Search results for: semiconductors
133 Two-Dimensional WO₃ and TiO₂ Semiconductor Oxides Developed by Atomic Layer Deposition with Controllable Nano-Thickness on Wafer-Scale
Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Z. Wei
Abstract:Conformal defect-free two-dimensional (2D) WO₃ and TiO₂ semiconductors have been developed by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on wafer scale with unique approach to the thickness control with precision of ± 10% from the monolayer of nanomaterial (less than 1.0 nm thick) to the nano-layered 2D structures with thickness of ~3.0-7.0 nm. Developed 2D nanostructures exhibited unique, distinguishable properties at nanoscale compare to their thicker counterparts. Specifically, 2D TiO₂-Au bilayer demonstrated improved photocatalytic degradation of palmitic acid under UV and visible light illumination. Improved functional capabilities of 2D semiconductors would be advantageous to various environmental, nano-energy and bio-sensing applications. The ALD-enabled approach is proven to be versatile, scalable and applicable to the broader range of 2D semiconductors.
Keywords: two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, ALD, WO₃, TiO₂, wafer scaleProcedia PDF Downloads 102
132 Thermal Diffusion of Photovoltaic Organic Semiconductors Determined by Scanning Photothermal Deflection Technique
Authors: K.L. Chiu, Johnny K. W. Ho, M. H. Chan, S. H. Cheung, K. H. Chan, S.K. So
Abstract:Thermal diffusivity is an important quantity in heat conduction. It measures the rate of heat transfer from the hot side to the cold side of a material. In solid-state materials, thermal diffusivity reveals information related to morphologies and solid quality, as thermal diffusivity can be affected by microstructures. However, thermal diffusivity studies on organic semiconductors are very limited. In this study, scanning photothermal deflection (SPD) technique is used to study the thermal diffusivities of different classes of semiconducting polymers. The reliability of the technique was confirmed by crossing-checking our SPD derived experimental values of different reference materials with their known diffusivities from the literature. To show that thermal diffusivity determination is a potential tool for revealing microscopic properties of organic photovoltaic semiconductors, SPD measurements were applied to various organic semiconducting films with different crystallinities. It is observed that organic photovoltaic semiconductors possess low thermal diffusivity, with values in the range of 0.3mm²/s to 1mm²/s. It is also discovered that polymeric photovoltaic semiconductors with greater molecular planarity, stronger stacking and higher crystallinity would possess greater thermal diffusivities. Correlations between thermal, charge transport properties will be discussed.
Keywords: polymer crystallinity, photovoltaic organic semiconductors, photothermal deflection technique, thermal diffusionProcedia PDF Downloads 68
131 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface
Authors: Amit Sharma, J. N. Sharma
Abstract:This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.
Keywords: quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission, semiconductors, acousticsProcedia PDF Downloads 265
130 Cr Induced Magnetization in Zinc-Blende ZnO-Based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors
Authors: Bakhtiar Ul Haq, R. Ahmed, A. Shaari, Mazmira Binti Mohamed, Nisar Ali
Abstract:The capability of exploiting the electronic charge and spin properties simultaneously in a single material has made diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) remarkable in the field of spintronics. We report the designing of DMS based on zinc-blend ZnO doped with Cr impurity. The full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital FP-L(APW+lo) method in density functional theory (DFT) has been adapted to carry out these investigations. For treatment of exchange and correlation energy, generalized gradient approximations have been used. Introducing Cr atoms in the matrix of ZnO has induced strong magnetic moment with ferromagnetic ordering at stable ground state. Cr:ZnO was found to favor the short range magnetic interaction that reflect the tendency of Cr clustering. The electronic structure of ZnO is strongly influenced in the presence of Cr impurity atoms where impurity bands appear in the band gap.
Keywords: ZnO, density functional theory, diluted agnetic semiconductors, ferromagnetic materials, FP-L(APW+lo)Procedia PDF Downloads 363
129 Spin-Polarized Investigation of Ferromagnetism on Magnetic Semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the Rock-salt Phase
Authors: B. Ghebouli, M. A. Ghebouli, H. Choutri, M. Fatmi, L. Louail
Abstract:The structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the rock-salt phase have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Features such as lattice constant, bulk modulus, elastic constants, spin-polarized band structure, total and local densities of states have been computed. We predict the values of the exchange constants and the band edge spin splitting of the valence and conduction bands. The hybridization between S-3p and Mn-3d produces small local magnetic moment on the nonmagnetic Ca and S sites. The ferromagnetism is induced due to the exchange splitting of S-3p and Mn-3d hybridized bands. The total magnetic moment per Mn of MnxCa1-xS is 4.4µB and is independent of the Mn concentration. The unfilled Mn -3d levels reduce the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5µB to 4.4µB due to 3p–3d hybridization.
