tests were performed on additively manufactured (AM) Inconel 625 over a relatively wide range of stress. The behavior was compared to conventional wrought alloy. It was found that the steady-state creep rates of the AM alloys were comparable, or even more favorable, than that of the wrought Inconel. However, the ductility of the AM alloy was significantly less than the wrought alloy. The ductility however was recovered with hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of the AM specimens. The basis for the loss and recovery of the ductility will be discussed in terms of the differences in the details of the microstructures. In summary, it appears that HIP AM Inconel 625, over the long-term testing of a year, has very favorable mechanical properties compared to the conventional alloy.

Keywords: Inconel, creep, additive, manufacturing

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605 A Comparison between Shear Bond Strength of VMK Master Porcelain with Three Base-Metal Alloys (Ni-Cr-T3, Verabond, Super Cast) and One Noble Alloy (X-33) in Metal-Ceramic Restorations

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Elham Hamidi Shishavan


Statement of Problem: The increase in the use of metal-ceramic restorations and a high prevalence of porcelain chipping entails introducing an alloy which is more compatible with porcelain and which causes a stronger bond between the two. This study is to compare shear bond strength of three base-metal alloys and one noble alloy with the common VMK Master Porcelain. Materials and Method: Three different groups of base-metal alloys (Ni-cr-T3, Super Cast, Verabond) and one group of noble alloy (x-33) were selected. The number of alloys in each group was 15. All the groups went through the casting process and change from wax pattern into metal disks. Then, VMK Master Porcelain was fired on each group. All the specimens were put in the UTM and a shear force was loaded until a fracture occurred. The fracture force was then recorded by the machine. The data was subjected to SPSS Version 16 and One-Way ANOVA was run to compare shear strength between the groups. Furthermore, the groups were compared two by two through running Tukey test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that shear bond strength of Ni-Cr-T3 alloy was higher than the three other alloys (94 Mpa or 330 N). Super Cast alloy had the second greatest shear bond strength (80. 87 Mpa or 283.87 N). Both Verabond (69.66 Mpa or 245 N) and x-33 alloys (66.53 Mpa or 234 N) took the third place. Conclusion: Ni-Cr-T3 with VMK Master Porcelain has the greatest shear bond strength. Therefore, the use of this low-cost alloy is recommended in metal-ceramic restorations.

Keywords: shear bond, base-metal alloy, noble alloy, porcelain

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604 Effect of Texture of Orthorhombic Martensite on Thermal Expansion of Metastable Titanium Alloy

Authors: E. Stepanova, N. Popov, S. Demakov, S. Stepanov


This paper examines the so-called invar-type behavior of metastable titanium alloy subjected to cold rolling. The effect was shown to occur due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion of titanium orthorhombic martensite. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis and dilatometry analyses, the influence of crystallographic texture of orthorhombic martensite on the coefficient of thermal expansion of sheets of metastable titanium alloy VT23 was examined. Anisotropy of the coefficient of thermal expansion has been revealed. It was lower in the rolling plane and higher along the transverse direction of the cold-rolled sheet comparing to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the unprocessed alloy.

Keywords: invar-type, cold rolling, metastable titanium alloy, texture

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603 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang


Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

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602 Preparation of Nb Silicide-Based Alloy Powder by Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation (HDH) Reaction

Authors: Gi-Beom Park, Hyong-Gi Park, Seong-Yong Lee, Jaeho Choi, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The Nb silicide-based alloy has the excellent high-temperature strength and relatively lower density than the Ni-based superalloy; therefore, it has been receiving a lot of attention for the next generation high-temperature material. To enhance the high temperature creep property and oxidation resistance, Si was added to the Nb-based alloy, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure with metal solid solution and silicide phase. Since the silicide phase has a low machinability due to its brittle nature, it is necessary to fabricate components using the powder metallurgy. However, powder manufacturing techniques for the alloys have not yet been developed. In this study, we tried to fabricate Nb-based alloy powder by the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction. The Nb-based alloy ingot was prepared by vacuum arc melting and it was annealed in the hydrogen atmosphere for the hydrogenation. After annealing, the hydrogen concentration was increased from 0.004wt% to 1.22wt% and Nb metal phase was transformed to Nb hydride phase. The alloy after hydrogenation could be easily pulverized into powder by ball milling due to its brittleness. For dehydrogenation, the alloy powders were annealed in the vacuum atmosphere. After vacuum annealing, the hydrogen concentration was decreased to 0.003wt% and Nb hydride phase was transformed back to Nb metal phase.

Keywords: Nb alloy, Nb metal and silicide composite, powder, hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction

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601 Thermomechanical Processing of a CuZnAl Shape-Memory Alloy

Authors: Pedro Henrique Alves Martins, Paulo Guilherme Ferreira De Siqueira, Franco De Castro Bubani, Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Paulo Roberto Cetlin


Cu-base shape-memory alloys (CuZnAl, CuAlNi, CuAlBe, etc.) are promising engineering materials for several unconventional devices, such as sensors, actuators, and mechanical vibration dampers. Brittleness is one of the factors that limit the commercial use of these alloys, as it makes thermomechanical processing difficult. In this work, a method for the hot extrusion of a 75.50% Cu, 16,74% Zn, 7,76% Al (weight %) alloy is presented. The effects of the thermomechanical processing in the microstructure and the pseudoelastic behavior of the alloy are assessed by optical metallography, compression and hardness tests. Results show that hot extrusion is a suitable method to obtain severe cross-section reductions in the CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied. The alloy maintained its pseudoelastic effect after the extrusion and the modifications in the mechanical behavior caused by precipitation during hot extrusion can be minimized by a suitable precipitate dissolution heat treatment.

