Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Madhu Sarwan

29 Pressure Induced Phase Transition of Semiconducting Alloy TlxGa1-xAs

Authors: Madhu Sarwan, Ritu Dubey, Sadhna Singh


We have investigated the structural phase transition from Zinc-Blende (ZB) to Rock-Salt (RS) structure of TlxGa1-xAs by using Interaction Potential Model (IPM). The IPM consists of Coulomb interaction, Three-Body Interaction (TBI), Van Der Wall (vdW) interaction and overlap repulsive short range interaction. The structural phase transition has been computed by using the vegard’s law. The volume collapse is also computed for this alloy. We have also investigated the second order elastic constants with composition for the alloy TlxGa1-xAs.

Keywords: III-V alloy, elastic moduli, phase transition, semiconductors

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28 Theoretical Study of the Structural and Elastic Properties of Semiconducting Rare Earth Chalcogenide Sm1-XEuXS under Pressure

Authors: R. Dubey, M. Sarwan, S. Singh


We have investigated the phase transition pressure and associated volume collapse in Sm1– X EuX S alloy (0≤x≤1) which shows transition from discontinuous to continuous as x is reduced. The calculated results from present approach are in good agreement with experimental data available for the end point members (x=0 and x=1). The results for the alloy counter parts are also in fair agreement with experimental data generated from the vegard’s law. An improved interaction potential model has been developed which includes coulomb, three body interaction, polarizability effect and overlap repulsive interaction operative up to second neighbor ions. It is found that the inclusion of polarizability effect has improved our results.

Keywords: elastic constants, high pressure, phase transition, rare earth compound

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27 Implementation of 4-Bit Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor DAC with Mismatch Shaping Technique

Authors: Anuja Askhedkar, G. H. Agrawal, Madhu Gudgunti


Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor (DCT-SC) DAC is the internal DAC used in Delta-Sigma (∆∑) DAC which works on Over-Sampling concept. The Switched Capacitor DAC mainly suffers from mismatch among capacitors. Mismatch among capacitors in DAC, causes non linearity between output and input. Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) technique is used to match the capacitors. According to element selection logic there are many types. In this paper, Data Weighted Averaging (DWA) technique is used for mismatch shaping. In this paper, the 4 bit DCT-SC-DAC with DWA-DEM technique is implemented using WINSPICE simulation software in 180nm CMOS technology. DNL for DAC with DWA is ±0.03 LSB and INL is ± 0.02LSB.

Keywords: ∑-Δ DAC, DCT-SC-DAC, mismatch shaping, DWA, DEM

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26 Antioxidant Activity Studies of Novel Schiff and Mannich Bases

Authors: D. J. Madhu Kumar, D. Jagadeesh Prasad, Sana Sheik, E. P. Rejeesh


A series of Mannich bases derived from 1,2,4-triazole(3a-k and 4a-k) are synthesized by treating a Schiff base with various substituted primary/secondary amines and formaldehyde. The Schiff base is prepared by treating 3-methyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of acid catalyst. The triazole is prepared by treating acetic acid with thiocarbohydrazide at reflux temperature. All the synthesized samples are characterised by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and LC-MASS spectral studies and screened for their anti-oxidant activity.

Keywords: mannich bases, anti-oxidant activity, schiff base, triazole

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25 Queueing Modeling of M/G/1 Fault Tolerant System with Threshold Recovery and Imperfect Coverage

Authors: Madhu Jain, Rakesh Kumar Meena


This paper investigates a finite M/G/1 fault tolerant multi-component machining system. The system incorporates the features such as standby support, threshold recovery and imperfect coverage make the study closer to real time systems. The performance prediction of M/G/1 fault tolerant system is carried out using recursive approach by treating remaining service time as a supplementary variable. The numerical results are presented to illustrate the computational tractability of analytical results by taking three different service time distributions viz. exponential, 3-stage Erlang and deterministic. Moreover, the cost function is constructed to determine the optimal choice of system descriptors to upgrading the system.

