Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: electroplating

28 Microvoid Growth in the Interfaces during Aging

Authors: Jae-Yong Park, Gwancheol Seo, Young-Ho Kim


Microvoids, sometimes called Kikendall voids, generally form in the interfaces between Sn-based solders and Cu and degrade the mechanical and electrical properties of the solder joints. The microvoid formation is known as the rapid interdiffusion between Sn and Cu and impurity content in the Cu. Cu electroplating from the acid solutions has been widely used by microelectronic packaging industry for both printed circuit board (PCB) and integrated circuit (IC) applications. The quality of electroplated Cu that can be optimized by the electroplating conditions is critical for the solder joint reliability. In this paper, the influence of electroplating conditions on the microvoid growth in the interfaces between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) solder and Cu layer was investigated during isothermal aging. The Cu layers were electroplated by controlling the additive of electroplating bath and current density to induce various microvoid densities. The electroplating bath consisted of sulfate, sulfuric acid, and additives and the current density of 5-15 mA/cm2 for each bath was used. After aging at 180 °C for up to 250 h, typical bi-layer of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) was gradually growth at the SAC/Cu interface and microvoid density in the Cu3Sn showed disparities in the electroplating conditions. As the current density increased, the microvoid formation was accelerated in all electroplating baths. The higher current density induced, the higher impurity content in the electroplated Cu. When the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Cl- ion were mixed in an electroplating bath, the microvoid formation was the highest compared to other electroplating baths. On the other hand, the overall IMC thickness was similar in all samples irrespective of the electroplating conditions. Impurity content in electroplated Cu influenced the microvoid growth, but the IMC growth was not affected by the impurity content. In conclusion, the electroplated conditions are properly optimized to avoid the excessive microvoid formation that results in brittle fracture of solder joint under high strain rate loading.

Keywords: electroplating, additive, microvoid, intermetallic compound

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27 Nickel Electroplating in Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Bath under Different Agitations

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kun-Hsien Lee, Bor-Wei Wang


The process of post-supercritical CO2 electroplating uses the electrolyte solution after being mixed with supercritical CO2 and released to atmospheric pressure. It utilizes the microbubbles that form when oversaturated CO2 in the electrolyte returns to gaseous state, which gives the similar effect of pulsed electroplating. Under atmospheric pressure, the CO2 bubbles gradually diffuse. Therefore, the introduction of ultrasound and/or other agitation can potentially excite the CO2 microbubbles to achieve an electroplated surface of even higher quality. In this study, during the electroplating process, three different modes of agitation: magnetic stirrer agitation, ultrasonic agitation and a combined mode (magnetic + ultrasonic) were applied, respectively, in order to obtain an optimal surface morphology and mechanical properties for the electroplated Ni coating. It is found that the combined agitation mode at a current density of 40 A/dm2 achieved the smallest grain size, lower surface roughness, and produced an electroplated Ni layer that achieved hardness of 320 HV, much higher when compared with conventional method, which were usually in the range of 160 to 300 HV. However, at the same time, the electroplating with combined agitation developed a higher internal stress of 320 MPa due to the lower current efficiency of the process and finer grain in the coating. Moreover, a new control methodology for tailoring the coating’s mechanical property through its thickness was demonstrated by the timely introduction of ultrasonic agitation during the electroplating process with post supercritical CO2 mixed electrolyte.

Keywords: nickel electroplating, micro-bubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide, ultrasonic agitation

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26 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng


This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride, electroplating

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25 Homogeneous Anti-Corrosion Coating of Spontaneously Dissolved Defect-Free Graphene

Authors: M. K. Bin Subhan, P. Cullen, C. Howard


A recent study by the World Corrosion Organization estimated that corrosion related damage causes $2.5tr worth of damage every year. As such, a low cost easily scalable solution is required to the corrosion problem which is economically viable. Graphene is an ideal anti-corrosion barrier layer material due to its excellent barrier properties and chemical stability, which makes it impermeable to all molecules. However, attempts to employ graphene as a barrier layer has been hampered by the fact that defect sites in graphene accelerate corrosion due to the inert nature of graphene which promotes galvanic corrosion at the expense of the metal. The recent discovery of spontaneous dissolution of charged graphite intercalation compounds in aprotic solvents enables defect free graphene platelets to be employed for anti-corrosion applications. These ‘inks’ of defect-free charged graphene platelets in solution can be coated onto a metallic surfaces via electroplating to form a homogeneous barrier layer. In this paper, initial data showing homogeneous coatings of graphene barrier layers on steel coupons via electroplating will be presented. This easily scalable technique also provides a controllable method for applying different barrier thicknesses from ultra thin layers to thick opaque coatings making it useful for a wide range of applications.