Keywords: semiconductors, Ab initio calculations, band-structure, magnetic propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 291
128 Application of Molecular Materials in the Manufacture of Flexible and Organic Devices for Photovoltaic Applications
Authors: Mariana Gomez Gomez, Maria Elena Sanchez Vergara
Abstract:Many sustainable approaches to generate electric energy have emerged in the last few decades; one of them is through solar cells. Yet, this also has the disadvantage of highly polluting inorganic semiconductor manufacturing processes. Therefore, the use of molecular semiconductors must be considered. In this work, allene compounds C24H26O4 and C24H26O5 were used as dopants to manufacture semiconductors films based on PbPc by high-vacuum evaporation technique. IR spectroscopy was carried out to determine the phase and any significant chemical changes which may occur during the thermal evaporation. According to UV-visible spectroscopy and Tauc’s model, the deposition process generated thin films with an activation energy range of 1.47 to 1.55 eV for direct transitions and 1.29 to 1.33 eV for indirect transitions. These values place the manufactured films within the range of low bandgap semiconductors. The flexible devices were manufactured: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic semiconductor/ Cubic Close Packed (CCP). The characterization of the devices was carried out by evaluating electrical conductivity using the four-probe collinear method. I-V curves were obtained under different lighting conditions at room temperature. OS1 (PbPc/C24H26O4) showed an Ohmic behavior, while OS2 (PbPc/C24H26O5) reached higher current values at lower voltages. The results obtained show that the semiconductors devices doped with allene compounds can be used in the manufacture of optoelectronic devices.
Keywords: electrical properties, optical gap, phthalocyanine, thin film.Procedia PDF Downloads 165
127 Calculation Of Energy Gap Of (Ga,Mn)As Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor From The Eight-Band k.p Model
Authors: Khawlh A. Alzubaidi, Khadijah B. Alziyadi, Amor M. Alsayari
Abstract:Now a days (Ga, Mn) is one of the most extensively studied and best understood diluted magnetic semiconductors. Also, the study of (Ga, Mn)As is a fervent research area since it allows to explore of a variety of novel functionalities and spintronics concepts that could be implemented in the future. In this work, we will calculate the energy gap of (Ga, Mn)As using the eight-band model. In the Hamiltonian, the effects of spin-orbit, spin-splitting, and strain will be considered. The dependence of the energy gap on Mn content, and the effect of the strain, which is varied continuously from tensile to compressive, will be studied. Finally, analytical expressions for the (Ga, Mn)As energy band gap, taking into account both parameters (Mn concentration and strain), will be provided.
Keywords: energy gap, diluted magnetic semiconductors, k.p method, strainProcedia PDF Downloads 53
126 Titania Assisted Metal-Organic Framework Matrix for Elevated Hydrogen Generation Combined with the Production of Graphene Sheets through Water-Splitting Process
Authors: Heba M. Gobara, Ahmed A. M. El-Naggar, Rasha S. El-Sayed, Amal A. AlKahlawy
Abstract:In this study, metal organic framework (Cr-MIL-101) and TiO₂ nanoparticles were utilized as two semiconductors for water splitting process. The coupling of both semiconductors in order to improve the photocatalytic reactivity for the hydrogen production in presence of methanol as a hole scavenger under visible light (sunlight) has been performed. The forementioned semiconductors and the collected samples after water splitting application are characterized by several techniques viz., XRD, N₂ adsorption-desorption, TEM, ED, EDX, Raman spectroscopy and the total content of carbon. The results revealed an efficient yield of H₂ production with maximum purity 99.3% with the in-situ formation of graphene oxide nanosheets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated over the surface of the physically mixed Cr-MIL-101–TiO₂ system. The amount of H₂ gas produced was stored when using Cr-MIL-101 catalyst individually. The obtained data in this work provides promising candidate materials for pure hydrogen production as a clean fuel acquired from the water splitting process. In addition, the in-situ production of graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes is counted as promising advances for the presented process.
Keywords: hydrogen production, water splitting, photocatalysts, GrapheneProcedia PDF Downloads 99
125 Effect of III-V Nitrides on Performance of Graphene-Gold SPR Biosensor
Authors: Bijaya Kumar Sahoo
Abstract:The effect of III-V nitride semiconductors on performance of a graphene-on-gold surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been investigated theoretically. III-V nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) have been grown between gold (Au) and graphene layers. The sensitivity and performance of the biosensor have been computed for with and without semiconductors. Due to superior electronic and optical properties, III-V nitrides demonstrate high sensitivity and performance over Si and Ge. The enhancement of evanescent electric field due to III-V nitrides have been computed and found highest for InN. The analysis shows that for a high-sensitive imaging biosensor the required optimal thickness of gold, InN and graphene are respectively 49 nm, 11 nm and 0.34 nm for the light of wavelength =633 nm (red He-Ne laser). This study suggests that InN would be a better choice for fabrication of new imaging SPR biosensors.
