Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 133

Search results for: hot extrusion

133 FEM Investigation of Inhomogeneous Wall Thickness Backward Extrusion for Aerosol Can Manufacturing

Authors: Jemal Ebrahim Dessie, Zsolt Lukacs


The wall of the aerosol can is extruded from the backward extrusion process. Necking is another forming process stage developed on the can shoulder after the backward extrusion process. Due to the thinner thickness of the wall, buckling is the critical challenge for current pure aluminum aerosol can industries. Design and investigation of extrusion with inhomogeneous wall thickness could be the best solution for reducing and optimization of neck retraction numbers. FEM simulation of inhomogeneous wall thickness has been simulated through this investigation. From axisymmetric Deform-2D backward extrusion, an aerosol can with a thickness of 0.4 mm at the top and 0.33 mm at the bottom of the aerosol can have been developed. As the result, it can optimize the number of retractions of the necking process and manufacture defect-free aerosol can shoulder due to the necking process.

Keywords: aerosol can, backward extrusion, Deform-2D, necking

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
132 Effect of Copper Addition at a Rate of 4% Weight on the Microstructure, Mechanical Characteristics, and Surface Roughness on the Hot Extrusion of Aluminum

Authors: S. M. A. Al Qawabah, A. I. O. Zaid


Al-4%Cu alloys are now widely used in many engineering applications especially in robotic, aerospace and vibration control area. The main problem arises from the weakness of their mechanical characteristics. Therefore, this study is directed towards enhancing the mechanical properties through severe plastic deformation. In this work, the hot direct extrusion process was chosen to provide the required hot work for this purpose. A direct extrusion die was designed and manufactured to be used in this investigation. The general microstructure, microhardness, surface roughness, and compression tests were performed on specimens from the produced Al-4%Cu alloy both in the as cast and after extrusion conditions. It was found that a pronounced enhancement in the mechanical characteristics of the produced Al-4%Cu after extrusion was achieved. The microhardness increased by 89.3%, the flow stress was decreased by 10% at 0.2 strain and finally the surface roughness was reduced by 81.6%.

Keywords: aluminum, copper, surface roughness, hot extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
131 Effect of Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Abdolvand, M. Riazat, H. Sohrabi, G. Faraji


An experimental investigation into the Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) process on AZ31 magnesium alloy is studied. Microstructures and grain size distribution of the specimens before and after TBE process are investigated by optical microscopy. Tensile and Vickers microhardness tests along extrusion direction were performed at room temperature. It is found that the average grain size is refined remarkably from the initial 33 µm down to 3.5 µm after TBE process. Also, the microhardness increased significantly to 58 HV after the process from an initial value of 36 HV.

Keywords: tube backward extrusion, AZ31, grain size distribution, grain refinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
130 Relationship between Extrusion Ratio and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: C. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, G. A. Lee


Reducing resource consumption and carbon dioxide emission are recognized as urgent issues. One way of resolving these issues is to reduce product weight. Magnesium alloys are considered promising candidates because of their lightness. Various studies have been conducted on using magnesium alloy instead of conventional iron or aluminum in mechanical parts, due to the light weight and superior specific strength of magnesium alloy. However, even stronger magnesium alloys are needed for mechanical parts. One common way to enhance the strength of magnesium alloy is by extruding the ingot. In order to enhance the mechanical properties, magnesium alloy ingot were extruded at various extrusion ratios. Relationship between extrusion ratio and mechanical properties was examined on extruded material of magnesium alloy. And Textures and microstructures of the extruded materials were investigated.

