Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: forging

49 Development of Forging Technology of Cam Ring Gear for Truck Using Small Bar

Authors: D. H. Park, Y. H. Tak, H. H. Kwon, G. J. Kwon, H. G. Kim


This study focused on developing forging technology of a large-diameter cam ring gear from the small bar. The analyses of temperature variation and deformation behavior of the material are important to obtain the optimal forging products. The hot compression test was carried out to know formability at high temperature. In order to define the optimum forging conditions including material temperature, strain and forging load, the finite element method was used to simulate the forging process of cam ring gear parts. Test results were in good agreement with the simulations. An existing cam ring gear is presented the chips generated by cutting the rod material and the durability issues, but this would be to develop a large-diameter cam ring gear forging parts for truck in order to solve the durability problem and the material waste.

Keywords: forging technology, cam ring, gear, truck, small bar

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
48 Heat Forging Analysis Method on Blank Consist of Two Metals

Authors: Takashi Ueda, Shinichi Enoki


Forging parts is used to automobiles. Because they have high strength and it is possible to press them into complicated shape. When it is possible to manufacture hollow forging parts, it leads to reduce weight of the automobiles. But, hollow forging parts are confined to axisymmetrical shape. Hollow forging parts that were pressed to complicated shape are expected. Therefore, we forge a blank that aluminum alloy was inserted in stainless steel. After that, we can provide complex forging parts that are reduced weight, if it is possible to be melted the aluminum alloy away by using different of melting points. It is necessary to establish heat forging analysis method on blank consist of stainless steel and aluminum alloy. Because, this forging is different from conventional forging and this technology is not confirmed. In this study, we compared forging experiment with numerical analysis on the view point of forming load and shape after forming and establish how to set the material temperatures of two metals and material property of stainless steel on the analysis method. Consequently, temperature difference of stainless steel and aluminum alloy was obtained by experiment. We got material property of stainless steel on forging experimental by compression tests. We had compared numerical analysis that was used the temperature difference of two metals and the material property of stainless steel on forging experimental with forging experiment. Forging analysis method on blank consist of two metals was established by result of numerical analysis having agreed with result of forging experiment.

Keywords: forging, lightweight, analysis, hollow

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
47 Die Design for Flashless Forging of a Polymer Insulator Fitting

Authors: Pedram Khazaie, Sajjad Moein


In the conventional hot forging of Tongue, which is a fitting for polymer insulator, the material wasted to flash accounts for 20-30% of workpiece. In order to reduce the cost of forged products, this waste material must be minimized. In this study, a flashless forging die is designed and simulated using the finite element method (FEM). A solution to avoid overloading the die with a simple preform is also presented. Moreover, since in flashless forging, burr is formed on the edge of workpiece, a controlled flash forging method is proposed to solve this problem. The simulation results have been validated by experiments; achieving close agreement between simulated and experimental data. It was shown that numerical modeling is helpful in reducing cost and time in the manufacturing process.

Keywords: burr formation, die design, finite element method, flashless forging

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
46 Hot Forging Process Simulation of Outer Tie Rod to Reduce Forming Load

Authors: Kyo Jin An, Bukyo Seo, Young-Chul Park


The current trend in car market is increase of parts of automobile and weight in vehicle. It comes from improvement of vehicle performance. Outer tie rod is a part of component of steering system and it is lighter than the others. But, weight lightening is still required for improvement of car mileage. So, we have presented a model of aluminized outer tie rod, but the process of fabrication has to be checked to manufacture the product. Therefore, we have anticipated forming load, die stress and abrasion to use the program of forging interpretation in the part of hot forging process of outer tie rod in this study. Also, we have implemented the experiments design to use the table of orthogonal arrays to reduce the forming load.

Keywords: forming load, hot forging, orthogonal array, outer tie rod (OTR), multi–step forging

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
45 Open Forging of Cylindrical Blanks Subjected to Lateral Instability

Authors: A. H. Elkholy, D. M. Almutairi


The successful and efficient execution of a forging process is dependent upon the correct analysis of loading and metal flow of blanks. This paper investigates the Upper Bound Technique (UBT) and its application in the analysis of open forging process when a possibility of blank bulging exists. The UBT is one of the energy rate minimization methods for the solution of metal forming process based on the upper bound theorem. In this regards, the kinematically admissible velocity field is obtained by minimizing the total forging energy rate. A computer program is developed in this research to implement the UBT. The significant advantages of this method is the speed of execution while maintaining a fairly high degree of accuracy and the wide prediction capability. The information from this analysis is useful for the design of forging processes and dies. Results for the prediction of forging loads and stresses, metal flow and surface profiles with the assured benefits in terms of press selection and blank preform design are outlined in some detail. The obtained predictions are ready for comparison with both laboratory and industrial results.