Keywords: SPR biosensor, optical properties, III-V nitrides, sensitivity, enhancement of electric field, performance of graphene gold SPR biosensorProcedia PDF Downloads 484
124 A Strategy for Reducing Dynamic Disorder in Small Molecule Organic Semiconductors by Suppressing Large Amplitude Thermal Motions
Authors: Steffen Illig, Alexander S. Eggeman, Alessandro Troisi, Stephen G. Yeates, John E. Anthony, Henning Sirringhaus
Abstract:Large-amplitude intermolecular vibrations in combination with complex shaped transfer integrals generate a thermally fluctuating energetic landscape. The resulting dynamic disorder and its intrinsic presence in organic semiconductors is one of the most fundamental differences to their inorganic counterparts. Dynamic disorder is believed to govern many of the unique electrical and optical properties of organic systems. However, the low energy nature of these vibrations makes it difficult to access them experimentally and because of this we still lack clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. Applying a novel technique based on electron diffraction we encountered strong intermolecular, thermal vibrations in every single organic material we studied (14 up to date), indicating that a large degree of dynamic disorder is a universal phenomenon in organic crystals. In this paper a new molecular design strategy will be presented to avoid dynamic disorder. We found that small molecules that have their side chains attached to the long axis of their conjugated core have been found to be less likely to suffer from dynamic disorder effects. In particular, we demonstrate that 2,7-dioctylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothio-phene (C8-BTBT) and 2,9-di-decyl-dinaphtho-[2,3-b:20,30-f]-thieno-[3,2-b]-thiophene (C10DNTT) exhibit strongly reduced thermal vibrations in comparison to other molecules and relate their outstanding performance to their lower dynamic disorder. We rationalize the low degree of dynamic disorder in C8-BTBT and C10-DNTT with a better encapsulation of the conjugated cores in the crystal structure which helps reduce large amplitude thermal motions. The work presented in this paper provides a general strategy for the design of new classes of very high mobility organic semiconductors with low dynamic disorder.
Keywords: charge transport, C8-BTBT, C10-DNTT, dynamic disorder, organic semiconductors, thermal vibrationsProcedia PDF Downloads 326
123 Surface Characterization of Zincblende and Wurtzite Semiconductors Using Nonlinear Optics
Authors: Hendradi Hardhienata, Tony Sumaryada, Sri Setyaningsih
Abstract:Current progress in the field of nonlinear optics has enabled precise surface characterization in semiconductor materials. Nonlinear optical techniques are favorable due to their nondestructive measurement and ability to work in nonvacuum and ambient conditions. The advance of the bond hyperpolarizability models opens a wide range of nanoscale surface investigation including the possibility to detect molecular orientation at the surface of silicon and zincblende semiconductors, investigation of electric field induced second harmonic fields at the semiconductor interface, detection of surface impurities, and very recently, study surface defects such as twin boundary in wurtzite semiconductors. In this work, we show using nonlinear optical techniques, e.g. nonlinear bond models how arbitrary polarization of the incoming electric field in Rotational Anisotropy Spectroscopy experiments can provide more information regarding the origin of the nonlinear sources in zincblende and wurtzite semiconductor structure. In addition, using hyperpolarizability consideration, we describe how the nonlinear susceptibility tensor describing SHG can be well modelled using only few parameter because of the symmetry of the bonds. We also show how the third harmonic intensity feature shows considerable changes when the incoming field polarization angle is changed from s-polarized to p-polarized. We also propose a method how to investigate surface reconstruction and defects in wurtzite and zincblende structure at the nanoscale level.
Keywords: surface characterization, bond model, rotational anisotropy spectroscopy, effective hyperpolarizabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 100
122 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique
Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue
Abstract:Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.
Keywords: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), tungsten oxide, WO₃, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layerProcedia PDF Downloads 179
121 Full-Potential Investigation of the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of CdCoTe and CdMnTe Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors
Authors: A.Zitouni, S.Bentata, B.Bouadjemi, T.Lantri, W. Benstaali, Z.Aziz, S.Cherid
Abstract:We investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc blende phase with 25% of Co and Mn. The calculations are performed by the recent ab initio full potential augmented plane waves (FP_L/APW) method within the spin polarized density-functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation GGA. Structural properties are determined from the total energy calculations and we found that these compounds are stable in the ferromagnetic phase. We discuss the electronic structures, total and partial densities of states and total magnetic moments. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the half-metallic of CdCoTe and CdMnTe.
Keywords: electronic structure, half-metallic, magnetic moment, total and partial densities of statesProcedia PDF Downloads 435
120 Enhanced Properties of Plasma-Induced Two-Dimensional Ga₂O₃/GaS Heterostructures on Liquid Alloy Substrate
Authors: S. Zhuiykov, M. Karbalaei Akbari
Abstract:Ultra-low-level incorporation of trace impurities and dopants into two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors is a challenging step towards the development of functional electronic instruments based on 2D materials. Herein, the incorporation of sulphur atoms into 2D Ga2O3 surface oxide film of eutectic gallium-indium alloy (EGaIn) is achieved through plasma-enhanced metal-catalyst dissociation of H2S gas on EGaIn substrate. This process led to the growth of GaS crystalline nanodomains inside amorphous 2D Ga2O3 sublayer films. Consequently, 2D lateral heterophase was developed between the amorphous Ga2O3 and crystalline GaS nanodomains. The materials characterization revealed the alteration of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics and change of valence band maximum (VBM) of functionalized 2D films. The comprehensive studies by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) showed considerable enhancement of conductivity of 2D Ga2O3/GaS materials (300 times improvement) compared with that of 2D Ga2O3 film. This technique has a great potential for the fabrication of 2D metal oxide devices with tuneable electronic characteristics similar to nano junction memristors and transistors.