Keywords: anti-corrosion, defect-free, electroplating, graphene

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24 Experimental Studies on Fly Ash-Waste Sludge Mix Reinforced with Geofibres

Authors: Malik Shoeb Ahmad


The aim of the present study is to carry out investigations on Class F fly ash obtained from NTPC thermal power plant, Dadri, U.P. (India) and electroplating waste sludge from Aligarh, U.P. (India) along with geofibre for its subsequent utilization in various geotechnical and highway engineering applications. The experimental studies such as California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were carried out to evaluate the strength of plain fly ash as well as fly ash-waste sludge mix reinforced with geofibre, as the CBR value is the vital parameters used in the design of flexible and rigid pavements. Results of the study show that the strength of the mix is highly dependent on the curing period and the sludge and geofibre content. The CBR values were determined for mix containing fly ash (83.5-93.5%), waste sludge (5-15%) and 1-2% geofibre. However, out of the various combinations of mixes the CBR value of the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%GF at 28 days of curing was found to be 53.52% when compared with the strength of plain fly ash. It has been observed that the fibre inclusion increases the strength of the plain fly ash and fly ash-waste sludge specimens by changing their brittle to ductile behavior. The TCLP leaching test was also conducted to determine the heavy metal concentration in the optimized mix. The results of TCLP test show that the heavy metal concentration in the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%G at 28 days of curing reduced substantially from 24 to 98% when compared with the concentration of heavy metals in the waste sludge collected from source. It has also been observed that the pH of the leachate of this mix is between 9-11, which ensures the proper stabilization of the heavy metals present in the mix. Hence, this study will certainly help in mass scale utilization of two industrial wastes viz., electroplating waste and fly ash, which are causing pollution to the environment to a great extent.

Keywords: Dadri fly ash, geofibre, electroplating waste sludge, CBR, TCLP

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23 Production and Characterization of Sol-Enhanced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nano Composite Coating

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao


Sol-enhanced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings were electroplated on mild steel by our newly developed sol-enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings. The chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite and alloy coatings deposited at two different agitation speed were investigated. The structure of all coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. The composite coatings possess refined crystals with higher microhardness compared to Zn-Ni alloy coatings. The wear resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the coatings. Higher agitation speed provided more uniform coatings with smaller grain sized and slightly higher microhardness. Considering composite coatings, high agitation speeds may facilitate co-deposition of alumina in the coatings.

Keywords: microhardness, sol-enhanced electroplating, wear resistance, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings

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22 Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Bars Tested and Compared Between Various Protection Methods

Authors: P. van Tonder, U. Bagdadi, B. M. D. Lario, Z. Masina, T. R. Motshwari


This paper analyses how concrete reinforcing steel bars corrode and how it can be minimised through the use of various protection methods against corrosion, such as metal-based paint, alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating. Samples of carbon steel bars were protected, using these four methods. Tests performed on the samples included durability, electrical resistivity and bond strength. Durability results indicated relatively low corrosion rates for alloying, cathodic protection, electroplating and metal-based paint. The resistivity results indicate all samples experienced a downward trend, despite erratic fluctuations in the data, indicating an inverse relationship between electrical resistivity and corrosion rate. The results indicated lowered bond strengths when the reinforced concrete was cured in seawater compared to being cured in normal water. It also showed that higher design compressive strengths lead to higher bond strengths which can be used to compensate for the loss of bond strength due to corrosion in a real-world application. In terms of implications, all protection methods have the potential to be effective at resisting corrosion in real-world applications, especially the alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating methods. The metal-based paint underperformed by comparison, most likely due to the nature of paint in general which can fade and chip away, revealing the steel samples and exposing them to corrosion. For alloying, stainless steel is the suggested material of choice, where Y-bars are highly recommended as smooth bars have a much-lowered bond strength. Cathodic protection performed the best of all in protecting the sample from corrosion, however, its real-world application would require significant evaluation into the feasibility of such a method.

Keywords: protection methods, corrosion, concrete, reinforcing steel bars

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21 Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nano Composite Coatings

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao


Zn alloy and composite coatings are widely used in buildings and structures, automobile and fasteners industries to protect steel component from corrosion. In this paper, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel using a novel sol enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings. The effect of alumina sol on the electrodeposition process, and coating properties was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, XRD, ESEM and Tafel test. Results from XRD tests showed that the structure of all coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. Cyclic voltammetry results showed that the electrodeposition overpotential was lower in the presence of alumina sol in the bath, and caused the reduction potential of Zn-Ni to shift to more positive values. Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coatings produced more uniform and compact deposits, with fine grained microstructure when compared to Zn-Ni coatings. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the coatings.

Keywords: Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings, steel, sol-enhanced electroplating, corrosion resistance

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20 Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for an Electro-Plating Production Process Based on Theory of Constraints and Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Mayada Attia Ibrahim


Evaluating and developing the electroplating production process is a key challenge in this type of process. The process is influenced by several factors such as process parameters, process costs, and production environments. Analyzing and optimizing all these factors together requires extensive analytical techniques that are not available in real-case industrial entities. This paper presents a practice-based framework for the evaluation and optimization of some of the crucial factors that affect the costs and production times associated with this type of process, energy costs, material costs, and product flow times. The proposed approach uses Design of Experiments, Discrete-Event Simulation, and Theory of Constraints were respectively used to identify the most significant factors affecting the production process and simulate a real production line to recognize the effect of these factors and assign possible bottlenecks. Several scenarios are generated as corrective strategies for improving the production line. Following that, data envelopment analysis CCR input-oriented DEA model is used to evaluate and optimize the suggested scenarios.