Keywords: extrusion, extrusion ratio, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
129 Effect of Hot Extrusion on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn Alloys for Medical Application

Authors: V. E. Bazhenov, A. V. Li, A. A. Komissarov, A. V. Koltygin, S. A. Tavolzhanskii, O. O. Voropaeva, A. M. Mukhametshina, A. A. Tokar, V. A. Bautin


Magnesium-based alloys are considered as effective materials in the development of biodegradable implants. The magnesium alloys containing Mg, Zn, Ca as an alloying element are the subject of the particular interest. These elements are the nutrients for the human body, which provide their high biocompatibility. In this work, we investigated the effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn alloys containing from 2 to 4 wt.% Zn; 0.7 wt.% Ca and up to 1 wt.% Mn. Hot extrusion was used as a method of intensive plastic deformation. The temperature of hot extrusion was set to 220 °C and 300 °C. Metallographic analysis after hot extrusion shows that the grain size in the studied alloys depends on the deformation temperature. The grain size for all of investigated alloys is in the range from 3 to 7 microns, and 3 μm corresponds to the extrusion temperature of 220 °C. Analysis of mechanical properties after extrusion shows that extrusion at a temperature of 220 °C and alloying with Mn increase the strength characteristics and decrease the ductility of studied alloys. A slight anisotropy of properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions was also observed. Measurements of corrosion properties revealed that the addition of Mn to Mg-Zn-Ca alloys reduces the corrosion rate. On the other hand, increasing the Zn content in alloys increases the corrosion rate. The extrusion temperature practically does not affect the corrosion rate. Acknowledgement: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST «MISiS» (No K2-2019-008), implemented by a governmental decree dated 16th of March 2013, N 211.

Keywords: biocompatibility, hot extrusion, magnesium alloys, severe plastic deformation, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
128 Advances in Food Processing Using Extrusion Technology

Authors: Javeed Akhtar, R. K. Pandey, Z. R. Azaz Ahmad Azad


For the purpose of making different uses of food material for the development of extruded foods are produced using single and twin extruders. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing of novel food. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Extrusion processing of food ingredients characteristically depends on associating process conditions that influence the product qualities. The process parameters are optimized for extrusion of food material in order to obtain the maximum nutritive value by inactivating the anti-nutritional factors. The processing conditions such as moisture content, temperature and time are controlled to avoid over heating or under heating which otherwise would result in a product of lower nutritional quality.

Keywords: extrusion processing, single and twin extruder, operating condition of extruders and extruded novel foods, food and agricultural engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
127 Thermomechanical Processing of a CuZnAl Shape-Memory Alloy

Authors: Pedro Henrique Alves Martins, Paulo Guilherme Ferreira De Siqueira, Franco De Castro Bubani, Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Paulo Roberto Cetlin


Cu-base shape-memory alloys (CuZnAl, CuAlNi, CuAlBe, etc.) are promising engineering materials for several unconventional devices, such as sensors, actuators, and mechanical vibration dampers. Brittleness is one of the factors that limit the commercial use of these alloys, as it makes thermomechanical processing difficult. In this work, a method for the hot extrusion of a 75.50% Cu, 16,74% Zn, 7,76% Al (weight %) alloy is presented. The effects of the thermomechanical processing in the microstructure and the pseudoelastic behavior of the alloy are assessed by optical metallography, compression and hardness tests. Results show that hot extrusion is a suitable method to obtain severe cross-section reductions in the CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied. The alloy maintained its pseudoelastic effect after the extrusion and the modifications in the mechanical behavior caused by precipitation during hot extrusion can be minimized by a suitable precipitate dissolution heat treatment.

Keywords: hot extrusion, pseudoelastic, shape-memory alloy, thermomechanical processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
126 The Effects of Different Amounts of Additional Moisture on the Physical Properties of Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Extrudates

Authors: L. Strauta, S. Muižniece-Brasava


Even though legumes possess high nutritional value and have a rather high protein content for plant origin products, they are underutilized mostly due to their lengthy cooking time. To increase the presence of legume-based products in human diet, new extruded products were made of cow peas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). But as it is known, adding different moisture content to flour before extrusion can change the physical properties of the extruded product. Experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal moisture content for cow pea extrusion. After extrusion, the pH level had dropped from 6.7 to 6.5 and the lowest hardness rate was observed in the samples with additional 9 g 100g-1 of moisture - 28±4N, but the volume mass of the samples with additional 9 g100g-1 of water was 263±3 g L-1; all samples were approximately 7±1mm long.