Keywords: fault tolerant, machine repair, threshold recovery policy, imperfect coverage, supplementary variable technique

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24 Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network

Authors: Durga Prasad Sapkota, Madhu Sudan Kayastha, Koichi Wakita


In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electron absorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for an optical fiber communication network. The electroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ratio have been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: exciton, refractive index change, extinction ratio, GaAs

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23 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste via Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: B. Sajeena Beevi, P. P. Jose, G. Madhu


The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were initial pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results showed that the linear model terms of initial pH and substrate concentration and the quadratic model terms of the substrate concentration and TOC had significant individual effect (p < 0.05) on biogas yield. However, there was no interactive effect between these variables (p > 0.05). The highest level of biogas produced was 53.4 L/Kg VS at optimum pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon of 6.5, 99gTS/L, and 20.32 g/L respectively.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, optimization, response surface methodology

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22 A First Order Shear Deformation Theory Approach for the Buckling Behavior of Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: P. Pramod Kumar, Madhu Salumari, V. V. Subba Rao


Due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, carbon nanotube (CNTs) reinforced polymer composites are being considered as one of the most promising nanocomposites which can improve the performance when used in structural applications. The buckling behavior is one of the most important parameter needs to be considered in the design of structural members like beams and plates. In the present paper, the elastic constants of CNT reinforced polymer composites are evaluated by using Mori-Tanaka micromechanics approach. Knowing the elastic constants, an analytical study is being conducted to investigate the buckling behavior of nanocomposites for different CNT volume fractions at different boundary conditions using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The effect of stacking sequence and CNT radius on the buckling of beam has also been presented. This study is being conducted primarily with an intension to find the stiffening effect of CNTs when used in polymer composites as reinforcement.

Keywords: CNT, buckling, micromechanics, FSDT

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21 Effect of Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement in Polymer Composite Plates under Static Loading

Authors: S. Madhu, V. V. Subba Rao


In the implementation of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer matrix composites in structural applications, deflection and stress analysis are important considerations. In the present study, a multi scale analysis of deflection and stress analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite plates is presented. A micromechanics model based on the Mori-Tanaka method is developed by introducing straight CNTs aligned in one direction. The effect of volume fraction and diameter of CNTs on plate deflection and the stresses are investigated using Classical Laminate Plate Theory (CLPT). The study is primarily conducted with the intention of observing the suitability of CNT reinforced polymer composite plates under static loading for structural applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, micromechanics, composite plate, multi-scale analysis, classical laminate plate theory

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20 Synthesis, Characterization, and Physico–Chemical Properties of Nano Zinc Oxide and PVA Composites

Authors: S. H. Rashmi, G. M. Madhu, A. A. Kittur, R. Suresh


Polymer nanocomposites represent a new class of materials in which nanomaterials act as the reinforcing material in composites, wherein small additions of nanomaterials lead to large enhancements in thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. A boost in these properties is due to the large interfacial area per unit volume or weight of the nanoparticles and the interactions between the particle and the polymer. Micro-sized particles used as reinforcing agents scatter light, thus, reducing light transmittance and optical clarity. Efficient nanoparticle dispersion combined with good polymer–particle interfacial adhesion eliminates scattering and allows the exciting possibility of developing strong yet transparent films, coatings and membranes. This paper aims at synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles which are reinforced in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength of the PVA nanocomposites increases with the increase in the amount of nanoparticles.

Keywords: glutaraldehyde, polymer nanocomposites, poly vinyl alcohol, zinc oxide

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19 Thermalytix: An Advanced Artificial Intelligence Based Solution for Non-Contact Breast Screening

Authors: S. Sudhakar, Geetha Manjunath, Siva Teja Kakileti, Himanshu Madhu


Diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages has seen better clinical and survival outcomes. Survival rates in developing countries like India are very low due to accessibility and affordability issues of screening tests such as Mammography. In addition, Mammography is not much effective in younger women with dense breasts. This leaves a gap in current screening methods. Thermalytix is a new technique for detecting breast abnormality in a non-contact, non-invasive way. It is an AI-enabled computer-aided diagnosis solution that automates interpretation of high resolution thermal images and identifies potential malignant lesions. The solution is low cost, easy to use, portable and is effective in all age groups. This paper presents the results of a retrospective comparative analysis of Thermalytix over Mammography and Clinical Breast Examination for breast cancer screening. Thermalytix was found to have better sensitivity than both the tests, with good specificity as well. In addition, Thermalytix identified all malignant patients without palpable lumps.