Keywords: electroplating process, simulation, design of experiment, performance optimization, theory of constraints, data envelopment analysis

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19 Controlled Growth of Au Hierarchically Ordered Crystals Architectures for Electrochemical Detection of Traces of Molecules

Authors: P. Bauer, K. Mougin, V. Vignal, A. Buch, P. Ponthiaux, D. Faye


Nowadays, noble metallic nanostructures with unique morphology are widely used as new sensors due to their fascinating optical, electronic and catalytic properties. Among various shapes, dendritic nanostructures have attracted much attention because of their large surface-to-volume ratio, high sensitivity and special texture with sharp tips and nanoscale junctions. Several methods have been developed to fabricate those specific structures such as electrodeposition, photochemical way, seed-mediated growth or wet chemical method. The present study deals with a novel approach for a controlled growth pattern-directed organisation of Au flower-like crystals (NFs) deposited onto stainless steel plates to achieve large-scale functional surfaces. This technique consists in the deposition of a soft nanoporous template on which Au NFs are grown by electroplating and seed-mediated method. Size, morphology, and interstructure distance have been controlled by a site selective nucleation process. Dendritic Au nanostructures have appeared as excellent Raman-active candidates due to the presence of very sharp tips of multi-branched Au nanoparticles that leads to a large local field enhancement and a good SERS sensitivity. In addition, these structures have also been used as electrochemical sensors to detect traces of molecules present in a solution. A correlation of the number of active sites on the surface and the current charge by both colorimetric method and cyclic voltammetry of gold structures have allowed a calibration of the system. This device represents a first step for the fabrication of MEMs platform that could ultimately be integrated into a lab-on-chip system. It also opens pathways to several technologically large-scale nanomaterials fabrication such as hierarchically ordered crystal architectures for sensor applications.

Keywords: dendritic, electroplating, gold, template

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18 Removal of Chromium by UF5kDa Membrane: Its Characterization, Optimization of Parameters, and Evaluation of Coefficients

Authors: Bharti Verma, Chandrajit Balomajumder


Water pollution is escalated owing to industrialization and random ejection of one or more toxic heavy metal ions from the semiconductor industry, electroplating, metallurgical, mining, chemical manufacturing, tannery industries, etc., In semiconductor industry various kinds of chemicals in wafers preparation are used . Fluoride, toxic solvent, heavy metals, dyes and salts, suspended solids and chelating agents may be found in wastewater effluent of semiconductor manufacturing industry. Also in the chrome plating, in the electroplating industry, the effluent contains heavy amounts of Chromium. Since Cr(VI) is highly toxic, its exposure poses an acute risk of health. Also, its chronic exposure can even lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the contrary, Cr (III) which is naturally occurring, is much less toxic than Cr(VI). Discharge limit of hexavalent chromium and trivalent chromium are 0.05 mg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. There are numerous methods such as adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, and electrochemical methods for the heavy metal removal. The present study focuses on the removal of Chromium ions by using flat sheet UF5kDa membrane. The Ultra filtration membrane process is operated above micro filtration membrane process. Thus separation achieved may be influenced due to the effect of Sieving and Donnan effect. Ultrafiltration is a promising method for the rejection of heavy metals like chromium, fluoride, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, etc. from effluent water. Benefits behind ultrafiltration process are that the operation is quite simple, the removal efficiency is high as compared to some other methods of removal and it is reliable. Polyamide membranes have been selected for the present study on rejection of Cr(VI) from feed solution. The objective of the current work is to examine the rejection of Cr(VI) from aqueous feed solutions by flat sheet UF5kDa membranes with different parameters such as pressure, feed concentration and pH of the feed. The experiments revealed that with increasing pressure, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) is increased. Also, the effect of pH of feed solution, the initial dosage of chromium in the feed solution has been studied. The membrane has been characterized by FTIR, SEM and AFM before and after the run. The mass transfer coefficients have been estimated. Membrane transport parameters have been calculated and have been found to be in a good correlation with the applied model.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, membrane process, waste water treatment, ultrafiltration

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17 Electrodeposition of Nickel-Zinc Alloy on Stainless Steel in a Magnetic Field in a Chloride Environment