Keywords: forging, upper bound technique, metal forming, forging energy, forging die/platen

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
44 Study on the Forging of AISI 1015 Spiral Bevel Gear by Finite Element Analysis

Authors: T. S. Yang, J. H. Liang


This study applies the finite element method (FEM) to predict maximum forging load, effective stress distribution, effective strain distribution, workpiece temperature temperature in spiral bevel gear forging of AISI 1015. Maximum forging load, effective stress, effective strain, workpiece temperature are determined for different process parameters, such as modules, number of teeth, helical angle and workpiece temperature of the spiral bevel gear hot forging, using the FEM. Finally, the prediction of the power requirement for the spiral bevel gear hot forging of AISI 1015 is determined.

Keywords: spiral bevel gear, hot forging, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
43 The Simulation and Experimental Investigation to Study the Strain Distribution Pattern during the Closed Die Forging Process

Authors: D. B. Gohil


Closed die forging is a very complex process, and measurement of actual forces for real material is difficult and time consuming. Hence, the modelling technique has taken the advantage of carrying out the experimentation with the proper model material which needs lesser forces and relatively low temperature. The results of experiments on the model material then may be correlated with the actual material by using the theory of similarity. There are several methods available to resolve the complexity involved in the closed die forging process. Finite Element Method (FEM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM) are relatively difficult as compared to the slab method. The slab method is very popular and very widely used by the people working on shop floor because it is relatively easy to apply and reasonably accurate for most of the common forging load requirement computations.

Keywords: experimentation, forging, process modeling, strain distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
42 Prediction and Reduction of Cracking Issue in Precision Forging of Engine Valves Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Xi Yang, Bulent Chavdar, Alan Vonseggern, Taylan Altan


Fracture in hot precision forging of engine valves was investigated in this paper. The entire valve forging procedure was described and the possible cause of the fracture was proposed. Finite Element simulation was conducted for the forging process, with commercial Finite Element code DEFORMTM. The effects of material properties, the effect of strain rate and temperature were considered in the FE simulation. Two fracture criteria were discussed and compared, based on the accuracy and reliability of the FE simulation results. The selected criterion predicted the fracture location and shows the trend of damage increasing with good accuracy, which matches the experimental observation. Additional modification of the punch shapes was proposed to further reduce the tendency of fracture in forging. Finite Element comparison shows a great potential of such application in the mass production.

Keywords: hotforging, engine valve, fracture, tooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
41 Experimental Study of Upsetting and Die Forging with Controlled Impact

Authors: T. Penchev, D. Karastoyanov


The results from experimental research of deformation by upsetting and die forging of lead specimens wit controlled impact are presented. Laboratory setup for conducting the investigations, which uses cold rocket engine operated with compressed air, is described. The results show that when using controlled impact is achieving greater plastic deformation and consumes less impact energy than at ordinary impact deformation process.

Keywords: rocket engine, forging hammer, sticking impact, plastic deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
40 Effect of the Initial Billet Shape Parameters on the Final Product in a Backward Extrusion Process for Pressure Vessels

Authors: Archana Thangavelu, Han-Ik Park, Young-Chul Park, Joon-Hong Park


In this numerical study, we have proposed a method for evaluation of backward extrusion process of pressure vessel made up of steel. Demand for lighter and stiffer products have been increasing in the last years especially in automobile engineering. Through detailed finite element analysis, effective stress, strain and velocity profile have been obtained with optimal range. The process design of a forward and backward extrusion axe-symmetric part has been studied. Forging is mainly carried out because forged products are highly reliable and possess superior mechanical properties when compared to normal products. Performing computational simulations of 3D hot forging with various dimensions of billet and optimization of weight is carried out using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA) Optimization technique. The technique used in this study can be used for newly developed materials to investigate its forgeability for much complicated shapes in closed hot die forging process.

