Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 457

Search results for: irradiation

457 Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence

Authors: H. Mazouz, A. Belghachi, F. Hadjaj


Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of gaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current.

Keywords: gaAs solar cell, MeV electron irradiation, irradiation fluence, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
456 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Vapour

Authors: P. Selyshchev


The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: irradiation, steam, plasma, cluster formation, liquid droplets, evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
455 Comparison Between the Radiation Resistance of n/p and p/n InP Solar Cell

Authors: Mazouz Halima, Belghachi Abdrahmane


Effects of electron irradiation-induced deep level defects have been studied on both n/p and p/n indium phosphide solar cells with very thin emitters. The simulation results show that n/p structure offers a somewhat better short circuit current but the p/n structure offers improved circuit voltage, not only before electron irradiation, but also after 1MeV electron irradiation with 5.1015 fluence. The simulation also shows that n/p solar cell structure is more resistant than that of p/n structure.

Keywords: InP solar cell, p/n and n/p structure, electron irradiation, output parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
454 Effect of Irradiation on Nano-Indentation Properties and Microstructure of X-750 Ni-Based Superalloy

Authors: Pooyan Changizian, Zhongwen Yao


The purpose of current study is to make an excellent correlation between mechanical properties and microstructures of ion irradiated X-750 Ni-based superalloy. Towards this end, two different irradiation procedures were carried out, including single Ni ion irradiation and pre-helium implantation with subsequent Ni ion irradiation. Nano-indentation technique was employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated material. The nano-hardness measurements depict highly different results for two irradiation procedures. Single ion irradiated X-750 shows softening behavior; however, pre-helium implanted specimens present significant hardening compared to the un-irradiated material. Cross-section TEM examination demonstrates that softening is attributed to the γ׳-precipitate instability (disordering/dissolution) which overcomes the hardening effect of irradiation-induced defects. In contrast, the presence of cavities or helium bubbles is probably the main cause for irradiation-induced hardening of helium implanted samples.

Keywords: Inconel X-750, nanoindentation, helium bubbles, defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
453 Theoretical Research for Influence of Irradiation on Transient Creep of Metals

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Tetiana Didenko


Via formalism of the Complex systems and in the framework of the climb - glide model a theoretical approach to describe the influence of irradiation on transient creep of metals. We consider metal under such stress and conditions of irradiation at which creep is determined by dislocation motion that consists in climb and glide. It is shown that there are qualitatively different regimes of a creep as a result of irradiation. Simulation and analysis of this phenomenon are performed. The time dependence of creep rate of metal under an irradiation is theoretically obtained. The conditions of zero minimums of the creep-rate existence as well as the times of their appearance are determined. The changing of the position of creep-rate dips in the conditions of the temperature exposure change is investigated. The obtained results are compared with the experimentally observed dependence of the creep rate on time.

Keywords: creep, climb and glide of dislocations, irradiation, non-linear feed-back, point defects

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452 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy


The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, nanocomposites, mesoporous silica, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
451 Forecasting Direct Normal Irradiation at Djibouti Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ahmed Kayad Abdourazak, Abderafi Souad, Zejli Driss, Idriss Abdoulkader Ibrahim


In this paper Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the solar irradiation in Djibouti for the first Time that is useful to the integration of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and sites selections for new or future solar plants as part of solar energy development. An ANN algorithm was developed to establish a forward/reverse correspondence between the latitude, longitude, altitude and monthly solar irradiation. For this purpose the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) data of eight Djibouti sites were used as training and testing in a standard three layers network with the back propagation algorithm of Lavenber-Marquardt. Results have shown a very good agreement for the solar irradiation prediction in Djibouti and proves that the proposed approach can be well used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar irradiation by providing so helpful information concerning sites selection, design and planning of solar plants.