Keywords: breast cancer screening, radiology, thermalytix, artificial intelligence, thermography

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18 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari


In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: clear sky, daylight factor, energy saving, wall window

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17 Gender and Change of Socio-Cultural Behavior: A Case Study of Sarangkot VDC of Kaski District

Authors: Padam Pandey, Madhu Sudan Dhakal


As a consequence of being a patrimonial society, most of the Nepalese women work inside the house and take care their children. Men are always regarded to be responsible for managing fund to fulfill the family requirement. Outgoing men of 25-35 for employment in foreign country is a common practice. In the absence of man, women aged of 20-45 have to be active in society. The responsibility of women is not only looking after inside the house but also leading the society. This study analysis gender aspect of household work and involvement in the society. This study shows that women are leading 56% different organizations in the society where 51% women spend more than 54% time in community development work. The involvement of man in the house work has significantly increased. The women leadership has succeeded to show the transparency in all the community development activities. It shows a model of social harmony, solidarity, and unity in the Sarankot Village Development Committee. Social behavior change towards women is a milestone of sustainable community development. This study recommends that the equal participation is essential to sustain community development.

Keywords: gender, women leadership, social harmony, unity sustainable development

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16 Predictive Modelling Approach to Identify Spare Parts Inventory Obsolescence

Authors: Madhu Babu Cherukuri, Tamoghna Ghosh


Factory supply chain management spends billions of dollars every year to procure and manage equipment spare parts. Due to technology -and processes changes some of these spares become obsolete/dead inventory. Factories have huge dead inventory worth millions of dollars accumulating over time. This is due to lack of a scientific methodology to identify them and send the inventory back to the suppliers on a timely basis. The standard approach followed across industries to deal with this is: if a part is not used for a set pre-defined period of time it is declared dead. This leads to accumulation of dead parts over time and these parts cannot be sold back to the suppliers as it is too late as per contract agreement. Our main idea is the time period for identifying a part as dead cannot be a fixed pre-defined duration across all parts. Rather, it should depend on various properties of the part like historical consumption pattern, type of part, how many machines it is being used in, whether it- is a preventive maintenance part etc. We have designed a predictive algorithm which predicts part obsolescence well in advance with reasonable accuracy and which can help save millions.

Keywords: obsolete inventory, machine learning, big data, supply chain analytics, dead inventory

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15 Doubled Haploid Production in Wheat Using Imperata cylindrica Mediated Chromosome Elimination Technique

Authors: Madhu Patial, Dharam Pal, Jagdish Kumar, H. K. Chaudhary


Doubled haploid breeding serves as a useful technique in wheat improvement by providing instant and complete homozygosity. Of the various techniques employed for haploid production chromosome elimination has a large scale practical application in wheat improvement. Barclay (1975) initiated the technique in wheat by crossing wheat variety Chinese spring with Hordeum bulbosum, but due to presence of the dominant crossability inhibitor genes Kr7 and Kr2 in many wheat varieties, the technique was however genotypic specific. The discovery of wheat X maize system of haploid production being genotype non-specific is quite successful but still maize needs to be grown in greenhouse to coincide flowering with wheat crop. Recently, wheat X Imperate cylindrica has been identified as a new chromosome mediated DH approach for efficient haploid induction. An experiment to use this technique in wheat was set up by crossing six F1s and two three way F1s with Imperata cylindrica. The data was recorded for the three component traits of haploid induction viz., seed formation, embryo formation and regeneration frequency. Variation among wheat F1s was observed and higher frequency for all the traits were recorded in cross HD 2997/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL and KLE/BER/2*FL-8/DONSK-POLL.

Keywords: wheat, haploid, imperata cylindrica, chromosome elimination technique

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14 Investigation of Mechanical Properties on natural fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Gopi Kerekere Rangaraju, Madhu Puttegowda


Natural fibres composites include coir, jute, bagasse, cotton, bamboo, and hemp. Natural fibers come from plants. These fibers contain lingo cellulose in nature. Natural fibers are eco-friendly; lightweight, strong, renewable, cheap, and biodegradable. The natural fibers can be used to reinforce both thermosetting and thermoplastic matrices. Thermosetting resins such as epoxy, polyester, polyurethane, and phenolic are commonly used composites requiring higher performance applications. They provide sufficient mechanical properties, in particular, stiffness and strength at acceptably low-price levels. Recent advances in natural fibers development are genetic engineering. The composites science offers significant opportunities for improved materials from renewable resources with enhanced support for global sustainability. Natural fibers composites are attractive to industry because of their low density and ecological advantages over conventional composites. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and bio-degradable nature. Natural fibers composites are a very costeffective material, especially in building and construction, packaging, automobile and railway coach interiors, and storage devices. These composites are potential candidates for the replacement of high- cost glass fibers for low load bearing applications. Natural fibers have the advantages of low density, low cost, and biodegradability