Keywords: backward extrusion, hot forging, optimization, finite element analysis, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
39 Forgeability Study of Medium Carbon Micro-Alloyed Forging Steel

Authors: M. I. Equbal, R. K. Ohdar, B. Singh, P. Talukdar


Micro-alloyed steel components are used in automotive industry for the necessity to make the manufacturing process cycles shorter when compared to conventional steel by eliminating heat treatment cycles, so an important saving of costs and energy can be reached by reducing the number of operations. Micro-alloying elements like vanadium, niobium or titanium have been added to medium carbon steels to achieve grain refinement with or without precipitation strengthening along with uniform microstructure throughout the matrix. Present study reports the applicability of medium carbon vanadium micro-alloyed steel in hot forging. Forgeability has been determined with respect to different cooling rates, after forging in a hydraulic press at 50% diameter reduction in temperature range of 900-11000C. Final microstructures, hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength have been evaluated. The friction coefficients of different lubricating conditions, viz., graphite in hydraulic oil, graphite in furnace oil, DF 150 (Graphite, Water-Based) die lubricant and dry or without any lubrication were obtained from the ring compression test for the above micro-alloyed steel. Results of ring compression tests indicate that graphite in hydraulic oil lubricant is preferred for free forging and dry lubricant is preferred for die forging operation. Exceptionally good forgeability and high resistance to fracture, especially for faster cooling rate has been observed for fine equiaxed ferrite-pearlite grains, some amount of bainite and fine precipitates of vanadium carbides and carbonitrides. The results indicated that the cooling rate has a remarkable effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties at room temperature.

Keywords: cooling rate, hot forging, micro-alloyed, ring compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
38 Effect of Forging Pressure on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Similar and Dissimilar Friction Welded Joints (Aluminium, Copper, Steel)

Authors: Sagar Pandit


The present work focuses on the effect of various process parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructure of joints produced by continuous drive friction welding and linear friction welding. An attempt is made to investigate the feasibility of obtaining an acceptable weld joint between similar as well as dissimilar components and the microstructural changes have also been assessed once the good weld joints were considered (using Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques). The impact of forging pressure in the microstructure of the weld joint has been studied and the variation in joint strength with varying forge pressure is analyzed. The weld joints were obtained two pair of dissimilar materials and one pair of similar materials, which are listed respectively as: Al-AA5083 & Cu-C101 (dissimilar), Aluminium alloy-3000 series & Mild Steel (dissimilar) and High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel pair (similar). Intermetallic phase formation was observed at the weld joints in the Al-Cu joint, which consequently harmed the properties of the joint (less tensile strength). It was also concluded that the increase in forging pressure led to both increment and decrement in the tensile strength of the joint depending on the similarity or dissimilarity of the components. The hardness was also observed to possess maximum as well as minimum values at the weld joint depending on the similarity or dissimilarity of workpieces. It was also suggested that a higher forging pressure is needed to obtain complete joining for the formation of the weld joint.

Keywords: forging pressure, friction welding, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
37 Environmental Effect on Corrosion Fatigue Behaviors of Steam Generator Forging in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Environment

Authors: Yakui Bai, Chen Sun, Ke Wang


An experimental investigation of environmental effect on fatigue behavior in SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 Steam Generator Forging CAP1400 nuclear power plant has been carried out. In order to simulate actual loading condition, a range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests. The current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) design fatigue code does not take full account of the interactions of environmental, loading, and material's factors. A range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests at a strain rate of 0.01%s⁻¹. A design fatigue model was constructed by taking environmentally assisted fatigue effects into account, and the corresponding design curves were given for the convenience of engineering applications. The corrosion fatigue experiment was performed in a strain control mode in 320℃ borated and lithiated water environment to evaluate the effects of a mixed environment on fatigue life. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in steam generator large forging in primary water of pressurized water reactor was also observed. In addition, it is found that the CF life of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 decreases with increasing temperature in the water environment. The relationship between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of fatigue life was found to be linear. Through experiments and subsequent analysis, the mechanisms of reduced low cycle fatigue life have been investigated for steam generator forging.

Keywords: failure behavior, low alloy steel, steam generator forging, stress corrosion cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
36 Experimental and Numerical Processes of Open Die Forging of Multimetallic Materials with the Usage of Different Lubricants

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can, Damla Gunel


This work investigates experimental and numerical analysis of open die forging of multimetallic materials. Multimetallic material production has recently become an interesting research field. The mechanical properties of the materials to be used for the formation of multimetallic materials and the mechanical properties of the multimetallic materials produced will be compared and the material flows of the use of different lubricants will be examined. Furthermore, in this work, the mechanical properties of multimetallic metallic materials produced using different materials will be examined by using different lubricants. The advantages and disadvantages of different lubricants will be approached with the bi-metallic material to be produced. Cylindrical specimens consisting of two different materials were used in the experiments. Specimens were prepared as aluminum sleeve and copper core and upset at different reduction. This metal combination present a material model of which chemical composition is different. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. Simulation and experimental results have also shown reasonable agreement.