Keywords: 2D semiconductors, Ga₂O₃, GaS, plasma-induced functionalizationProcedia PDF Downloads 27
119 Functional Nanomaterials for Environmental Applications
Authors: S. A. M. Sabrina, Gouget Lammel, Anne Chantal, Chazalviel, Jean Noël, Ozanam François, Etcheberry Arnaud, Tighlit Fatma Zohra, B. Samia, Gabouze Noureddine
Abstract:The elaboration and characterization of hybrid nano materials give rise to considerable interest due to the new properties that arising. They are considered as an important category of new materials having innovative characteristics by combining the specific intrinsic properties of inorganic compounds (semiconductors) with the grafted organic species. This open the way to improved properties and spectacular applications in various and important fields, especially in the environment. In this work, nano materials based-semiconductors were elaborated by chemical route. The obtained surfaces were grafted with organic functional groups. The functionalization process was optimized in order to confer to the hybrid nano material a good stability as well as the right properties required for the subsequent applications. Different characterization techniques were used to investigate the resulting nano structures, such as SEM, UV-Visible, FTIR, Contact angle and electro chemical measurements. Finally, applications were envisaged in environmental area. The elaborated nano structures were tested for the detection and the elimination of pollutants.
Keywords: hybrid materials, porous silicon, peptide, metal detectionProcedia PDF Downloads 430
118 Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Composites with Application for Sustainable Energy
Authors: Daniel F. Sava, Anton Ficai, Bogdan S. Vasile, Georgeta Voicu, Ecaterina Andronescu
Abstract:The energy crisis and environmental contamination are very serious problems, therefore searching for better and sustainable renewable energy is a must. It is predicted that the global energy demand will double until 2050. Solar water splitting and photocatalysis are considered as one of the solutions to these issues. The use of oxide semiconductors for solar water splitting and photocatalysis started in 1972 with the experiments of Fujishima and Honda on TiO2 electrodes. Since then, the evolution of nanoscience and characterization methods leads to a better control of size, shape and properties of materials. Although the past decade advancements are astonishing, for these applications the properties have to be controlled at a much finer level, allowing the control of charge-carrier lives, energy level positions, charge trapping centers, etc. Graphene has attracted a lot of attention, since its discovery in 2004, due to the excellent electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties that it possesses. These properties make it an ideal support for photocatalysts, thus graphene composites with oxide semiconductors are of great interest. We present in this work the synthesis and characterization of graphene-related materials and oxide semiconductors and their different composites. These materials can be used in constructing devices for different applications (batteries, water splitting devices, solar cells, etc), thus showing their application flexibility. The synthesized materials are different morphologies and sizes of TiO2, ZnO and Fe2O3 that are obtained through hydrothermal, sol-gel methods and graphene oxide which is synthesized through a modified Hummer method and reduced with different agents. Graphene oxide and the reduced form could also be used as a single material for transparent conductive films. The obtained single materials and composites were characterized through several methods: XRD, SEM, TEM, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN, XPS and BET adsorption/desorption isotherms. From the results, we see the variation of the properties with the variation of synthesis parameters, size and morphology of the particles.
Keywords: composites, graphene, hydrothermal, renewable energyProcedia PDF Downloads 427
117 Understanding the Fundamental Driver of Semiconductor Radiation Tolerance with Experiment and Theory
Authors: Julie V. Logan, Preston T. Webster, Kevin B. Woller, Christian P. Morath, Michael P. Short
Abstract:Semiconductors, as the base of critical electronic systems, are exposed to damaging radiation while operating in space, nuclear reactors, and particle accelerator environments. What innate property allows some semiconductors to sustain little damage while others accumulate defects rapidly with dose is, at present, poorly understood. This limits the extent to which radiation tolerance can be implemented as a design criterion. To address this problem of determining the driver of semiconductor radiation tolerance, the first step is to generate a dataset of the relative radiation tolerance of a large range of semiconductors (exposed to the same radiation damage and characterized in the same way). To accomplish this, Rutherford backscatter channeling experiments are used to compare the displaced lattice atom buildup in InAs, InP, GaP, GaN, ZnO, MgO, and Si as a function of step-wise alpha particle dose. With this experimental information on radiation-induced incorporation of interstitial defects in hand, hybrid density functional theory electron densities (and their derived quantities) are calculated, and their gradient and Laplacian are evaluated to obtain key fundamental information about the interactions in each material. It is shown that simple, undifferentiated values (which are typically used to describe bond strength) are insufficient to predict radiation tolerance. Instead, the curvature of the electron density at bond critical points provides a measure of radiation tolerance consistent with the experimental results obtained. This curvature and associated forces surrounding bond critical points disfavors localization of displaced lattice atoms at these points, favoring their diffusion toward perfect lattice positions. With this criterion to predict radiation tolerance, simple density functional theory simulations can be conducted on potential new materials to gain insight into how they may operate in demanding high radiation environments.