Keywords: cow pea, extrusion–cooking, moisture, size

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
125 A Study on Weight-Reduction of Double Deck High-Speed Train Using Size Optimization Method

Authors: Jong-Yeon Kim, Kwang-Bok Shin, Tae-Hwan Ko


The purpose of this paper is to suggest a weight-reduction design method for the aluminum extrusion carbody structure of a double deck high-speed train using size optimization method. The size optimization method was used to optimize thicknesses of skin and rib of the aluminum extrusion for the carbody structure. Thicknesses of 1st underframe, 2nd underframe, solebar and roof frame were selected by design variables in order to conduct size optimization. The results of the size optimization analysis showed that the weight of the aluminum extrusion could be reduced by 0.61 tons (5.60%) compared to the weight of the original carbody structure.

Keywords: double deck high-speed train, size optimization, weigh-reduction, aluminum extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
124 Effect of Zr Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti+B on Its Wear Resistance after Extrusion Condition

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Safwan M. A. Alqawabah


Review of the available literature on grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys reveals that little work is published on the effect of refiners on mechanical characteristics and wear resistance. In this paper, the effect of addition of Zr to Al grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical, mechanical characteristics and wear resistance both in the as cast and after extrusion condition are presented and discussed. It was found that Addition of Zr to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical strength and hardness, whereas it resulted in improvement of both of them when added to Al grain refined by Ti+B. Furthermore it was found that the direct extrusion process resulted in further increase of the mechanical strength and hardness of Al and its micro-alloys. Also it resulted in increase of their work hardening index, n, i.e. improved their formability, hence it reduces the number of stages required for forming at large strains in excess of the plastic instability before Zr addition.

Keywords: aluminum, grain refinement, titanium + boron, zirconium, mechanical characteristics, wear resistance, direct extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
123 Investigation of Axisymmetric Bimetallic Tube Extrusion with Conic Die

Authors: A. Eghbali, M. Goodarzi, M. Hagh Panahi


In this article process of direct extrusion of axisymmetric bimetallic tube with conic die profile and constant Mandrel by upper bound method has been analyzed and finite element method is simulated. Deformation area is divided into six smaller deformation areas and are calculated by presenting two generalized velocity field and applicable input and output sections separately (velocity profile with logarithmic curve for input section and spherical velocity profile for materials output ) for each die profile in spherical coordinate system strain rate values in every deformation area. After internal power, shearing power and material friction power is obtained, extrusion force is calculated. The results of upper bound analysis method with given results from other researcher's experiments and simulation by finite parts method (Abaqus software) are compared for conic die.

Keywords: extrusion, upper bound, axisy metric, deformation velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
122 Investigation on the Effect of Titanium (Ti) Plus Boron (B) Addition to the Mg-AZ31 Alloy in the as Cast and After Extrusion on Its Metallurgical and Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Raghad S. Hemeimat


Magnesium - aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are used in manufacturing a number of engineering and industrial parts in the automobile and aircraft industries due to their strength – to –weight -ratio. Against these preferable characteristics, magnesium is difficult to deform at room temperature therefore it is alloyed with other elements mainly Aluminum and Zinc to add some required properties particularly for their high strength - to -weight ratio. Mg and its alloys oxidize rapidly therefore care should be taken during melting or machining them; but they are not fire hazardous. Grain refinement is an important technology to improve the mechanical properties and the micro structure uniformity of the alloys. Grain refinement has been introduced in early fifties; when Cibula showed that the presence of Ti, and Ti+ B, produced a great refining effect in Al. since then it became an industrial practice to grain refine Al. Most of the published work on grain refinement was directed toward grain refining Al and Zinc alloys; however, the effect of the addition of rare earth material on the grain size or the mechanical behavior of Mg alloys has not been previously investigated. This forms the main objective of the research work; where, the effect of Ti addition on the grain size, mechanical behavior, ductility, and the extrusion force & energy consumed in forward extrusion of Mg-AZ31 alloy is investigated and discussed in two conditions, first in the as cast condition and the second after extrusion. It was found that addition of Ti to Mg- AZ31 alloy has resulted in reduction of its grain size by 14%; the reduction in grain size after extrusion was much higher. However the increase in Vicker’s hardness was 3% after the addition of Ti in the as cast condition, and higher values for Vicker’s hardness were achieved after extrusion. Furthermore, an increase in the strength coefficient by 36% was achieved with the addition of Ti to Mg-AZ31 alloy in the as cast condition. Similarly, the work hardening index was also increased indicating an enhancement of the ductility and formability. As for the extrusion process, it was found that the force and energy required for the extrusion were both reduced by 57% and 59% with the addition of Ti.