Keywords: multimetallic, forging, experimental, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
35 Effect of Different Thermomechanical Cycles on Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: L.L. Costa, A. M. G. Brito, S. Khan, L. Schaeffer


Microstructure resulting from the forging process is studied as a function of variables such as temperature, deformation, austenite grain size and cooling rate. The purpose of this work is to study the thermomechanical behavior of DIN 42CrMo4 (AISI 4140) steel maintained at the temperatures of 900°, 1000°, 1100° and 1200°C for the austenization times of 22, 66 and 200 minutes each and subsequently forged. These samples were quenched in water in order to study the austenite grain and to investigate the microstructure instead of quenching the annealed samples after forging they were cooled down naturally in the air. The morphologies and properties of the materials such as hardness; prepared by these two different routes have been compared. In addition to the forging experiments, the numerical simulation using the finite element model (FEM), microhardness profiles and metallography images have been presented. Forging force vs position curves has been compared with metallographic results for each annealing condition. The microstructural phenomena resulting from the hot conformation proved that longer austenization time and higher temperature decrease the forging force in the curves. The complete recrystallization phenomenon (static, dynamic and meta dynamic) was observed at the highest temperature and longest time i.e., the samples austenized for 200 minutes at 1200ºC. However, higher hardness of the quenched samples was obtained when the temperature was 900ºC for 66 minutes. The phases observed in naturally cooled samples were exclusively ferrite and perlite, but the continuous cooling diagram indicates the presence of austenite and bainite. The morphology of the phases of naturally cooled samples has shown that the phase arrangement and the previous austenitic grain size are the reasons to high hardness in obtained samples when temperature were 900ºC and 1100ºC austenization times of 22 and 66 minutes, respectively.

Keywords: austenization time, thermomechanical effects, forging process, steel AISI 4140

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
34 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash


The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.

Keywords: hot forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (HV), impact toughness (J), microstructure, low alloy steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
33 Tensile and Fracture Properties of Cast and Forged Composite Synthesized by Addition of in-situ Generated Al3Ti-Al2O3 Particles to Magnesium

Authors: H. M. Nanjundaswamy, S. K. Nath, S. Ray


TiO2 particles have been added in molten aluminium to result in aluminium based cast Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite, which has been added then to molten magnesium to synthesize magnesium based cast Mg-Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite. The nominal compositions in terms of Mg, Al, and TiO2 contents in the magnesium based composites are Mg-9Al-0.6TiO2, Mg-9Al-0.8TiO2, Mg-9Al-1.0TiO2 and Mg-9Al-1.2TiO2 designated respectively as MA6T, MA8T, MA10T and MA12T. The microstructure of the cast magnesium based composite shows grayish rods of intermetallics Al3Ti, inherited from aluminium based composite but these rods, on hot forging, breaks into smaller lengths decreasing the average aspect ratio (length to diameter) from 7.5 to 3.0. There are also cavities in between the broken segments of rods. β-phase in cast microstructure, Mg17Al12, dissolves during heating prior to forging and re-precipitates as relatively finer particles on cooling. The amount of β-phase also decreases on forging as segregation is removed. In both the cast and forged composite, the Brinell hardness increases rapidly with increasing addition of TiO2 but the hardness is higher in forged composites by about 80 BHN. With addition of higher level of TiO2 in magnesium based cast composite, yield strength decreases progressively but there is marginal increase in yield strength over that of the cast Mg-9 wt. pct. Al, designated as MA alloy. But the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in the cast composites decreases with the increasing particle content indicating possibly an early initiation of crack in the brittle inter-dendritic region and their easy propagation through the interfaces of the particles. In forged composites, there is a significant improvement in both yield strength and UTS with increasing TiO2 addition and also, over those observed in their cast counterpart, but at higher addition it decreases. It may also be noted that as in forged MA alloy, incomplete recovery of forging strain increases the strength of the matrix in the composites and the ductility decreases both in the forged alloy and the composites. Initiation fracture toughness, JIC, decreases drastically in cast composites compared to that in MA alloy due to the presence of intermetallic Al3Ti and Al2O3 particles in the composite. There is drastic reduction of JIC on forging both in the alloy and the composites, possibly due to incomplete recovery of forging strain in both as well as breaking of Al3Ti rods and the voids between the broken segments of Al3Ti rods in composites. The ratio of tearing modulus to elastic modulus in cast composites show higher ratio, which increases with the increasing TiO2 addition. The ratio decreases comparatively more on forging of cast MA alloy than those in forged composites.