Keywords: artificial neural network, solar irradiation, concentrated solar power, Lavenberg-Marquardt

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
450 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites

Authors: F. Abbas Pour Khotbehsara, B. Salehpour, A. Kianvash


Many industrial materials like magnets need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large influences of beta, neutron and gamma’s over their life Gamma irradiation of the permanent sample magnets using a 60Co source was investigated up to an absorbed dose of 700Mrad shows a negligible effect on some magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B. In this work, it has been tried to investigate the change of some important properties of Barium hexa ferrite. Results showed little decreases of magnetic properties at doses rang of 0.5 to 2.5 Mrad. But at the gamma irradiation dose up to 10 Mrad it is showed a few increase of properties. Also study of gamma irradiation of Nd-Fe-B showed considerably increase of magnetic properties.

Keywords: gamma ray irradiation, hard ferrite, magnetic coefficient, magnetic material, radiation dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
449 Application of UV-C Irradiation on Quality and Textural Properties of Button Mushrooms

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian. A. Mohammad- Razdari


The effect of 1.0 kJ/m2 Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on pH, weight loss, color, and firmness of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissues during 21-days storage at 4 ºC was studied. UV-C irradiation enhanced pH, weight, color parameters, and firmness of mushroom during storage compared to control treatment. However, application of 1.0 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could effectively induce the increase of weight loss, firmness, and pH to 14.53%, 49.82%, and 10.39%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of UV-C irradiation could be an effective method to maintain the postharvest quality of mushrooms.

Keywords: mushroom, polyethylene film, quality, UV-c irradiation

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448 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long


Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
447 Study of Laser Induced Damage Threshold in HfO₂/SiO₂ Multilayer Films after β-Ray Irradiation

Authors: Meihua Fang, Tao Fei


Post-processing can effectively improve the resistance to laser damage in multilayer films used in a high power laser system. In this work, HfO₂/SiO₂ multilayer films are prepared by e-beam evaporation and then β-ray irradiation is employed as the post-processing method. The particle irradiation affects the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT), which includes defects, surface roughness, packing density, and residual stress. The residual stress that is relaxed during irradiation changes from compressive stress into tensile stress. Our results indicate that appropriate tensile stress can improve LIDT remarkably. In view of the fact that LIDT rises from 8 J/cm² to 12 J/cm², i.e., 50% increase, after the film has been irradiated by 2.2×10¹³/cm² β-ray, the particle irradiation can be used as a controllable and desirable post-processing method to improve the resistance to laser induced damage.

Keywords: β-ray irradiation, multilayer film, residual stress, laser-induced damage threshold

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
446 Theoretical Approach to Kinetics of Transient Plasticity of Metals under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Tetiana Didenko


Within the framework of the obstacle radiation hardening and the dislocation climb-glide model a theoretical approach is developed to describe peculiarities of transient plasticity of metal under irradiation. It is considered nonlinear dynamics of accumulation of point defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms). We consider metal under such stress and conditions of irradiation at which creep is determined by dislocation motion: dislocations climb obstacles and glide between obstacles. It is shown that the rivalry between vacancy and interstitial fluxes to dislocation leads to fractures of plasticity time dependence. Simulation and analysis of this phenomenon are performed. Qualitatively different regimes of transient plasticity under irradiation are found. The fracture time is obtained. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental ones.

Keywords: climb and glide of dislocations, fractures of transient plasticity, irradiation, non-linear feed-back, point defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
445 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

Authors: Adriana Souza M. Batista, Cláubia Pereira, Luiz O. Faria


The irradiation of polymeric materials has received much attention because it can produce diverse changes in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, studying the chemical and structural changes of polymers is important in practice to achieve optimal conditions for the modification of polymers. The effect of gamma irradiation on the crystalline structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Gamma irradiation was carried out in atmosphere air with doses between 100 kGy at 3,000 kGy with a Co-60 source. In the melting thermogram of the samples irradiated can be seen a bimodal melting endotherm is detected with two melting temperature. The lower melting temperature is attributed to melting of crystals originally present and the higher melting peak due to melting of crystals reorganized upon heat treatment. These results are consistent with those obtained by XRD technique showing increasing crystallinity with increasing irradiation dose, although the melting latent heat is decreasing.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, gamma irradiation, PVDF, X-ray diffraction technique