Authors: Naima Benachour, Sabiha Chouchane, J. Paul Chopart


The objective of this work is to determine the appropriate conditions for a Ni-Zn deposit with good nickel content. The electrodeposition of zinc-nickel on a stainless steel is carried out in a chlorinated bath NiCl2.6H2O, ZnCl2, and H3BO3), whose composition is 1.1 M; 1.8 M; 0.1 M respectively. Studies show the effect of the concentration of NH4Cl, which reveals a significant effect on the reduction and ion transport in the electrolyte. In order to highlight the influence of magnetic field on the chemical composition and morphology of the deposit, chronopotentiometry tests were conducted, the curves obtained inform us that the application of a magnetic field promotes stability of the deposit. Characterization developed deposits was performed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with EDX and specified by the X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: Zn-Ni alloys, electroplating, magnetic field, chronopotentiometry

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16 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee


The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: tantalum, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy, electroplating

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15 Biosorption of Cu (II) and Zn (II) from Real Wastewater onto Cajanus cajan Husk

Authors: Mallappa A. Devani, John U. Kennedy Oubagaranadin, Basudeb Munshi


In this preliminary work, locally available husk of Cajanus cajan (commonly known in India as Tur or Arhar), a bio-waste, has been used in its physically treated and chemically activated form for the removal of binary Cu (II) and Zn(II) ions from the real waste water obtained from an electroplating industry in Bangalore, Karnataka, India and from laboratory prepared binary solutions having almost similar composition of the metal ions, for comparison. The real wastewater after filtration and dilution for five times was used for biosorption studies at the normal pH of the solutions at room temperature. Langmuir's binary model was used to calculate the metal uptake capacities of the biosorbents. It was observed that Cu(II) is more competitive than Zn(II) in biosorption. In individual metal biosorption, Cu(II) uptake was found to be more than that of the Zn(II) and a similar trend was observed in the binary metal biosorption from real wastewater and laboratory prepared solutions. FTIR analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups in the industrial wastewater and EDAX for the elemental analysis of the biosorbents after experiments.

Keywords: biosorption, Cajanus cajan, multi metal remediation, wastewater

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14 Corrosion Evaluation of Zinc Coating Prepared by Two Types of Electric Currents

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Karimi Abadeh


In this research, zinc coatings were fabricated by electroplating process in a sulfate solution under direct and pulse current conditions. In direct and pulse current conditions, effect of maximum current was investigated on the coating properties. Also a comparison was made between the obtained coatings under direct and pulse current. Morphology of the coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test. In pulse current conditions, the effect of pulse frequency and duty cycle was also studied. The effect of these conditions and parameters were also investigated on morphology and corrosion behavior. All of DC plated coatings are showing a distinct passivation area in -1 to -0.4 V range. Pulsed current coatings possessed a higher corrosion resistance. The results showed that current density is the most important factor regarding the fabrication process. Furthermore, a rise in duty cycle deteriorated corrosion resistance of coatings. Pulsed plated coatings performed almost 10 times better than DC plated coatings.

Keywords: corrosion, duty cycle, pulsed current, zinc

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13 A Comparative Study of Murayya Koenigii Varieties for the Removal of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Mesfin Tsegaw, Sivakumar C. V., Chandrakal Gunturu, Meera Indracanti


Chromium (VI), a toxic metal ion, is widely used in electroplating, stainless steel production, leather tanning, paint, and textile manufacturing. Cr (VI) is mobile in the environment, acutely toxic and carcinogenic. In the present study, the ability to remove Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions has been compared using leaves of dwarf and gamthi varieties of Murayya koerigii abundantly available in Selaqui region of Dehradun as an adsorbent. Effects of temperature, pH, initial concentration of adsorbate and adsorbent dosage have been studied for effective removal of Cr (VI). The biosorptive ability of biosorbent was reliant on the pH of the biosorbate, with pH 2 being most favorable for both the varieties. The obtained results were analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir equation at different temperature and related parameters were determined for each adsorption isotherm. The study also includes results on the kinetic dimensions of adsorption of the Cr (VI) on the derived adsorbent. Gamthi variety has a promising absorption rate of 80% over the dwarf variety. FTIR studies confirmed that carboxyl and hydroxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake.

Keywords: adsorption, cromium, kinetics, variety

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12 Corrosion Behavior of Different Electroplated Systems Coated With Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Jorge Santos, Ana V. Girão, F. J. Oliveira, Alexandre C. Bastos


Protective or decorative coatings containing hexavalent chromium compounds are still used on metal and plastic parts. These hexavalent chromium compounds represent a risk to living beings and the environment, and, for this reason, there is a great need to investigate alternatives. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is an environmentally friendly process that allows the deposition of wear and corrosion resistant thin films with excellent optical properties. However, PVD thin films are porous and if deposited onto low corrosion resistant substrates, lead to a degradation risk. The corrosion behavior of chromium-free electroplated coating systems finished with magnetron sputtered PVD thin films was investigated in this work. The electroplated systems consisted of distinct nickel layers deposited on top of a copper interlayer on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plates. Electrochemical and corrosion evaluation was conducted by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves on the different electroplated coating systems, with and without PVD thin film on top. The results show that the corrosion resistance is lower for the electroplated coating systems finished with PVD thin film for extended exposure periods when compared to those without the PVD overlay.