Keywords: PMC, basalt, coir, carbon fibers

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13 Cyclic NGR Peptide Anchored Block Co-Polymeric Nanoparticles as Dual Targeting Drug Delivery System for Solid Tumor Therapy

Authors: Madhu Gupta, G. P. Agrawa, Suresh P. Vyas


Certain tumor cells overexpress a membrane-spanning molecule aminopeptidase N (CD13) isoform, which is the receptor for peptides containing the NGR motif. NGR-modified Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded PEG-b-PLGA polymeric nanoparticles (cNGR-DNB-NPs) were developed and evaluated for their in vitro potential in HT-1080 cell line. The cNGR-DNB-NPs containing particles were about 148 nm in diameter with spherical shape and high encapsulation efficiency. Cellular uptake was confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry. Both quantitatively and qualitatively results confirmed the NGR conjugated nanoparticles revealed the higher uptake of nanoparticles by CD13-overexpressed tumor cells. Free NGR inhibited the cellular uptake of cNGR-DNB-NPs, revealing the mechanism of receptor mediated endocytosis. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that cNGR-DNB-NPs, formulation was more cytotoxic than unconjugated one, which were consistent well with the observation of cellular uptake. Hence, the selective delivery of cNGR-DNB-NPs formulation in CD13-overexpressing tumors represents a potential approach for the design of nanocarrier-based dual targeted delivery systems for targeting the tumor cells and vasculature.

Keywords: solid Tumor, docetaxel, targeting, NGR ligand

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12 Effect of Sugar Mill Effluent on Growth, Yield and Soil Properties of Ratoon Cane in Cauvery Command Area

Authors: G. K. Madhu, S. Bhaskar, M. S. Dinesh, R. Manii, C. A. Srinivasamurthy


A field experiment was conducted in the premises of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd., Bharathinagar, Mandya District Pvt. Ltd., during 2014 to study the effect of sugar mill effluent (SME) on growth, yield and soil properties of ratoon cane with eight treatments replicated thrice using RCBD design. Significantly higher growth parameters like cane height (249.77 cm) and number of tillers per clump (12.22) were recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower growth attributes were recorded in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Significantly higher cane yield (104. 93 t -1) was recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower cane yield (87.40 t ha-1) was observed in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Soil properties like pH (7.84) was higher in treatment receiving Alternate irrigation with freshwater and sugar mill effluent + RDF. But EC was significantly higher in treatment which received Cycle of1 irrigation with freshwater + 2 irrigations with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments.

Keywords: sugar mill effluent, sugarcane, irrigation, cane yield

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11 Development and Characterization of Site Specific Peptide Conjugated Polymeric Nanoparticles for Efficient Delivery of Paclitaxel

Authors: Madhu Gupta, Vikas Sharma, Suresh P. Vyas


CD13 receptors are abundantly overexpressed in tumor cells as well as in neovasculature. The CD13 receptors were selected as a targeted site and polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as a targeted delivery system. By combining these, a cyclic NGR (cNGR) peptide ligand was coupled on the terminal end of polyethylene glycol-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-b-PLGA) and prepared the dual targeted-NPs (cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs) to enhance the intracellular delivery of anticancer drug to tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells via ligand-receptor interaction. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies confirmed that the presence of cNGR enhanced the cytotoxic efficiency by 2.8 folds in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cells, while cytotoxicity was improved by 2.6 folds in human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cells as compared to non-specific stealth NPs. Compared with other tested NPs, cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs revealed more cytotoxicity by inducing more apoptosis and higher intracellular uptake. The tumor volume inhibition rate was 59.7% in case of cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs that was comparatively more with other formulations, indicating that cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs could more effectively inhibit tumor growth. As a consequence, the cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs play a key role in enhancing tumor therapeutic efficiency for treatment of CD13 receptor specific solid tumor.

Keywords: cyclic NGR, CD13 receptor, targeted polymeric NPs, solid tumor, intracellular delivery

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10 Numerical Approach to a Mathematical Modeling of Bioconvection Due to Gyrotactic Micro-Organisms over a Nonlinear Inclined Stretching Sheet

Authors: Madhu Aneja, Sapna Sharma


The water-based bioconvection of a nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms over nonlinear inclined stretching sheet has been investigated. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations of the model are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations via Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation and similarity transformations. Further, the modified set of equations with associated boundary conditions are solved using Finite Element Method. The impact of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration, density of motile micro-organisms profiles are obtained and analyzed in details. The results show that with the increase in angle of inclination δ, velocity decreases while temperature, nanoparticles concentration, a density of motile micro-organisms increases. Additionally, the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, density number are computed for various thermophysical parameters. It is noticed that increasing Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter leads to an increase in temperature of fluid which results in a reduction in Nusselt number. On the contrary, Sherwood number rises with an increase in Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter. The findings have been validated by comparing the results of special cases with existing studies.