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444 Radiation Effects and Defects in InAs, InP Compounds and Their Solid Solutions InPxAs1-x

Authors: N. Kekelidze, B. Kvirkvelia, E. Khutsishvili, T. Qamushadze, D. Kekelidze, R. Kobaidze, Z. Chubinishvili, N. Qobulashvili, G. Kekelidze


On the basis of InAs, InP and their InPxAs1-x solid solutions, the technologies were developed and materials were created where the electron concentration and optical and thermoelectric properties do not change under the irradiation with Ф = 2∙1018 n/cm2 fluences of fast neutrons high-energy electrons (50 MeV, Ф = 6·1017 e/cm2) and 3 MeV electrons with fluence Ф = 3∙1018 e/cm2. The problem of obtaining such material has been solved, in which under hard irradiation the mobility of the electrons does not decrease, but increases. This material is characterized by high thermal stability up to T = 700 °C. The complex process of defects formation has been analyzed and shown that, despite of hard irradiation, the essential properties of investigated materials are mainly determined by point type defects.

Keywords: InAs, InP, solid solutions, irradiation

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443 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowders

Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov


The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.

Keywords: irradiation, nanopowders, radiation stability, zinc oxide

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442 Effect of He-Ne Laser Therapy on the Testis and Serum Testosterone Level in Adult Rats

Authors: Nadeem H. Meikha , Nazad H. Qader, Basheer M. Hasafa


The trial was conducted to examine the effect of He-Ne laser therapy on the testis and serum testosterone level in adult rats. Thirty five albino Western adult male rats aged 3-4 months and weighing approximately 250-300 g were used and divided into three treatments. Testicular tissue of rats in the first and second treatments were exposed once daily for three successively days to a dose of irradiation 1.02 j/cm2 (40 second), and to 2.03 j/cm2 (80 second) respectively, while the third group left without any treatments (control). The results showed that the process of irradiation adversely affected on the level of serum testosterone concentration of the irradiated rats in the first and second treatment comparing to the normal level in the control group. While the histological examination showed that decrease in number of germ cells with 40 second of irradiation at day three, with 80 second of irradiation the decreased started at day two and three. The spermatids number decreased in rate low, medium, high respectively for three days of 40 second of irradiation, while the spermatids number were adversely affected by dropping in a rate of medium, large and very large for three days of 80 second of irradiation, respectively. In conclusion our study revealed that any reduction in sertoli cells causes adverse affect on both spermatids and germinal cells which increase with the increasing of duration and repetition of irradiation.

Keywords: He-Ne laser, rats, testosterone, spermatids

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
441 γ-Irradiation of Oat β- Glucan: Effect on Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties

Authors: Asima Shah, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani, Bilal Ahmad Ashwar


The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of γ-rays on the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of β-glucan isolated from oats. The β-glucan was irradiated with 0, 2, 6, and 10 kGy by gamma ray. The samples were characterized by FT-IR, GPC, and quantitative estimation by Megazyme β-glucan assay kit. The average molecular weight of non-irradiated β-glucan was 199 kDa that decreased to 70 kDa at 10 kGy. Both FT-IR spectrum and chemical analysis revealed that the extracted β-glucan was pure having minor impurities. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, metal chelating ability and oxidative DNA damage assays. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of β-glucan increased with the increase in irradiation dose. Irradiated β-glucan also exhibited dose dependent cancer cell growth inhibition with irradiation doses. The study revealed that low molecular weight β-glucan with enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities can be produced by a simple irradiation method.