Keywords: density functional theory, GaN, GaP, InAs, InP, MgO, radiation tolerance, rutherford backscatter channelingProcedia PDF Downloads 106
116 Further Study of Mechanism of Contrasting Charge Transport Properties for Phenyl and Thienyl Substituent Organic Semiconductors
Authors: Yanan Zhu
Abstract:Based on the previous work about the influence mechanism of the mobility difference of phenyl and thienyl substituent semiconductors, we have made further exploration towards to design high-performance organic thin-film transistors. The substituent groups effect plays a significant role in materials properties and device performance as well. For the theoretical study, simulation of materials property and crystal packing can supply scientific guidance for materials synthesis in experiments. This time, we have taken the computational methods to design a new material substituent with furan groups, which are the potential to be used in organic thin-film transistors and organic single-crystal transistors. The reorganization energy has been calculated and much lower than 2,6-diphenyl anthracene (DPAnt), which performs large mobility as more than 30 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹. Moreover, the other important parameter, charge transfer integral is larger than DPAnt, which suggested the furan substituent material may get a much better charge transport data. On the whole, the mechanism investigation based on phenyl and thienyl assisted in designing novel materials with furan substituent, which is predicted to be an outperformed organic field-effect transistors.
Keywords: theoretical calculation, mechanism, mobility, organic transistorsProcedia PDF Downloads 75
115 Development of Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Based Particle Detector
Authors: Rupa Jeena, Pankaj Chetry, Pradeep Sarin
Abstract:The study of fundamental particles and the forces governing them has always remained an attractive field of theoretical study to pursue. With the advancement and development of new technologies and instruments, it is possible now to perform particle physics experiments on a large scale for the validation of theoretical predictions. These experiments are generally carried out in a highly intense beam environment. This, in turn, requires the development of a detector prototype possessing properties like radiation tolerance, thermal stability, and fast timing response. Semiconductors like Silicon, Germanium, Diamond, and Gallium Nitride (GaN) have been widely used for particle detection applications. Silicon and germanium being narrow bandgap semiconductors, require pre-cooling to suppress the effect of noise by thermally generated intrinsic charge carriers. The application of diamond in large-scale experiments is rare owing to its high cost of fabrication, while GaN is one of the most extensively explored potential candidates. But we are aiming to introduce another wide bandgap semiconductor in this active area of research by considering all the requirements. We have made an attempt by utilizing the wide bandgap of rutile Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and other properties to use it for particle detection purposes. The thermal evaporation-oxidation (in PID furnace) technique is used for the deposition of the film, and the Metal Semiconductor Metal (MSM) electrical contacts are made using Titanium+Gold (Ti+Au) (20/80nm). The characterization comprising X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Ultraviolet (UV)-Visible spectroscopy, and Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS) has been performed on the film to get detailed information about surface morphology. On the other hand, electrical characterizations like Current Voltage (IV) measurement in dark and light and test with laser are performed to have a better understanding of the working of the detector prototype. All these preliminary tests of the detector will be presented.
Keywords: particle detector, rutile titanium dioxide, thermal evaporation, wide bandgap semiconductorsProcedia PDF Downloads 8
114 Study of Nanocrystalline Al Doped Zns Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition Method
Authors: Hamid Merzouk, Djahida Touati-Talantikite, Amina Zaabar
Abstract:New nanosized materials are in huge expansion worldwide. They play a fundamental role in various industrial applications thanks their unique and functional properties. Moreover, in recent years, a great effort has been made to the design and control fabrication of nanostructured semiconductors such zinc sulphide. In recent years, much attention has been accorded in doped and co-doped ZnS to improve the ZnS films quality. We present in this work the preparation and characterization of ZnS and Al doped ZnS thin films. Nanoparticles ZnS and Al doped ZnS films are prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), for various dopant concentrations. Thin films are deposed onto commercial microscope glass slides substrates. Thiourea is used as sulfide ion source, zinc acetate as zinc ion source and manganese acetate as manganese ion source in alkaline bath at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are carried out at room temperature on films and powders with a powder diffractometer, using CuKα radiation. The average grain size obtained from the Debye–Scherrer’s formula is around 10 nm. Films morphology is examined by scanning electron microscopy. IR spectra of representative sample are recorded with the FTIR between 400 and 4000 cm-1.The transmittance (70 %) is performed with the UV–VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range 200–800 nm. This value is enhanced by Al doping.
Keywords: ZnS, nanostructured semiconductors, thin films, chemical bath depositionProcedia PDF Downloads 465
113 Finite Volume Method Simulations of GaN Growth Process in MOVPE Reactor
Authors: J. Skibinski, P. Caban, T. Wejrzanowski, K. J. Kurzydlowski
Abstract:In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer during gallium nitride growth process in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Existing knowledge about phenomena occurring in the MOVPE process allows to produce high quality nitride based semiconductors. However, process parameters of MOVPE reactors can vary in certain ranges. Main goal of this study is optimization of the process and improvement of the quality of obtained crystal. In order to investigate this subject a series of computer simulations have been performed. Numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in GaN epitaxial growth process have been performed to determine growth rate for various mass flow rates and pressures of reagents. According to the fact that it’s impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during the process, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Main heat transfer mechanisms during MOVPE process are convection and radiation. Correlation of modeling results with the experiment allows to determine optimal process parameters for obtaining crystals of highest quality.