Keywords: PVD, electroplating, corrosion, thin film

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11 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, O. S. I. Fayomi, V. S. Aigbodion


Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: microhardness, zinc-yttrium, coating, mild steel, microstructure, wear, corrosion

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10 Toxicity Analysis of Metal Coating Industry Wastewaters by Phytotoxicity Method

Authors: Sukru Dursun, Zeynep Cansu Ayturan, Mostafa Maroof


Metal coating which is important method used for protecting metals against oxidation and corrosion, decreasing friction, protecting metals from chemicals, easing cleaning of the metals. There are several methods used for metal coating such as hot-dip galvanizing, thermal spraying, electroplating and sherardizing. Method which will be used for metal coating depends on the type of metal. The materials mostly used for coating are zinc, nickel, brass, chrome, gold, cadmium, copper, brass, and silver. Within these materials, chrome ion has significant negative impacts on human, other living organisms and environment. Moreover, especially on human chrome may cause lung cancer, stomach ulcer, kidney and liver function disorders and death. Therefore, wastewaters of metal coating industry including chrome should be treated very carefully. In this study, wastewater containing chrome produced by metal coating industry was analysed with phytotoxicity method that is based on measuring the reaction of some plant species against different concentrations of chrome solution. Main plants used for phytotoxicity tests are Lepidium sativum and Lemna minor. Owing to phytotoxicity test, assessing the negative effects of chrome which may harm plants and offering more accurate wastewater treatment techniques against chromium wastewater is possible. Furthermore, the results taken from phytotoxicity tests were analysed with respect to their variance and their importance against different concentrations of chrome solution were determined.

Keywords: metal coating wastewater, chrome, phytotoxicity, Lepidium sativum, Lemna minor

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9 Electrokinetic Remediation of Nickel Contaminated Clayey Soils

Authors: Waddah S. Abdullah, Saleh M. Al-Sarem


Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils has undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar contaminants (such as heavy metals) and nonpolar organic contaminants. It can efficiently be used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. EK processes have proved to be superior to other conventional methods, such as the pump and treat, and soil washing, since these methods are ineffective in such cases. This paper describes the use of electrokinetic remediation to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Open cells, as well as advanced cylindrical cells, were used to perform electrokinetic experiments. Azraq green clay (low permeability soil, taken from the east part of Jordan) was used for the experiments. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel. The EK experiments were conducted under direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA. Chelating agents (NaEDTA), disodium ethylene diamine-tetra-ascetic acid was used to enhance the electroremediation processes. The effect of carbonates presence in soils was, also, investigated by use of sodium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by using buffer solutions. The results showed that the average removal efficiency was 64%, for the Nickel spiked saturated clayey soil.Experiment results have shown that carbonates retarded the remediation process of nickel contaminated soils. Na-EDTA effectively enhanced the decontamination process, with removal efficiency increased from 64% without using the NaEDTA to over 90% after using Na-EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, contaminated soils, EDTA enhancement, electrokinetic processes, Nickel contaminated soil, soil remediation

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8 Brown Macroalgae L. hyperborea as Natural Cation Exchanger and Electron Donor for the Treatment of a Zinc and Hexavalent Chromium Containing Galvanization Wastewater

Authors: Luciana P. Mazur, Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


The electroplating industry requires a lot of process water, which generates a large volume of wastewater loaded with heavy metals. Two different wastewaters were collected in a company’s wastewater treatment plant, one after the use of zinc in the metal plating process and the other after the use of chromium. The main characteristics of the Zn(II) and Cr(VI) wastewaters are: pH = 6.7/5.9; chemical oxygen demand = 55/<5 mg/L; sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions concentrations of 326/28, 4/28, 11/7 and 46/37 mg/L, respectively; zinc(II) = 11 mg/L and Cr(VI) = 39 mg/L. Batch studies showed that L. hyperborea can be established as a natural cation exchanger for heavy metals uptake mainly due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in the surface of the biomass. Beyond that, L. hyperborea can be used as a natural electron donor for hexavalent chromium reduction to trivalent chromium at acidic medium through the oxidation of the biomass, and Cr(III) can be further bound to the negatively charged functional groups. The uptake capacity of Cr(III) by the oxidized biomass after Cr(VI) reduction was higher than by the algae in its original form. This can be attributed to the oxidation of the biomass during Cr(VI) reduction, turning other active sites available for Cr(III) binding. The brown macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea was packed in a fixed-bed column in order to evaluate the feasibility of the system for the continuous treatment of the two galvanization wastewaters. The column, with an internal diameter of 4.8 cm, was packed with 59 g of algae up to a bed height of 27 cm. The operation strategy adopted for the treatment of the two wastewaters consisted in: i) treatment of the Zn(II) wastewater in the first sorption cycle; ii) desorption of pre-loaded Zn(II) using an 1.0 M HCl solution; iii) treatment of the Cr(VI) wastewater, taking advantage of the acidic conditions of the column after the desorption cycle, for the reduction of the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), in the presence of the electrons resulting from the biomass oxidation. This cycle ends when all the oxidizing groups are used.