Keywords: γ-irradiation, antioxidant activity, antiproliferative activity, β-glucan, oats

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
440 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical Properties of Starches Extracted from Newly Released Rice Varieties Grown in North Temperate Regions of India

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Ashwar, Asima Shah, S. A. Rather, Asir Gani, S.M. Wani, I.D. Wani, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani


Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 & K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, transmittance and solubility were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

Keywords: rice starch, gamma irradiation, morphological properties, pasting properties, physicochemical properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
439 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn


Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
438 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Azuraida Amat, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Ishak Mansor


The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different compositions [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes a profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defects in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give the smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation, which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: boro-tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties

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437 Power and Efficiency of Photovoltaic Module: Effect of Cell Temperature

Authors: R. Nasrin, M. Ferdows


Among the renewable energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) is a high potential, effective, and sustainable system. Irradiation intensity from 200 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 has been considered to observe the performance of PV module. Generally, this module converts only about 15% - 20% of incident irradiation into electrical energy and the rest part is converted into heat energy. Finite element method has been used to solve the problem numerically. Simulation has been performed by considering the ambient temperature 30°C. Higher irradiation increase solar cell temperature and electrical power. The electrical efficiency of PV module decreases with the variation of solar radiation. The efficiency of PV module can be increased if cell temperature is reduced. Thus the effect of irradiation is significant to enhance the efficiency of PV module if the solar cell temperature is kept at a certain level.

Keywords: PV module, solar radiation, efficiency, cell temperature

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436 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan


Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
435 UV Enhanced Hydrophilicity of the Anodized Films Formed at Low Current Density and Low Voltage

Authors: Phanawan Whangdee, Tomoaki Watanabe, Viritpon Srimaneepong, Dujreutai Pongkao Kashima


The anodized films formed at high current density or high voltage have been widely prepared for dental implant because it can improve the hydrophilicity to the film. Our attempt is exploring whether low current density and low voltage could enhance the good hydrophilicity to the anodized films or not. Furthermore, UV irradiation would be one of the key factor to enhance their hydrophilicity. The anodized films were performed at low current density of 2 mA/cm2 in 1M H3PO4, 1 mA/cm2 in 1M MCPM and low voltage of 6 V in either 1M H3PO4 or 1M MCPM. All samples were treated with UV for various times up to 24 h. After UV irradiation, the contact angle decreased, the chemical species changed. The Ti 2p and O 1s peaks increased, while the C 1s peak decreased which might be due to removal of hydrocarbon. The functional groups of the films shown as the change of OH groups appeared at wave number 3700 cm-1 and 2900-3000 cm-1, however, the peak of H2O at 1630 cm-1disappeared. It is indicated that UV irradiation might change the stretching modes of OH groups coordinated to surface Ti4+ cation but UV did not affect to the changes in surface morphologies. The surface energies increased after UV irradiation resulting in improving of the hydrophilicity. The anodized films formed at low current density or low voltage after UV irradiation showed a low contact angle as well as the film formed at high current density or high voltage.

Keywords: hydrophilicity, low current density, low voltage, UV irradiation

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434 Structural Integrity Analysis of Baffle Former Assembly in Pressurized Water Reactors Considering Irradiation Aging

Authors: Jong-Sung Kim, Myung-Jo Jhung


BFA is one of the reactor internals components in PWR. The BFA has the intended functions to support fuel assembly, to keep structural integrity of upper/lower core support structures, and to secure reactor coolant flow path. Failure of the BFA may give rise to significant effect on reactor safety operation and stop. The BFA is subject to relatively high neutron irradiation dose due to location close to the core. Therefore, IASCC can occur on the BFA due to damage accumulation as operating year increases. In this study, IASCC susceptibility on the BFA was assessed via the FEA considering variations of mechanical material behaviors with neutron irradiation. As a result of the assessment, some points have susceptibility more than 0.2 to IASCC during design lifetime.

Keywords: baffle former assembly, finite element analysis, irradiation aging, nuclear power plant, pressurized water reactor

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433 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour


TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: TiO2, nanofibers, photoluminescence, irradiation

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432 Environmentally Benign Synthesis of 2-Pyrazolines and Cyclohexenones Incorporating Naphthalene Moiety and Their Antimicrobial Evaluation

Authors: Al-Bogami Abdullah Saad


We reported the environmental benign synthesis of chalcones, 2-pyrazolines and cyclohexanones under microwave irradiation. Chalcones were obtained by the condensation of each of 2-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives with α-naphthaldehyde under microwave irradiation. The condensation reactions of each of synthesized chalcones with phenyl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in the presence of dry acetic acid as a cyclizing agent gave 2-pyrazolines. Also, the new cyclohexenone derivatives, valuable intermediates to synthesize fused heterocycles, have been prepared by the cyclocondensation of each of hydroxychalcones with ethyl acetoacetate. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by Infrared (IR) spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry(MS) and elmental analysis. The results indicate that unlike classical heating, microwave irradiation results in higher yields with shorter and cleaner reactions. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida Albicans and Aspergillus niger. We clarified the effects of different substituents in the tested compounds on the obtaind antibacterial activities and antifungal activities.