Keywords: bioconvection, finite element method, gyrotactic micro-organisms, inclined stretching sheet, nanofluid

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9 A Mathematical Study of Magnetic Field, Heat Transfer and Brownian Motion of Nanofluid over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

Authors: Madhu Aneja, Sapna Sharma


Thermal conductivity of ordinary heat transfer fluids is not adequate to meet today’s cooling rate requirements. Nanoparticles have been shown to increase the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer to the base fluids. One of the possible mechanisms for anomalous increase in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is the Brownian motions of the nanoparticles in the basefluid. In this paper, the natural convection of incompressible nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field is studied. The flow and heat transfer induced by stretching sheets is important in the study of extrusion processes and is a subject of considerable interest in the contemporary literature. Appropriate similarity variables are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary (similarity) differential equations. For computational purpose, Finite Element Method is used. The effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid are calculated by KKL (Koo – Klienstreuer – Li) correlation. In this model effect of Brownian motion on thermal conductivity is considered. The effect of important parameter i.e. nonlinear parameter, volume fraction, Hartmann number, heat source parameter is studied on velocity and temperature. Skin friction and heat transfer coefficients are also calculated for concerned parameters.

Keywords: Brownian motion, convection, finite element method, magnetic field, nanofluid, stretching sheet

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8 Pachhedi: A Material Culture Study on Folk Textile of India

Authors: Shrutisingh Tomar, Madhu Sharan


It has been an undisputed fact that the culture of a nation has always been reflected in its practice, visual content and in forms of its oral traditions. Regional and communal costumes in India since ancient times have worked as a strong repository for its people to comprehend not only the locality but also the community of the wearer. Such a strong visual language apparently was ordained to communicate basic details about the person such as age, marital status, and socio-cultural status. Most of the fragments of this visual vocabulary have been intensively investigated, recorded, diversified and revived, while a limited range of these has died a slow death. Some of the rare existent kinds of such threads have survived as a mainstream article of clothing: simpler, apparent and a product for daily life yet unique in their own kind. The paper intends to consider and elaborate the investigated repository pertinent to the Pacchedi weaving tradition of Gujarat. The research involved field surveys across seven districts of the two states of India namely Gujarat and Rajasthan. Ethnographic interviews, observations, recording of oral histories and archival research was conducted through multi-timed and multi-cited studies between from the year 2012 to 2015. The results include varied forms of Pacchedi based on the sartorial expressions in the male costume. The characteristic features of these textiles were accorded by the sumptuous use of brocaded cross borders and weft heavy ends along with the details on the languishing fabrication procedure.

Keywords: handloom weaving, material culture, sartorial expressions and vernacular textile craft

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7 Study of Radiation Response in Lactobacillus Species

Authors: Kanika Arora, Madhu Bala


The small intestine epithelium is highly sensitive and major targets of ionizing radiation. Radiation causes gastrointestinal toxicity either by direct deposition of energy or indirectly (inflammation or bystander effects) generating free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress generated as a result of radiation causes active inflammation within the intestinal mucosa leading to structural and functional impairment of gut epithelial barrier. As a result, there is a loss of tolerance to normal dietary antigens and commensal flora together with exaggerated response to pathogens. Dysbiosis may therefore thought to play a role in radiation enteropathy and can contribute towards radiation induced bowel toxicity. Lactobacilli residing in the gut shares a long conjoined evolutionary history with their hosts and by doing so these organisms have developed an intimate and complex symbiotic relationships. The objective behind this study was to look for the strains with varying resistance to ionizing radiation and to see whether the niche of the bacteria is playing any role in radiation resistance property of bacteria. In this study, we have isolated the Lactobacillus spp. from probiotic preparation and murine gastrointestinal tract, both of which were supposed to be the important source for its isolation. Biochemical characterization did not show a significant difference in the properties, while a significant preference was observed in carbohydrate utilization capacity by the isolates. Effect of ionizing radiations induced by Co60 gamma radiation (10 Gy) on lactobacilli cells was investigated. A cellular survival curve versus absorbed doses was determined. Radiation resistance studies showed that the response of isolates towards cobalt-60 gamma radiation differs from each other and significant decrease in survival was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Thus the present study revealed that the property of radioresistance in Lactobacillus depends upon the source from where they have been isolated.