Keywords: composite, fracture toughness, forging, tensile properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
32 A Study on Manufacturing of Head-Part of Pipes Using a Rotating Manufacturing Process

Authors: J. H. Park, S. K. Lee, Y. W. Kim, D. C. Ko


A large variety of pipe flange is required in marine and construction industry.Pipe flanges are usually welded or screwed to the pipe end and are connected with bolts.This approach is very simple and widely used for a long time, however, it results in high development cost and low productivity, and the productions made by this approach usually have safety problem at the welding area.In this research, a new approach of forming pipe flange based on cold forging and floating die concept is presented.This innovative approach increases the effectiveness of the material usage and save the time cost compared with conventional welding method. To ensure the dimensional accuracy of the final product, the finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to simulate the process of cold forging, and the orthogonal experiment methods were used to investigate the influence of four manufacturing factors (pin die angle, pipe flange angle, rpm, pin die distance from clamp jig) and predicted the best combination of them. The manufacturing factors were obtained by numerical and experimental studies and it shows that the approach is very useful and effective for the forming of pipe flange, and can be widely used later.

Keywords: cold forging, FEA (finite element analysis), forge-3D, rotating forming, tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
31 Effect of Non-metallic Inclusion from the Continuous Casting Process on the Multi-Stage Forging Process and the Tensile Strength of the Bolt: Case Study

Authors: Tomasz Dubiel, Tadeusz Balawender, Miroslaw Osetek


The paper presents the influence of non-metallic inclusions on the multi-stage forging process and the mechanical properties of the dodecagon socket bolt used in the automotive industry. The detected metallurgical defect was so large that it directly influenced the mechanical properties of the bolt and resulted in failure to meet the requirements of the mechanical property class. In order to assess the defect, an X-ray examination and metallographic examination of the defective bolt were performed, showing exogenous non-metallic inclusion. The size of the defect on the cross-section was 0.531 [mm] in width and 1.523 [mm] in length; the defect was continuous along the entire axis of the bolt. In analysis, a FEM simulation of the multi-stage forging process was designed, taking into account a non-metallic inclusion parallel to the sample axis, reflecting the studied case. The process of defect propagation due to material upset in the head area was analyzed. The final forging stage in shaping the dodecagonal socket and filling the flange area was particularly studied. The effect of the defect was observed to significantly reduce the effective cross-section as a result of the expansion of the defect perpendicular to the axis of the bolt. The mechanical properties of products with and without the defect were analyzed. In the first step, the hardness test confirmed that the required value for the mechanical class 8.8 of both bolt types was obtained. In the second step, the bolts were subjected to a static tensile test. The bolts without the defect gave a positive result, while all 10 bolts with the defect gave a negative result, achieving a tensile strength below the requirements. Tensile strength tests were confirmed by metallographic tests and FEM simulation with perpendicular inclusion spread in the area of the head. The bolts were damaged directly under the bolt head, which is inconsistent with the requirements of ISO 898-1. It has been shown that non-metallic inclusions with orientation in accordance with the axis of the bolt can directly cause loss of functionality and these defects should be detected even before assembling in the machine element.

Keywords: continuous casting, multi-stage forging, non-metallic inclusion, upset bolt head

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
30 An Investigation of the Strength Deterioration of Forged Aluminum 6082 (T6) Alloy

Authors: Rajveer, Abhinav Saxena, Sanjeev Das


The study is focused on the strength of forged aluminum alloy (AA) 6082 (T6). Aluminum alloy 6082 belongs to Al-Mg-Si family which has a wide range of automotive applications. A decrease in the strength of AA 6082 alloy was observed after T6 treatment. The as-received (extruded), forged, and forged + heat treated samples were examined to understand the reason. These examinations were accomplished by optical (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It was observed that the defects had an insignificant effect on the alloy strength. The alloy samples were subjected to age hardening treatment and the time to achieve peak hardening was acquired. Standard tensile specimens were prepared from as-received (extruded), forged, forged + solutionized and forged + solutionized + age hardened. Tensile tests were conducted by Instron universal testing machine. It was observed that there was a significant drop in tensile strength in the case of solutionized sample. The detailed study of the fracture samples showed that the solutionizing after forging was not the best way to increase the strength of Al 6082 alloy.