Keywords: Finite Volume Method, semiconductors, epitaxial growth, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, gallium nitrideProcedia PDF Downloads 324
112 Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of a New Noble Metal Modified [email protected] and SrTiO3 Photocatalysts
Authors: Ewelina Grabowska, Martyna Marchelek
Abstract:Among the various semiconductors, nanosized TiO2 has been widely studied due to its high photosensitivity, low cost, low toxicity, and good chemical and thermal stability. However, there are two main drawbacks to the practical application of pure TiO2 films. One is that TiO2 can be induced only by ultraviolet (UV) light due to its intrinsic wide bandgap (3.2 eV for anatase and 3.0 eV for rutile), which limits its practical efficiency for solar energy utilization since UV light makes up only 4-5% of the solar spectrum. The other is that a high electron-hole recombination rate will reduce the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. In order to overcome the above drawbacks and modify the electronic structure of TiO2, some semiconductors (eg. CdS, ZnO, PbS, Cu2O, Bi2S3, and CdSe) have been used to prepare coupled TiO2 composites, for improving their charge separation efficiency and extending the photoresponse into the visible region. It has been proved that the fabrication of p-n heterostructures by combining n-type TiO2 with p-type semiconductors is an effective way to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. SrTiO3 is a good candidate for coupling TiO2 and improving the photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst because its conduction band edge is more negative than TiO2. Due to the potential differences between the band edges of these two semiconductors, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Conversely, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Then the photogenerated charge carriers can be efficiently separated by these processes, resulting in the enhancement of the photocatalytic property in the photocatalyst. Additionally, one of the methods for improving photocatalyst performance is addition of nanoparticles containing one or two noble metals (Pt, Au, Ag and Pd) deposited on semiconductor surface. The mechanisms were proposed as (1) the surface plasmon resonance of noble metal particles is excited by visible light, facilitating the excitation of the surface electron and interfacial electron transfer (2) some energy levels can be produced in the band gap of TiO2 by the dispersion of noble metal nanoparticles in the TiO2 matrix; (3) noble metal nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 act as electron traps, enhancing the electron–hole separation. In view of this, we recently obtained series of [email protected] and SrTiO3 photocatalysts loaded with noble metal NPs. using photodeposition method. The M- [email protected] and M-SrTiO3 photocatalysts (M= Rh, Rt, Pt) were studied for photodegradation of phenol in aqueous phase under UV-Vis and visible irradiation. Moreover, in the second part of our research hydroxyl radical formations were investigated. Fluorescence of irradiated coumarin solution was used as a method of ˙OH radical detection. Coumarin readily reacts with generated hydroxyl radicals forming hydroxycoumarins. Although the major hydroxylation product is 5-hydroxycoumarin, only 7-hydroxyproduct of coumarin hydroxylation emits fluorescent light. Thus, this method was used only for hydroxyl radical detection, but not for determining concentration of hydroxyl radicals.
Keywords: composites TiO2, SrTiO3, photocatalysis, phenol degradationProcedia PDF Downloads 167
111 Rational Design and Synthesis of 2D/3D Conjugated Porous Polymers via Facile and 'Greener' Direct Arylation Polycondensation
Authors: Hassan Bohra, Mingfeng Wang
Abstract:Conjugated porous polymers (CPPs) are amorphous, insoluble and highly robust organic semiconductors that have been largely synthesized by traditional transition-metal catalyzed reactions. The distinguishing feature of CPP materials is that they combine microporosity and high surface areas with extended conjugation, making them ideal for versatile applications such as separation, catalysis and energy storage. By applying a modular approach to synthesis, chemical and electronic properties of CPPs can be tailored for specific applications making these materials economical alternatives to inorganic semiconductors. Direct arylation - an environmentally benign alternative to traditional polymerization reactions – is one such reaction that extensively over the last decade for the synthesis of linear p-conjugated polymers. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new series of robust conjugated porous polymers synthesized by facile direct arylation polymerization of thiophene-flanked acceptor building blocks with multi-brominated aryls with different geometries. We observed that the porosities and morphologies of the polymers are determined by the chemical structure of the aryl bromide used. Moreover, good control of the optical bandgap in the range 2.53 - 1.3 eV could be obtained by using different building blocks. Structure-property relationships demonstrated in this study suggest that direct arylation polymerization is an attractive synthetic tool for the rational design of porous organic materials with tunable photo-physical properties for applications in photocatalysis, energy storage and conversion.
Keywords: direct arylation, conjugated porous polymers, triazine, photocatalysisProcedia PDF Downloads 234
110 Facile Route for the Synthesis of NiO/ZnO Nanocomposite Used in Gas Sensors
Authors: Roussin Lontio Fomekong, John Lambi Ngolui, Arnaud Dercorte
Abstract:Current years have seen increased interest in the synthesis of p/n metal oxide-based nano composites and their great potential in advanced applications, such as opto electronics, photo catalysis and gas sensors. The superior functional performances of the system combining p-type and n-types semiconducting oxyde in comparison to the corresponding single-phase metal oxides are mainly ascribed to the build-up of an inner electric field at the p/n junction interface.