Keywords: dysbiosis, lactobacillus, mitigation, radiation

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6 The Impact of Board Characteristics on Firm Performance: Evidence from Banking Industry in India

Authors: Manmeet Kaur, Madhu Vij


The Board of Directors in a firm performs the primary role of an internal control mechanism. This Study seeks to understand the relationship between internal governance and performance of banks in India. The research paper investigates the effect of board structure (proportion of nonexecutive directors, gender diversity, board size and meetings per year) on the firm performance. This paper evaluates the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on bank’s financial performance using panel data for 28 listed banks in National Stock Exchange of India for the period of 2008-2014. Returns on Asset, Return on Equity, Tobin’s Q and Net Interest Margin were used as the financial performance indicators. To estimate the relationship among governance and bank performance initially the Study uses Pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Estimation and Generalized Least Square (GLS) Estimation. Then a well-developed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) Estimator is developed to investigate the dynamic nature of performance and governance relationship. The Study empirically confirms that two-step system GMM approach controls the problem of unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity as compared to the OLS and GLS approach. The result suggests that banks with small board, boards with female members, and boards that meet more frequently tend to be more efficient and subsequently have a positive impact on performance of banks. The study offers insights to policy makers interested in enhancing the quality of governance of banks in India. Also, the findings suggest that board structure plays a vital role in the improvement of corporate governance mechanism for financial institutions. There is a need to have efficient boards in banks to improve the overall health of the financial institutions and the economic development of the country.

Keywords: board of directors, corporate governance, GMM estimation, Indian banking

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5 Cybernetic Model-Based Optimization of a Fed-Batch Process for High Cell Density Cultivation of E. Coli In Shake Flasks

Authors: Snehal D. Ganjave, Hardik Dodia, Avinash V. Sunder, Swati Madhu, Pramod P. Wangikar


Batch cultivation of recombinant bacteria in shake flasks results in low cell density due to nutrient depletion. Previous protocols on high cell density cultivation in shake flasks have relied mainly on controlled release mechanisms and extended cultivation protocols. In the present work, we report an optimized fed-batch process for high cell density cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) for protein production. A cybernetic model-based, multi-objective optimization strategy was implemented to obtain the optimum operating variables to achieve maximum biomass and minimized substrate feed rate. A syringe pump was used to feed a mixture of glycerol and yeast extract into the shake flask. Preliminary experiments were conducted with online monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) and offline measurements of biomass and glycerol to estimate the model parameters. Multi-objective optimization was performed to obtain the pareto front surface. The selected optimized recipe was tested for a range of proteins that show different extent soluble expression in E. coli. These included eYFP and LkADH, which are largely expressed in soluble fractions, CbFDH and GcanADH , which are partially soluble, and human PDGF, which forms inclusion bodies. The biomass concentrations achieved in 24 h were in the range 19.9-21.5 g/L, while the model predicted value was 19.44 g/L. The process was successfully reproduced in a standard laboratory shake flask without online monitoring of DO and pH. The optimized fed-batch process showed significant improvement in both the biomass and protein production of the tested recombinant proteins compared to batch cultivation. The proposed process will have significant implications in the routine cultivation of E. coli for various applications.

Keywords: cybernetic model, E. coli, high cell density cultivation, multi-objective optimization

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4 An Analytical Systematic Design Approach to Evaluate Ballistic Performance of Armour Grade AA7075 Aluminium Alloy Using Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Lahari Ramya Pa, Sudhakar Ib, Madhu Vc, Madhusudhan Reddy Gd, Srinivasa Rao E.