Keywords: hot extrusion, pseudoelastic, shape-memory alloy, thermomechanical processing

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600 Grain Refinement of Al-7Si-0.4Mg Alloy by Combination of Al-Ti-B and Mg-Al2Ca Mater Alloys and Their Effects on Tensile Property

Authors: Young-Ok Yoon, Su-Yeon Lee, Seong-Ho Ha, Gil-Yong Yeom, Bong-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Kyu Lim, Shae K. Kim


Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy (designated A356) is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries as structural components due to an excellent combination of castability and mechanical properties. Grain refinement has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of castings, mainly since the distribution of secondary phase is changed. As a grain refiner, the Al-Ti-B master alloys containing TiAl3 and TiB2 particles have been widely used in Al foundries. The Mg loss and Mg based inclusion formation by the strong affinity of Mg to oxygen in the melting process of Mg contained alloys have been an issue. This can be significantly improved only by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy as an alloying element instead of pure Mg. Moreover, the eutectic Si modification and grain refinement is simultaneously obtained because Al2Ca behaves as Ca, a typical Si modifier. The present study is focused on the combined effects of Mg+Al2Ca and Al-Ti-B master alloys on the grain refiment of Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy and their proper ratio for the optimum effect. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate the change of the microstructure in Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy with different ratios of Ti and Al2Ca (detected Ca content) and their effects on the tensile property. The distribution and morphology of the secondary phases by the grain refinement will be discussed.

Keywords: Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy, Al2Ca, Al-Ti-B alloy, grain refinement

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599 First-Principles Calculations and Thermo-Calc Study of the Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Ti-Nb-ZR-Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Authors: M. Madigoe, R. Modiba


High alloyed beta (β) phase-stabilized titanium alloys are known to have a low elastic modulus comparable to that of the human bone (≈30 GPa). The β phase in titanium alloys exhibits an elastic Young’s modulus of about 60-80 GPa, which is nearly half that of α-phase (100-120 GPa). In this work, a theoretical investigation of structural stability and thermodynamic stability, as well as the elastic properties of a quaternary Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy, will be presented with an attempt to lower Young’s modulus. The structural stability and elastic properties of the alloy were evaluated using the first-principles approach within the density functional theory (DFT) framework implemented in the CASTEP code. The elastic properties include bulk modulus B, elastic Young’s modulus E, shear modulus cʹ and Poisson’s ratio v. Thermodynamic stability, as well as the fraction of β phase in the alloy, was evaluated using the Thermo-Calc software package. Thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy (Δ?⁰?) and enthalpy of formation will be presented in addition to phase proportion diagrams. The stoichiometric compositions of the alloy is Ti-Nbx-Ta5-Zr5 (x = 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 at.%). An optimum alloy composition must satisfy the Born stability criteria and also possess low elastic Young’s modulus. In addition, the alloy must be thermodynamically stable, i.e., Δ?⁰? < 0.

Keywords: elastic modulus, phase proportion diagram, thermo-calc, titanium alloys

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598 Diffusion Treatment of Niobium and Molybdenum on Pur Titanium and Titanium Alloy Ti-64al and Their Properties

Authors: Kaouka Alaeddine, K. Benarous


This study aims to obtain a surface of pure titanium and titanium alloy Ti-64Al with high performance by the diffusion process. Two agents metal alloy have been used in this treatment, niobium (Nb) and molybdenum (Mo), spread on elemental titanium and Ti-64Al alloy. Nb and Mo are used as powder form to increase the contact surface and to improve the distribution. Both Mo and Nb are distributed on samples of Ti and Ti-64Al at 1100 °C and 1200 °C for 3 h. They were performed to effect different experiments objectives. This work was achieved to improve some properties and microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al surface, using optical microscopy and SEM and study some mechanical properties. The effects of temperature and the powder contents on the microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy, different phases and hardness value of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy were determined. Experimental results indicate that increasing the powder contents and/or the temperature, the α + β phases change to the equiaxed β lamellar structure. In particular, experiments in 1200 °C were created by diffusion α + β phases both equiaxed β phase laminar and α + β phase, thus meeting the objectives were established in the work. In addition, simulation results are used for comparison with the experimental results by DICTRA software.

Keywords: diffusion, powder metallurgy, titanium alloy, molybdenum, niobium

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597 Calculation of Lattice Constants and Band Gaps for Generalized Quasicrystals of InGaN Alloy: A First Principle Study

Authors: Rohin Sharma, Sumantu Chaulagain


This paper presents calculations of total energy of InGaN alloy carried out in a disordered quasirandom structure for a triclinic super cell. This structure replicates the disorder and composition effect in the alloy. First principle calculations within the density functional theory with the local density approximation approach is employed to accurately determine total energy of the system. Lattice constants and band gaps associated with the ground states are then estimated for different concentration ratios of the alloy. We provide precise results of quasirandom structures of the alloy and their lattice constants with the total energy and band gap energy of the system for the range of seven different composition ratios and their respective lattice parameters.

Keywords: DFT, ground state, LDA, quasicrystal, triclinic super cell

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596 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari


Heat treatable aluminium alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40 minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.

Keywords: 7055 Aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, SCC resistance, heat Treatment

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