Keywords: aluminum alloy 6082, strength, forging, age hardening

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
29 Recrystallization Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Nickel Base Superalloy AD730 Billet during Hot Forging at Subsolvus Temperatures

Authors: Marcos Perez, Christian Dumont, Olivier Nodin, Sebastien Nouveau


Nickel superalloys are used to manufacture high-temperature rotary engine parts such as high-pressure disks in gas turbine engines. High strength at high operating temperatures is required due to the levels of stress and heat the disk must withstand. Therefore it is necessary parts made from materials that can maintain mechanical strength at high temperatures whilst remain comparatively low in cost. A manufacturing process referred to as the triple melt process has made the production of cast and wrought (C&W) nickel superalloys possible. This means that the balance of cost and performance at high temperature may be optimized. AD730TM is a newly developed Ni-based superalloy for turbine disk applications, with reported superior service properties around 700°C when compared to Inconel 718 and several other alloys. The cast ingot is converted into billet during either cogging process or open die forging. The semi-finished billet is then further processed into its final geometry by forging, heat treating, and machining. Conventional ingot-to-billet conversion is an expensive and complex operation, requiring a significant amount of steps to break up the coarse as-cast structure and interdendritic regions. Due to the size of conventional ingots, it is difficult to achieve a uniformly high level of strain for recrystallization, resulting in non-recrystallized regions that retain large unrecrystallized grains. Non-uniform grain distributions will also affect the ultrasonic inspectability response, which is used to find defects in the final component. The main aim is to analyze the recrystallization behavior and microstructural evolution of AD730 at subsolvus temperatures from a semi-finished product (billet) under conditions representative of both cogging and hot forging operations. Special attention to the presence of large unrecrystallized grains was paid. Double truncated cones (DTCs) were hot forged at subsolvus temperatures in hydraulic press, followed by air cooling. SEM and EBSD analysis were conducted in the as-received (billet) and the as-forged conditions. AD730 from billet alloy presents a complex microstructure characterized by a mixture of several constituents. Large unrecrystallized grains present a substructure characterized by large misorientation gradients with the formation of medium to high angle boundaries in their interior, especially close to the grain boundaries, denoting inhomogeneous strain distribution. A fine distribution of intragranular precipitates was found in their interior, playing a key role on strain distribution and subsequent recrystallization behaviour during hot forging. Continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) mechanism was found to be operating in the large unrecrystallized grains, promoting the formation intragranular DRX grains and the gradual recrystallization of these grains. Evidences that hetero-epitaxial recrystallization mechanism is operating in AD730 billet material were found. Coherent γ-shells around primary γ’ precipitates were found. However, no significant contribution to the overall recrystallization during hot forging was found. By contrast, strain presents the strongest effect on the microstructural evolution of AD730, increasing the recrystallization fraction and refining the structure. Regions with low level of deformation (ε ≤ 0.6) were translated into large fractions of unrecrystallized structures (strain accumulation). The presence of undissolved secondary γ’ precipitates (pinning effect), prior to hot forging operations, could explain these results.

Keywords: AD730 alloy, continuous dynamic recrystallization, hot forging, γ’ precipitates

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
28 Chemical and Physical Properties and Biocompatibility of Ti–6Al–4V Produced by Electron Beam Rapid Manufacturing and Selective Laser Melting for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Bing–Jing Zhao, Chang-Kui Liu, Hong Wang, Min Hu


Electron beam rapid manufacturing (EBRM) or Selective laser melting is an additive manufacturing process that uses 3D CAD data as a digital information source and energy in the form of a high-power laser beam or electron beam to create three-dimensional metal parts by fusing fine metallic powders together.Object:The present study was conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties ,the phase transformation,the corrosivity and the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V by EBRM,SLM and forging technique.Method: Ti-6Al-4V alloy standard test pieces were manufactured by EBRM, SLM and forging technique according to AMS4999,GB/T228 and ISO 10993.The mechanical properties were analyzed by universal test machine. The phase transformation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosivity was analyzed by electrochemical method. The biocompatibility was analyzed by co-culturing with mesenchymal stem cell and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP) to evaluate cell adhesion and differentiation, respectively. Results: The mechanical properties, the phase transformation, the corrosivity and the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V by EBRM、SLM were similar to forging and meet the mechanical property requirements of AMS4999 standard. a­phase microstructure for the EBM production contrast to the a’­phase microstructure of the SLM product. Mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and differentiation were well. Conclusion: The property of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy manufactured by EBRM and SLM technique can meet the medical standard from this study. But some further study should be proceeded in order to applying well in clinical practice.