Selection of suitable armor materials for defense applications is very crucial with respect to increasing mobility of the systems as well as maintaining safety. Therefore, determining the material with the lowest possible areal density that resists the predefined threat successfully is required in armor design studies. A number of light metal and alloys are come in to forefront especially to substitute the armour grade steels. AA5083 aluminium alloy which fit in to the military standards imposed by USA army is foremost nonferrous alloy to consider for possible replacement of steel to increase the mobility of armour vehicles and enhance fuel economy. Growing need of AA5083 aluminium alloy paves a way to develop supplement aluminium alloys maintaining the military standards. It has been witnessed that AA 2xxx aluminium alloy, AA6xxx aluminium alloy and AA7xxx aluminium alloy are the potential material to supplement AA5083 aluminium alloy. Among those cited aluminium series alloys AA7xxx aluminium alloy (heat treatable) possesses high strength and can compete with armour grade steels. Earlier investigations revealed that layering of AA7xxx aluminium alloy can prevent spalling of rear portion of armour during ballistic impacts. Hence, present investigation deals with fabrication of hard layer (made of boron carbide) i.e. layer on AA 7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing with an intention of blunting the projectile in the initial impact and backing tough portion(AA7xxx aluminium alloy) to dissipate residual kinetic energy. An analytical approach has been adopted to unfold the ballistic performance of projectile. Penetration of projectile inside the armour has been resolved by considering by strain energy model analysis. Perforation shearing areas i.e. interface of projectile and armour is taken in to account for evaluation of penetration inside the armour. Fabricated surface composites (targets) were tested as per the military standard (JIS.0108.01) in a ballistic testing tunnel at Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad in standardized testing conditions. Analytical results were well validated with experimental obtained one.

Keywords: AA7075 aluminium alloy, friction stir processing, boron carbide, ballistic performance, target

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3 Radiation Induced DNA Damage and Its Modification by Herbal Preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (SBL-1): An in vitro and in vivo Study in Mice

Authors: Anuranjani Kumar, Madhu Bala


Ionising radiation exposure induces generation of free radicals and the oxidative DNA damage. SBL-1, a radioprotective leaf extract prepared from leaves Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Common name; Seabuckthorn), showed > 90% survival in mice population that was treated with lethal dose (10 Gy) of ⁶⁰Co gamma irradiation. In this study, early effects of pre-treatment with or without SBL-1 in blood peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBMCs) were investigated by cell viability assays (trypan blue and MTT). The quantitative in vitro study of Hoescht/PI staining was performed to check the apoptosis/necrosis in PBMCs irradiated at 2 Gy with or without pretreatment of SBL-1 (at different concentrations) up to 24 and 48h. Comet assay was performed in vivo, to detect the DNA strands breaks and its repair mechanism on peripheral blood lymphocytes at lethal dose (10 Gy). For this study, male mice (wt. 28 ± 2g) were administered radioprotective dose (30mg/kg body weight) of SBL-1, 30 min prior to irradiation. Animals were sacrificed at 24h and 48h. Blood was drawn through cardiac puncture, and blood lymphocytes were separated using histopaque column. Both neutral and alkaline comet assay were performed using standardized technique. In irradiated animals, alkaline comet assay revealed single strand breaks (SSBs) that showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in percent DNA in tail and Olive tail moment (OTM) at 24 h while at 48h the percent DNA in tail further increased significantly (p < 0.02). The double strands breaks (DSBs) increased significantly (p < 0.01) at 48 h in neutral assay, in comparison to untreated control. The animals pre-treated with SBL-1 before irradiation showed significantly (p < 0.05) less DSBs at 48 h treatment in comparison to irradiated group of animals. The SBL-1 alone treated group itself showed no toxicity. The antioxidant potential of SBL-1 were also investigated by in vitro biochemical assays such as DPPH (p < 0.05), ABTS, reducing ability (p < 0.09), hydroxyl radical scavenging (p < 0.05), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide radical scavenging activity (p < 0.05), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (p < 0.05) etc. SBL-1 showed strong free radical scavenging power that plays important role in the studies of radiation-induced injuries. The SBL-1 treated PBMCs showed significant (p < 0.02) viability in trypan blue assay at 24-hour incubation.

Keywords: radiation, SBL-1, SSBs, DSBs, FRAP, PBMCs

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2 Molecular Characterization of Arginine Sensing Response in Unravelling Host-Pathogen Interactions in Leishmania

Authors: Evanka Madan, Madhu Puri, Dan Zilberstein, Rohini Muthuswami, Rentala Madhubala