Keywords: biosorption, brown marine macroalgae, zinc, chromium

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7 Removal of Cr (VI) from Water through Adsorption Process Using GO/PVA as Nanosorbent

Authors: Syed Hadi Hasan, Devendra Kumar Singh, Viyaj Kumar


Cr (VI) is a known toxic heavy metal and has been considered as a priority pollutant in water. The effluent of various industries including electroplating, anodizing baths, leather tanning, steel industries and chromium based catalyst are the major source of Cr (VI) contamination in the aquatic environment. Cr (VI) show high mobility in the environment and can easily penetrate cell membrane of the living tissues to exert noxious effects. The Cr (VI) contamination in drinking water causes various hazardous health effects to the human health such as cancer, skin and stomach irritation or ulceration, dermatitis, damage to liver, kidney circulation and nerve tissue damage. Herein, an attempt has been done to develop an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from water. For this purpose nanosorbent composed of polyvinyl alcohol functionalized graphene oxide (GO/PVA) was prepared. Thus, obtained GO/PVA was characterized through FTIR, XRD, SEM, and Raman Spectroscopy. As prepared nanosorbent of GO/PVA was utilized for the removal Cr (VI) in batch mode experiment. The process variables such as contact time, initial Cr (VI) concentration, pH, and temperature were optimized. The maximum 99.8 % removal of Cr (VI) was achieved at initial Cr (VI) concentration 60 mg/L, pH 2, temperature 35 °C and equilibrium was achieved within 50 min. The two widely used isotherm models viz. Langmuir and Freundlich were analyzed using linear correlation coefficient (R2) and it was found that Langmuir model gives best fit with high value of R2 for the data of present adsorption system which indicate the monolayer adsorption of Cr (VI) on the GO/PVA. Kinetic studies were also conducted using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models and it was observed that chemosorptive pseudo-second order model described the kinetics of current adsorption system in better way with high value of correlation coefficient. Thermodynamic studies were also conducted and results showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

Keywords: adsorption, GO/PVA, isotherm, kinetics, nanosorbent, thermodynamics

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6 Investigation of the Growth Kinetics of Phases in Ni–Sn System

Authors: Varun A Baheti, Sanjay Kashyap, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Praveen Kumar, Aloke Paul


Ni–Sn system finds applications in the microelectronics industry, especially with respect to flip–chip or direct chip, attach technology. Here the region of interest is under bump metallization (UBM), and solder bump (Sn) interface due to the formation of brittle intermetallic phases there. Understanding the growth of these phases at UBM/Sn interface is important, as in many cases it controls the electro–mechanical properties of the product. Cu and Ni are the commonly used UBM materials. Cu is used for good bonding because of fast reaction with solder and Ni often acts as a diffusion barrier layer due to its inherently slower reaction kinetics with Sn–based solders. Investigation on the growth kinetics of phases in Ni–Sn system is reported in this study. Just for simplicity, Sn being major solder constituent is chosen. Ni–Sn electroplated diffusion couples are prepared by electroplating pure Sn on Ni substrate. Bulk diffusion couples prepared by the conventional method are also studied along with Ni–Sn electroplated diffusion couples. Diffusion couples are annealed for 25–1000 h at 50–215°C to study the phase evolutions and growth kinetics of various phases. The interdiffusion zone was analysed using field emission gun equipped scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM) for imaging. Indexing of selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns obtained from transmission electron microscope (TEM) and composition measurements done in electron probe micro−analyser (FE–EPMA) confirms the presence of various product phases grown across the interdiffusion zone. Time-dependent experiments indicate diffusion controlled growth of the product phase. The estimated activation energy in the temperature range 125–215°C for parabolic growth constants (and hence integrated interdiffusion coefficients) of the Ni₃Sn₄ phase shed light on the growth mechanism of the phase; whether its grain boundary controlled or lattice controlled diffusion. The location of the Kirkendall marker plane indicates that the Ni₃Sn₄ phase grows mainly by diffusion of Sn in the binary Ni–Sn system.

Keywords: diffusion, equilibrium phase, metastable phase, the Ni-Sn system

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5 Electroremediation of Saturated and Unsaturated Nickel-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Waddah Abdullah, Saleh Al-Sarem