Keywords: 3D printing, Electron Beam Rapid Manufacturing (EBRM), Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Computer Aided Design (CAD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
27 Durability Analysis of a Knuckle Arm Using VPG System

Authors: Geun-Yeon Kim, S. P. Praveen Kumar, Kwon-Hee Lee


A steering knuckle arm is the component that connects the steering system and suspension system. The structural performances such as stiffness, strength, and durability are considered in its design process. The former study suggested the lightweight design of a knuckle arm considering the structural performances and using the metamodel-based optimization. The six shape design variables were defined, and the optimum design was calculated by applying the kriging interpolation method. The finite element method was utilized to predict the structural responses. The suggested knuckle was made of the aluminum Al6082, and its weight was reduced about 60% in comparison with the base steel knuckle, satisfying the design requirements. Then, we investigated its manufacturability by performing foraging analysis. The forging was done as hot process, and the product was made through two-step forging. As a final step of its developing process, the durability is investigated by using the flexible dynamic analysis software, LS-DYNA and the pre and post processor, eta/VPG. Generally, a car make does not provide all the information with the part manufacturer. Thus, the part manufacturer has a limit in predicting the durability performance with the unit of full car. The eta/VPG has the libraries of suspension, tire, and road, which are commonly used parts. That makes a full car modeling. First, the full car is modeled by referencing the following information; Overall Length: 3,595mm, Overall Width: 1,595mm, CVW (Curve Vehicle Weight): 910kg, Front Suspension: MacPherson Strut, Rear Suspension: Torsion Beam Axle, Tire: 235/65R17. Second, the road is selected as the cobblestone. The road condition of the cobblestone is almost 10 times more severe than that of usual paved road. Third, the dynamic finite element analysis using the LS-DYNA is performed to predict the durability performance of the suggested knuckle arm. The life of the suggested knuckle arm is calculated as 350,000km, which satisfies the design requirement set up by the part manufacturer. In this study, the overall design process of a knuckle arm is suggested, and it can be seen that the developed knuckle arm satisfies the design requirement of the durability with the unit of full car. The VPG analysis is successfully performed even though it does not an exact prediction since the full car model is very rough one. Thus, this approach can be used effectively when the detail to full car is not given.

Keywords: knuckle arm, structural optimization, Metamodel, forging, durability, VPG (Virtual Proving Ground)

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26 Effect of Friction Pressure on the Properties of Friction Welded Aluminum–Ceramic Dissimilar Joints

Authors: Fares Khalfallah, Zakaria Boumerzoug, Selvarajan Rajakumar, Elhadj Raouache


The ceramic-aluminum bond is strongly present in industrial tools, due to the need to combine the properties of metals, such as ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity, with ceramic properties like high hardness, corrosion and wear resistance. In recent years, some joining techniques have been developed to achieve a good bonding between these materials such as brazing, diffusion bonding, ultrasonic joining and friction welding. In this work, AA1100 aluminum alloy rods were welded with Alumina 99.9 wt% ceramic rods, by friction welding. The effect of friction pressure on mechanical and structural properties of welded joints was studied. The welding was performed by direct friction welding machine. The welding samples were rotated at a constant rotational speed of 900 rpm, friction time of 4 sec, forging strength of 18 MPa, and forging time of 3 sec. Three different friction pressures were applied to 20, 34 and 45 MPa. The three-point bending test and Vickers microhardness measurements were used to evaluate the strength of the joints and investigate the mechanical properties of the welding area. The microstructure of joints was examined by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that bending strength increased, and then decreased after reaching a maximum value, with increasing friction pressure. The SEM observation shows that the increase in friction pressure led to the appearance of cracks in the microstructure of the interface area, which is decreasing the bending strength of joints.