Keywords: nanocomposite, semiconductors, p-n, heterojunctionProcedia PDF Downloads 467
109 Nonlinear Optics of Dirac Fermion Systems
Authors: Vipin Kumar, Girish S. Setlur
Abstract:Graphene has been recognized as a promising 2D material with many new properties. However, pristine graphene is gapless which hinders its direct application towards graphene-based semiconducting devices. Graphene is a zero-gapp and linearly dispersing semiconductor. Massless charge carriers (quasi-particles) in graphene obey the relativistic Dirac equation. These Dirac fermions show very unusual physical properties such as electronic, optical and transport. Graphene is analogous to two-level atomic systems and conventional semiconductors. We may expect that graphene-based systems will also exhibit phenomena that are well-known in two-level atomic systems and in conventional semiconductors. Rabi oscillation is a nonlinear optical phenomenon well-known in the context of two-level atomic systems and also in conventional semiconductors. It is the periodic exchange of energy between the system of interest and the electromagnetic field. The present work describes the phenomenon of Rabi oscillations in graphene based systems. Rabi oscillations have already been described theoretically and experimentally in the extensive literature available on this topic. To describe Rabi oscillations they use an approximation known as rotating wave approximation (RWA) well-known in studies of two-level systems. RWA is valid only near conventional resonance (small detuning)- when the frequency of the external field is nearly equal to the particle-hole excitation frequency. The Rabi frequency goes through a minimum close to conventional resonance as a function of detuning. Far from conventional resonance, the RWA becomes rather less useful and we need some other technique to describe the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. In conventional systems, there is no second minimum - the only minimum is at conventional resonance. But in graphene we find anomalous Rabi oscillations far from conventional resonance where the Rabi frequency goes through a minimum that is much smaller than the conventional Rabi frequency. This is known as anomalous Rabi frequency and is unique to graphene systems. We have shown that this is attributable to the pseudo-spin degree of freedom in graphene systems. A new technique, which is an alternative to RWA called asymptotic RWA (ARWA), has been invoked by our group to discuss the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. Experimentally accessible current density shows different types of threshold behaviour in frequency domain close to the anomalous Rabi frequency depending on the system chosen. For single layer graphene, the exponent at threshold is equal to 1/2 while in case of bilayer graphene, it is computed to be equal to 1. Bilayer graphene shows harmonic (anomalous) resonances absent in single layer graphene. The effect of asymmetry and trigonal warping (a weak direct inter-layer hopping in bilayer graphene) on these oscillations is also studied in graphene systems. Asymmetry has a remarkable effect only on anomalous Rabi oscillations whereas the Rabi frequency near conventional resonance is not significantly affected by the asymmetry parameter. In presence of asymmetry, these graphene systems show Rabi-like oscillations (offset oscillations) even for vanishingly small applied field strengths (less than the gap parameter). The frequency of offset oscillations may be identified with the asymmetry parameter.
Keywords: graphene, Bilayer graphene, Rabi oscillations, Dirac fermion systemsProcedia PDF Downloads 223
108 Enhanced Photocatalytic H₂ Production from H₂S on Metal Modified Cds-Zns Semiconductors
Authors: Maali-Amel Mersel, Lajos Fodor, Otto Horvath
Abstract:Photocatalytic H₂ production by H₂S decomposition is regarded to be an environmentally friendly process to produce carbon-free energy through direct solar energy conversion. For this purpose, sulphide-based materials, as photocatalysts, were widely used due to their excellent solar spectrum responses and high photocatalytic activity. The loading of proper co-catalysts that are based on cheap and earth-abundant materials on those semiconductors was shown to play an important role in the improvement of their efficiency. In this research, CdS-ZnS composite was studied because of its controllable band gap and excellent performance for H₂ evolution under visible light irradiation. The effects of the modification of this photocatalyst with different types of materials and the influence of the preparation parameters on its H₂ production activity were investigated. The CdS-ZnS composite with an enhanced photocatalytic activity for H₂ production was synthesized from ammine complexes. Two types of modification were used: compounds of Ni-group metals (NiS, PdS, and Pt) were applied as co-catalyst on the surface of CdS-ZnS semiconductor, while NiS, MnS, CoS, Ag₂S, and CuS were used as a dopant in the bulk of the catalyst. It was found that 0.1% of noble metals didn’t remarkably influence the photocatalytic activity, while the modification with 0.5% of NiS was shown to be more efficient in the bulk than on the surface. The modification with other types of metals results in a decrease of the rate of H₂ production, while the co-doping seems to be more promising. The preparation parameters (such as the amount of ammonia to form the ammine complexes, the order of the preparation steps together with the hydrothermal treatment) were also found to highly influence the rate of H₂ production. SEM, EDS and DRS analyses were made to reveal the structure of the most efficient photocatalysts. Moreover, the detection of the conduction band electron on the surface of the catalyst was also investigated. The excellent photoactivity of the CdS-ZnS catalysts with and without modification encourages further investigations to enhance the hydrogen generation by optimization of the reaction conditions.