Electrokinetic remediation was undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar charged contaminants (such as heavy metals) and non-polar organic contaminants. It can be efficiently used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. This study presented and discussed the results of electrokinetic remediation processes to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Two types of electrokinetics cells were used: an open cell and an advanced cylindrical cell. Two types of soils were used for this investigation; the Azraq green clay which has very low permeability taken from the eastern part of Jordan (city of Azraq) and a sandy soil having, relatively, very high permeability. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel, and the sandy soil was spiked with 1500 ppm of nickel. Fully saturated and partially saturated clayey soils were used for the clean-up process. Clayey soils were tested under a direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA to study the effect of the electrical current on the remediation process. Chelating agent (Na-EDTA), disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetatic acid, was used in both types of soils to enhance the electroremediation process. The effect of carbonates presence in the contaminated soils, also, was investigated by use of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by use of buffer solutions. The results of the investigation showed that for the fully saturated clayey soil spiked with nickel had an average removal efficiency of 64%, and the average removal efficiency was 46% for the unsaturated clayey soil. For the sandy soil, the average removal efficiency of Nickel was 90%. Test results showed that presence of carbonates in the remediated soils retarded the clean-up process of nickel-contaminated soils (removal efficiency was reduced from 90% to 60%). EDTA enhanced decontamination of nickel contaminated clayey and sandy soils with carbonates was studied. The average removal efficiency increased from 60% (prior to using EDTA) to more than 90% after using EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, EDTA, electroremediation, nickel removal efficiency

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4 Cu₂(ZnSn)(S)₄ Electrodeposition from a Single Bath for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Mahfouz Saeed


Cu₂(ZnSn)(S)₄ (CTZS) offers potential advantages over CuInGaSe₂ (CIGS) as solar thin film because to its higher band gap. Preparing such photovoltaic materials by electrochemical techniques is particularly attractive due to the lower processing cost and the high throughput of such techniques. Several recent publications report CTZS electroplating; however, the electrochemical process still facing serious challenges such as a sulfur atomic ration which is about 50% of the total alloy. We introduce in this work an improved electrolyte composition which enables the direct electrodeposition of CTZS from a single bath. The electrolyte is significantly more dilute in comparison to common baths described in the literature. The bath composition we introduce is: 0.0032 M CuSO₄, 0.0021 M ZnSO₄, 0.0303 M SnCl₂, 0.0038 M Na₂S₂O₃, and 0.3 mM Na₂S₂O3. PHydrion is applied to buffer the electrolyte to pH=2, and 0.7 M LiCl is applied as supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical process was carried at a rotating disk electrode which provides quantitative characterization of the flow (room temperature). Comprehensive electrochemical behavior study at different electrode rotation rates are provided. The effects of agitation on atomic composition of the deposit and its adhesion to the molybdenum back contact are discussed. The post treatment annealing was conducted under sulfur atmosphere with no need for metals addition from the gas phase during annealing. The potential which produced the desired atomic ratio of CTZS at -0.82 V/NHE. Smooth deposit, with uniform composition across the sample surface and depth was obtained at 500 rpm rotation speed. Final sulfur atomic ratio was adjusted to 50.2% in order to have the desired atomic ration. The final composition was investigated using Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy technique (EDS). XRD technique used to analyze CTZS crystallography and thickness. Complete and functional CTZS PV devices were fabricated by depositing all the required layers in the correct order and the desired optical properties. Acknowledgments: Case Western Reserve University for the technical help and for using their instruments.

Keywords: photovoltaic, CTZS, thin film, electrochemical

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3 Evaluation of Sugarcane Straw Derived Biochar for the Remediation of Chromium and Nickel Contaminated Soil

Authors: Selam M. Tefera


Soil constitutes a crucial component of rural and urban environments. This fact is making role of heavy and trace elements in the soil system an issue of global concern. Heavy metals constitute an ill-defined group of inorganic chemical hazards, whose main source is anthropogenic activities mainly related to fabrications. This accumulation of heavy metals soils can prove toxic to the environment. The application of biochar to soil is one way of immobilizing these contaminants through sorption by exploiting the high surface area of this material among its other essential properties. This research examined the ability of sugar cane straw, an organic waste material from sugar farm, derived biochar and ash to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals mainly Chromium and Zinc from the effluent of electroplating industry. Biochar was produced by varying the temperature from 300 °C to 500 °C and ash at 700 °C. The highest yield (50%) was obtained at the lowest temperature (300 °C). The proximate analysis showed ash content of 42.8%, ultimate analysis with carbon content of 67.18%, the Hydrogen to Carbon ratio of 0.54 and the results from FTIR analysis disclosed the organic nature of biochar. Methylene blue absorption indicated its fine surface area and pore structure, which increases with severity of temperature. Biochar was mixed with soil with at a ration varying from 4% w/w to 10% w/w of soil, and the response variables were determined at a time interval of 150 days, 180 days, and 210 days. As for ash (10% w/w), the characterization was performed at incubation time of 210 days. The results of pH indicated that biochar (9.24) had a notable liming capacity of acidic soil (4.8) by increasing it to 6.89 whereas ash increased it to 7.5. The immobilization capacity of biochar was found to effected mostly by the highest production temperature (500 °C), which was 75.5% for chromium and 80.5% for nickel. In addition, ash was shown to possess an outstanding immobilization capacity of 95.5% and 90.5% for Chromium and Nickel, respectively. All in all, the results from these methods showed that biochar produced from this specific biomass possesses the typical functional groups that enable it to store carbon, the appropriate pH that could remediate acidic soil, a fine amount of macro and micro nutrients that would aid plant growth.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, heavy metal immobalization, soil remediation