Keywords: welding of ceramic to aluminum, friction welding, alumina, AA1100 aluminum alloy

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25 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cast and Hot Forged Alumina Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites

Authors: S. Ghanaraja, Subrata Ray, S. K. Nath


Particle reinforced Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) succeeds in synergizing the metallic matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements to result in improved strength, particularly at elevated temperatures, but adversely it affects the ductility of the matrix because of agglomeration and porosity. The present study investigates the outcome of tensile properties in a cast and hot forged composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. Nano-sized alumina particles have been generated by milling mixture of aluminum and manganese dioxide powders. Milled particles after drying are added to molten metal and the resulting slurry is cast. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably. Delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress is due to reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of the nanoparticles. However, higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit results in deterioration of mechanical properties, possibly due to clustering of nanoparticles. The porosity in cast composite generally increases with the increasing addition of powder mix as observed during process and on forging it has got reduced. The base alloy and nanocomposites show improvement in flow stress which could be attributed to lowering of porosity and grain refinement as a consequence of forging.

Keywords: aluminium, alumina, nano-particle reinforced composites, porosity

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24 TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud


Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.

Keywords: ball milling, selective laser melting, surface roughness, titanium, wear

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23 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Rotary-Swaged Wire of Commercial-Purity Titanium

Authors: Michal Duchek, Jan Palán, Tomas Kubina


Bars made of titanium grade 2 and grade 4 were subjected to rotary forging with up to 2.2 true strain reduction in the cross-section from 10 to 3.81 mm. During progressive deformation, grain refinement in the transverse direction took place. In the longitudinal direction, ultrafine microstructure has not developed. It has been demonstrated that titanium grade 2 strengthens more than grade 4. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 650 MPa to 1040 MPa in titanium grade 4. Hardness profiles on the cross section in both materials show an increase in the centre of the wire.

Keywords: commercial-purity titanium, wire, rotary swaging, tensile test, hardness, modulus of elasticity, microstructure

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22 Phone Number Spoofing Attack in VoLTE 4G

Authors: Joo-Hyung Oh


The number of service users of 4G VoLTE (voice over LTE) using LTE data networks is rapidly growing. VoLTE based on all-IP network enables clearer and higher-quality voice calls than 3G. It does, however, pose new challenges; a voice call through IP networks makes it vulnerable to security threats such as wiretapping and forged or falsified information. And in particular, stealing other users’ phone numbers and forging or falsifying call request messages from outgoing voice calls within VoLTE result in considerable losses that include user billing and voice phishing to acquaintances. This paper focuses on the threats of caller phone number spoofing in the VoLTE and countermeasure technology as safety measures for mobile communication networks.

Keywords: LTE, 4G, VoLTE, phone number spoofing

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21 Phone Number Spoofing Attack in VoLTE

Authors: Joo-Hyung Oh, Sekwon Kim, Myoungsun Noh, Chaetae Im


The number of service users of 4G VoLTE (voice over LTE) using LTE data networks is rapidly growing. VoLTE based on All-IP network enables clearer and higher-quality voice calls than 3G. It does, however, pose new challenges; a voice call through IP networks makes it vulnerable to security threats such as wiretapping and forged or falsified information. Moreover, in particular, stealing other users’ phone numbers and forging or falsifying call request messages from outgoing voice calls within VoLTE result in considerable losses that include user billing and voice phishing to acquaintances. This paper focuses on the threats of caller phone number spoofing in the VoLTE and countermeasure technology as safety measures for mobile communication networks.

Keywords: LTE, 4G, VoLTE, phone number spoofing

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20 Cyber Security in Nigeria: A Collaboration between Communities and Professionals

Authors: Alese Boniface K., Adu Michael K., Owa Victor K.


Security can be defined as the degree of resistance to, or protection from harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable assets, such as persons, dwellings, communities, nations or organizations. Cybercrime is any crime committed or facilitated via the Internet. It is any criminal activity involving computers and networks. It can range from fraud to unsolicited emails (spam). It includes the distant theft of government or corporate secrets through criminal trespass into remote systems around the globe. Nigeria like any other nations of the world is currently having their own share of the menace that has been used even as tools by terrorists. This paper is an attempt at presenting cyber security as an issue that requires a coordinated national response. It also acknowledges and advocates the key roles to be played by stakeholders and the importance of forging strong partnerships to prevent and tackle cybercrime in Nigeria.

Keywords: security, cybercrime, internet, government, stakeholders, partnerships

Procedia PDF Downloads 419