The extensive interaction between the host and pathogen metabolic networks decidedly shapes the outcome of infection. Utilization of arginine by the host and pathogen is critical for determining the outcome of pathogenic infection. Infections with L. donovani, an intracellular parasite, will lead to an extensive competition of arginine between the host and the parasite donovani infection. One of the major amino acid (AA) sensing signaling pathways in mammalian cells are the mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1, as a sensor of nutrient, controls numerous metabolic pathways. Arginine is critical for mTORC1 activation. SLC38A9 is the arginine sensor for the mTORC1, being activated during arginine sufficiency. L. donovani transport arginine via a high-affinity transporter (LdAAP3) that is rapidly up-regulated by arginine deficiency response (ADR) in intracellular amastigotes. This study, to author’s best knowledge, investigates the interaction between two arginine sensing systems that act in the same compartment, the lysosome. One is important for macrophage defense, and the other is essential for pathogen virulence. We hypothesize that the latter modulates lysosome arginine to prevent host defense response. The work presented here identifies an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in regulating the expression of SLC38A9-mTORC1 pathway, and consequently, their function in L. donovani infected THP-1 cells cultured in 0.1 mM and 1.5 mM arginine. It was found that in physiological levels of arginine (0.1 mM), infecting THP-1 with Leishmania leads to increased levels of SLC38A9 and mTORC1 via an increase in the expression of RagA. However, the reversal was observed with LdAAP3 mutants, reflecting the positive regulatory role of LdAAP3 on the host SLC38A9. At the molecular level, upon infection, mTORC1 and RagA were found to be activated at the surface of phagolysosomes which was found to form a complex with phagolysosomal localized SLC38A9. To reveal the relevance of SLC38A9 under physiological levels of arginine, endogenous SLC38A9 was depleted and a substantial reduction in the expression of host mTORC1, its downstream active substrate, p-P70S6K1 and parasite LdAAP3, was observed, thereby showing that silencing SLC38A9 suppresses ADR. In brief, to author’s best knowledge, these results reveal an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in manipulating SLC38A9 arginine sensing in host macrophages. Our study indicates that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability and transport of extracellular arginine. An understanding of the sensing pathway of both parasite and host will open a new perspective on the molecular mechanism of host-parasite interaction and consequently, as a treatment for Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: arginine sensing, LdAAP3, L. donovani, mTORC1, SLC38A9, THP-1

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1 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of an Urban Corridor under Mixed Traffic Flow Condition

Authors: Kavitha Madhu, Karthik K. Srinivasan, R. Sivanandan


Indian traffic can be considered as mixed and heterogeneous due to the presence of various types of vehicles that operate with weak lane discipline. Consequently, vehicles can position themselves anywhere in the traffic stream depending on availability of gaps. The choice of lateral positioning is an important component in representing and characterizing mixed traffic. The field data provides evidence that the trajectory of vehicles in Indian urban roads have significantly varying longitudinal and lateral components. Further, the notion of headway which is widely used for homogeneous traffic simulation is not well defined in conditions lacking lane discipline. From field data it is clear that following is not strict as in homogeneous and lane disciplined conditions and neighbouring vehicles ahead of a given vehicle and those adjacent to it could also influence the subject vehicles choice of position, speed and acceleration. Given these empirical features, the suitability of using headway distributions to characterize mixed traffic in Indian cities is questionable, and needs to be modified appropriately. To address these issues, this paper attempts to analyze the time gap distribution between consecutive vehicles (in a time-sense) crossing a section of roadway. More specifically, to characterize the complex interactions noted above, the influence of composition, manoeuvre types, and lateral placement characteristics on time gap distribution is quantified in this paper. The developed model is used for evaluating various performance measures such as link speed, midblock delay and intersection delay which further helps to characterise the vehicular fuel consumption and emission on urban roads of India. Identifying and analyzing exact interactions between various classes of vehicles in the traffic stream is essential for increasing the accuracy and realism of microscopic traffic flow modelling. In this regard, this study aims to develop and analyze time gap distribution models and quantify it by lead lag pair, manoeuvre type and lateral position characteristics in heterogeneous non-lane based traffic. Once the modelling scheme is developed, this can be used for estimating the vehicle kilometres travelled for the entire traffic system which helps to determine the vehicular fuel consumption and emission. The approach to this objective involves: data collection, statistical modelling and parameter estimation, simulation using calibrated time-gap distribution and its validation, empirical analysis of simulation result and associated traffic flow parameters, and application to analyze illustrative traffic policies. In particular, video graphic methods are used for data extraction from urban mid-block sections in Chennai, where the data comprises of vehicle type, vehicle position (both longitudinal and lateral), speed and time gap. Statistical tests are carried out to compare the simulated data with the actual data and the model performance is evaluated. The effect of integration of above mentioned factors in vehicle generation is studied by comparing the performance measures like density, speed, flow, capacity, area occupancy etc under various traffic conditions and policies. The implications of the quantified distributions and simulation model for estimating the PCU (Passenger Car Units), capacity and level of service of the system are also discussed.

Keywords: lateral movement, mixed traffic condition, simulation modeling, vehicle following models

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