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2 Cr (VI) Adsorption on Ce0.25Zr0.75O2.nH2O-Kinetics and Thermodynamics

Authors: Carlos Alberto Rivera-corredor, Angie Dayana Vargas-Ceballos, Edison Gilpavas, Izabela Dobrosz-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Gómez-García


Hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI) is present in the effluents from different industries such as electroplating, mining, leather tanning, etc. This compound is of great academic and industrial concern because of its toxic and carcinogenic behavior. Its dumping to both environmental and public health for animals and humans causes serious problems in water sources. The amount of Cr (VI) in industrial wastewaters ranges from 0.5 to 270,000 mgL-1. According to the Colombian standard for water quality (NTC-813-2010), the maximum allowed concentration for the Cr (VI) in drinking water is 0.05 mg L-1. To comply with this limit, it is essential that industries treat their effluent to reduce the Cr (VI) to acceptable levels. Numerous methods have been reported for the treatment removing metal ions from aqueous solutions such as: reduction, ion exchange, electrodialysis, etc. Adsorption has become a promising method for the purification of metal ions in water, since its application corresponds with an economic and efficient technology. The absorbent selection and the kinetic and thermodynamic study of the adsorption conditions are key to the development of a suitable adsorption technology. The Ce0.25Zr0.75O2.nH2O presents higher adsorption capacity between a series of hydrated mixed oxides Ce1-xZrxO2 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1). This work presents the kinetic and thermodynamic study of Cr (VI) adsorption on Ce0.25Zr0.75O2.nH2O. Experiments were performed under the following experimental conditions: initial Cr (VI) concentration = 25, 50 and 100 mgL-1, pH = 2, adsorbent charge = 4 gL-1, stirring time = 60 min, temperature=20, 28 and 40 °C. The Cr (VI) concentration was spectrophotometrically estimated by the method of difenilcarbazide with monitoring the absorbance at 540 nm. The Cr (VI) adsorption over hydrated Ce0.25Zr0.75O2.nH2O models was analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to model the experimental data. The convergence between the experimental values and those predicted by the model, is expressed as a linear regression correlation coefficient (R2) and was employed as the model selection criterion. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model and obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated as: ΔH°=9.04 kJmol-1,ΔS°=0.03 kJmol-1 K-1, ΔG°=-0.35 kJmol-1 and indicated the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process, governed by physisorption interactions.

Keywords: adsorption, hexavalent chromium, kinetics, thermodynamics

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1 Environmental Performance of Different Lab Scale Chromium Removal Processes

Authors: Chiao-Cheng Huang, Pei-Te Chiueh, Ya-Hsuan Liou


Chromium-contaminated wastewater from electroplating industrial activity has been a long-standing environmental issue, as it can degrade surface water quality and is harmful to soil ecosystems. The traditional method of treating chromium-contaminated wastewater has been to use chemical coagulation processes. However, this method consumes large amounts of chemicals such as sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate in order to remove chromium. However, a series of new methods for treating chromium-containing wastewater have been developed. This study aimed to compare the environmental impact of four different lab scale chromium removal processes: 1.) chemical coagulation process (the most common and traditional method), in which sodium metabisulfite was used as reductant, 2.) electrochemical process using two steel sheets as electrodes, 3.) reduction by iron-copper bimetallic powder, and 4.) photocatalysis process by TiO2. Each process was run in the lab, and was able to achieve 100% removal of chromium in solution. Then a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was conducted based on the experimental data obtained from four different case studies to identify the environmentally preferable alternative to treat chromium wastewater. The model used for calculating the environmental impact was TRACi, and the system scope includes the production phase and use phase of chemicals and electricity consumed by the chromium removal processes, as well as the final disposal of chromium containing sludge. The functional unit chosen in this study was the removal of 1 mg of chromium. Solution volume of each case study was adjusted to 1 L in advance and the chemicals and energy consumed were proportionally adjusted. The emissions and resources consumed were identified and characterized into 15 categories of midpoint impacts. The impact assessment results show that the human ecotoxicity category accounts for 55 % of environmental impact in Case 1, which can be attributed to the sulfuric acid used for pH adjustment. In Case 2, production of steel sheet electrodes is an energy-intensive process, thus contributed to 20 % of environmental impact. In Case 3, sodium bicarbonate is used as an anti-corrosion additive, which results mainly in 1.02E-05 Comparative Toxicity Unit (CTU) in the human toxicity category and 0.54E-05 (CTU) in acidification of air. In Case 4, electricity consumption for power supply of UV lamp gives 5.25E-05 (CTU) in human toxicity category, 1.15E-05 (kg Neq) in eutrophication. In conclusion, Case 3 and Case 4 have higher environmental impacts than Case 1 and Case 2, which can be attributed mostly to higher energy and chemical consumption, leading to high impacts in the global warming and ecotoxicity categories.

Keywords: chromium, lab scale, life cycle assessment, wastewater

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