Keywords: H₂S, photoactivity, photocatalytic H₂ production, CdS-ZnSProcedia PDF Downloads 66
107 Dimensional-Controlled Functional Gold Nanoparticles and Zinc Oxide Nanorods for Solar Water Splitting
Authors: Kok Hong Tan, Hing Wah Lee, Jhih-Wei Chen, Chang Fu Dee, Chung-Lin Wu, Siang-Piao Chai, Wei Sea Chang
Abstract:Semiconductor photocatalyst is known as one of the key roles in developing clean and sustainable energy. However, most of the semiconductor only possesses photoactivity within the UV light region, and hence, decreases the overall photocatalyst efficiency. Generally, the overall effectiveness of the photocatalyst activity is determined by three critical steps: (i) light absorption efficiency and photoexcitation electron-hole pair generation, (ii) separation and migration of charge carriers to the surface of the photocatalyst, and (iii) surface reaction of the carriers with its environment. Much effort has been invested on optimizing hierarchical nanostructures of semiconductors for efficient photoactivity due to the fact that the visible light absorption capability and occurrence of the chemical reactions mostly depend on the dimension of photocatalysts. In this work, we incorporated zero-dimensional (0D) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and one dimensional (1D) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) onto strontium titanate (STO) for efficient visible light absorption, charge transfer, and separation. We demonstrate that the electrical and optical properties of the photocatalyst can be tuned by controlling the dimensional structures of AuNPs and ZnO NRs. We found that smaller AuNPs sizes exhibited higher photoactivity because of Fermi level shifting toward the conductive band of STO, STO band gap narrowing and broadening of absorption spectrum to the visible light region. For ZnO NRs, it was found that the average ZnO NRs c-axis length must achieve of certain length to induce multiphoton absorption as a result of light reflection and trapping behavior in the free space between adjacent ZnO NRs hence broadening the absorption spectrum of ZnO from UV to visible light region. This work opens up a new way of broadening the absorption spectrum by incorporating controllable nanostructures of semiconductors, which is important in optimizing the solar water splitting process.
Keywords: gold nanoparticles, photoelectrochemical, PEC, semiconductor photocatalyst, zinc oxide nanorodsProcedia PDF Downloads 101
106 A Review of Optomechatronic Ecosystem
Authors: Sam Zhang
Abstract:The landscape of Opto mechatronics is viewed along the line of light vs. matter, photonics vs. semiconductors, and optics vs. mechatronics. Optomechatronics is redefined as the integration of light and matter from the atom, device, and system to the application. The markets and megatrends in Opto mechatronics are further listed. The author then focuses on Opto mechatronic technology in the semiconductor industry as an example and reviews the practical systems, characteristics, and trends. Opto mechatronics, together with photonics and semiconductor, will continue producing the computational and smart infrastructure required for the 4th industrial revolution.
Keywords: photonics, semiconductor, optomechatronics, 4th industrial revolutionProcedia PDF Downloads 23
105 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan
Authors: Emad A. Ahmed
Abstract:Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.
Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physicsProcedia PDF Downloads 563
104 Morphology Evolution in Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Arrays Prepared by Electrochemical Anodization
Authors: J. Tirano, H. Zea, C. Luhrs
Abstract:Photocatalysis has established as viable option in the development of processes for the treatment of pollutants and clean energy production. This option is based on the ability of semiconductors to generate an electron flow by means of the interaction with solar radiation. Owing to its electronic structure, TiO₂ is the most frequently used semiconductors in photocatalysis, although it has a high recombination of photogenerated charges and low solar energy absorption. An alternative to reduce these limitations is the use of nanostructured morphologies which can be produced during the synthesis of TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs). Therefore, if possible to produce vertically oriented nanostructures it will be possible to generate a greater contact area with electrolyte and better charge transfer. At present, however, the development of these innovative structures still presents an important challenge for the development of competitive photoelectrochemical devices. This research focuses on established correlations between synthesis variables and 1D nanostructure morphology which has a direct effect on the photocatalytic performance. TNTs with controlled morphology were synthesized by two-step potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil. The anodization was carried out at room temperature in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water and ethylene glycol. Consequent thermal annealing of as-prepared TNTs was conducted in the air between 450 °C-550 °C. Morphology and crystalline phase of the TNTs were carried out by SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. As results, the synthesis conditions were established to produce nanostructures with specific morphological characteristics. Anatase was the predominant phase of TNTs after thermal treatment. Nanotubes with 10 μm in length, 40 nm in pore diameter and a surface-volume ratio of 50 are important in photoelectrochemical applications based on TiO₂ due to their 1D characteristics, high surface-volume ratio, reduced radial dimensions and high oxide/electrolyte interface. Finally, this knowledge can be used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TNTs by making additional surface modifications with dopants that improve their efficiency.
Keywords: electrochemical anodization, morphology, self-organized nanotubes, TiO₂ nanotubesProcedia PDF Downloads 92