Keywords: microwave irradiation, 2-Hydroxyacetophenone, α-Naphthaldehyde, pyrazoline, cyclohexenone, antimicrobial activity

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431 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Crystal Structural and Transport Properties of Bi₂Te₃ Thin Films Grown by Thermal Evaporation

Authors: Shoroog Alraddadi


In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the structural and transport properties of Bismuth Telluride (Bi₂Te₃) thin films was investigated. Bi₂Te₃ thin films with thicknesses varying from 100 nm to 500 nm were grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum 10⁻⁵ Torr. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (50, 200, and 500 kGy). The crystal structure of Bi₂Te₃ thin films was studied by XRD diffraction. It was showed that the degree of crystallinity of films increases as the doses increase. Furthermore, it was found that the electrical conductivity of Bi₂Te₃ increase as the doses increase. From these results, it can be concluding that the effect of radiation on the structural and transport properties was positive at the levels of irradiation used.

Keywords: bismuth telluride, gamma irradiation, thin film, transport properties

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430 Thermal Neutron Detection Efficiency as a Function of Film Thickness for Front and Back Irradiation Detector Devices Coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and Pure Li Thin Films

Authors: Vedant Subhash


This paper discusses the physics of the detection of thermal neutrons using thin-film coated semiconductor detectors. The thermal neutron detection efficiency as a function of film thickness is calculated for the front and back irradiation detector devices coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and pure Li thin films. The detection efficiency for back irradiation devices is 4.15% that is slightly higher than that for front irradiation detectors, 4.0% for ¹⁰B films of thickness 2.4μm. The theoretically calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency using ¹⁰B film thickness of 1.1 μm for the back irradiation device is 3.0367%, which has an offset of 0.0367% from the experimental value of 3.0%. The detection efficiency values are compared and proved consistent with the given calculations.

Keywords: detection efficiency, neutron detection, semiconductor detectors, thermal neutrons

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429 Response of Vibration and Damping System of UV Irradiated Renewable Biopolymer

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, Nik Normunira Mat Hassan


Biopolymer made from renewable material are one of the most important group of polymer because of their versatility and they can be manufactured in a wide range of densities and stiffness. In this project, biopolymer based on waste vegetable oil were synthesized and crosslink with commercial polymethane polyphenyl isocyanate (known as BF).The BF was compressed by using hot compression moulding technique at 90 oC based on the evaporation of volatile matter and known as compress biopolymer (CB). The density, vibration and damping characteristic of CB were determined after UV irradiation. Treatment with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was found to affect the physical property of compress biopolymer composite (CBC). The density of CBC samples was steadily increased with an increase of UV irradiation time and TiO2 loading. The highest density of CBC samples is at 10 % of TiO2 loading of 1.1088 g/cm3 due to the amount of filler loading. The vibration and damping characteristic of CBC samples was generated at displacements of 1 mm and 1.5 mm and acceleration of 0.1 G and 0.15 G base excitation according to ASTM D3580-9. It was revealed that, the vibration and damping characteristic of CBC samples is significantly increased with the increasing of UV irradiation time, lowest thickness and percentages of TiO2 loading at the frequency range of 15 - 25 Hz. Therefore, this study indicated that the damping property of CBC could be improved upon prolonged exposure to UV irradiation.

Keywords: biopolymer flexible foam, TGA, UV irradiation, vibration and damping

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428 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: N. H. Alias, S. A. Aziz, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah


Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, lead glass, leaching, structural

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