Keywords: cast condition, direct extrusion, ductility, MgAZ31 alloy, super - plasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
121 Effect of the Initial Billet Shape Parameters on the Final Product in a Backward Extrusion Process for Pressure Vessels

Authors: Archana Thangavelu, Han-Ik Park, Young-Chul Park, Joon-Hong Park


In this numerical study, we have proposed a method for evaluation of backward extrusion process of pressure vessel made up of steel. Demand for lighter and stiffer products have been increasing in the last years especially in automobile engineering. Through detailed finite element analysis, effective stress, strain and velocity profile have been obtained with optimal range. The process design of a forward and backward extrusion axe-symmetric part has been studied. Forging is mainly carried out because forged products are highly reliable and possess superior mechanical properties when compared to normal products. Performing computational simulations of 3D hot forging with various dimensions of billet and optimization of weight is carried out using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA) Optimization technique. The technique used in this study can be used for newly developed materials to investigate its forgeability for much complicated shapes in closed hot die forging process.

Keywords: backward extrusion, hot forging, optimization, finite element analysis, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
120 Magnetorheological Elastomer Composites Obtained by Extrusion

Authors: M. Masłowski, M. Zaborski


Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized magnetite, gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy). The use of extrusion method instead of traditional preparation processes (two-roll mill, mixer) of composites is presented. Micro and nan-sized magnetites as well as gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder were found to be an active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Application of extrusion process also influenced the mechanical properties of composites and the dispersion of magnetic fillers. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM) show that the dispersion improvement had significant effect on the composites properties. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.

Keywords: extrusion, magnetic fillers, magnetorheological elastomers, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
119 Optimal Performance of Plastic Extrusion Process Using Fuzzy Goal Programming

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie


This study optimized the performance of plastic extrusion process of drip irrigation pipes using fuzzy goal programming. Two main responses were of main interest; roll thickness and hardness. Four main process factors were studied. The L18 array was then used for experimental design. The individual-moving range control charts were used to assess the stability of the process, while the process capability index was used to assess process performance. Confirmation experiments were conducted at the obtained combination of optimal factor setting by fuzzy goal programming. The results revealed that process capability was improved significantly from -1.129 to 0.8148 for roll thickness and from 0.0965 to 0.714 and hardness. Such improvement results in considerable savings in production and quality costs.

Keywords: fuzzy goal programming, extrusion process, process capability, irrigation plastic pipes

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
118 Development of a Table-Top Composite Wire Fabrication System for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Krishna Nand, Mohammad Taufik


Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technology. In FFF technology, a wire form material (filament) is fed inside a heated chamber, where it gets converted into semi-solid form and extruded out of a nozzle to be deposited on the build platform to fabricate the part. FFF technology is expanding and covering the market at a very rapid rate, so the need of raw materials for 3D printing is also increasing. The cost of 3D printing is directly affected by filament cost. To make 3D printing more economic, a compact and portable filament/wire extrusion system is needed. Wire extrusion systems to extrude ordinary wire/filament made of a single material are available in the market. However, extrusion system to make a composite wire/filament are not available. Hence, in this study, initial efforts have been made to develop a table-top composite wire extruder. The developed system is consisted of mechanical parts, electronics parts, and a control system. A multiple channel hopper, extrusion screw, melting chamber and nozzle, cooling zone, and spool winder are some mechanical parts. While motors, heater, temperature sensor, cooling fans are some electronics parts, which are used to develop this system. A control board has been used to control the various process parameters like – temperature and speed of motors. For the production of composite wire/filament, two different materials could be fed through two channels of hopper, which will be mixed and carried to the heated zone by extrusion screw. The extrusion screw is rotated by a motor, and the speed of this motor will be controlled by the controller as per the requirement of material extrusion rate. In the heated zone, the material will melt with the help of a heating element and extruded out of the nozzle in the form of wire. The developed system occupies less floor space due to the vertical orientation of its heating chamber. It is capable to extrude ordinary filament as well as composite filament, which are compatible with 3D printers available in the market. Further, the developed system could be employed in the research and development of materials, processing, and characterization for 3D printer. The developed system presented in this study could be a better choice for hobbyists and researchers dealing with the fused filament fabrication process to reduce the 3D printing cost significantly by recycling the waste material into 3D printer feed material. Further, it could also be explored as a better alternative for filament production at the commercial level.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D Printing, filament extrusion, pellet extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
117 Effect of Extrusion Processing Parameters on Protein in Banana Flour Extrudates: Characterisation Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Surabhi Pandey, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


Extrusion processing is a high-temperature short time (HTST) treatment which can improve protein quality and digestibility together with retaining active nutrients. In-vitro protein digestibility of plant protein-based foods is generally enhanced by extrusion. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of extrusion cooking on in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and conformational modification of protein in green banana flour extrudates. Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder varying the moisture content, barrel temperature, screw speed in the range of 10-20 %, 60-80 °C, 200-300 rpm, respectively, at constant feed rate. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the result for IVPD. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided a convenient and powerful means to monitor interactions and changes in functional and conformational properties of extrudates. Results showed that protein digestibility was highest in extrudate produced at 80°C, 250 rpm and 15% feed moisture. FTIR analysis was done for the optimised sample having highest IVPD. FTIR analysis showed that there were no changes in primary structure of protein while the secondary protein structure changed. In order to explain this behaviour, infrared spectroscopy analysis was carried out, mainly in the amide I and II regions. Moreover, curve fitting analysis showed the conformational changes produced in the flour due to protein denaturation. The quantitative analysis of the changes in the amide I and II regions provided information about the modifications produced in banana flour extrudates.

Keywords: extrusion, FTIR, protein conformation, raw banana flour, SDS-PAGE method

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
116 Numerical Investigation of Material Behavior During Non-Equal Channel Multi Angular Extrusion

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Asfoury, Ahmed Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed N. A. Nasr


The current study uses finite element modeling to investigate and analyze a modified form of the from the conventional equal channel multi-angular pressing (ECMAP), using non-equal channels, on the workpiece material plastic deformation. The modified process non-equal channel multi-angular extrusion (NECMAE) is modeled using two-dimensional plane strain finite element model built using the commercial software ABAQUS. The workpiece material used is pure aluminum. The model was first validated by comparing its results to analytical solutions for single-pass equal channel angular extrusion (ECAP), as well as previously published data. After that, the model was used to examine the effects of different % of reductions of the area (for the second stage) on material plastic deformation, corner gap, and required the load. Three levels of reduction in the area were modeled; 10%, 30%, and 50%, and compared to single-pass and double-pass ECAP. Cases with a higher reduction in the area were found to have smaller corner gaps, higher and much uniform plastic deformation, as well as higher required loads. The current results are mainly attributed to the back pressure effects exerted by the second stage, as well as strain hardening effects experienced during the first stage.

Keywords: non-equal channel angular extrusion, multi-pass, sever plastic deformation, back pressure, Finite Element Modelling (FEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
115 The Fabrication and Characterization of Hierarchical Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites via Twin-Screw Extrusion

Authors: Chao Hu, Xinwen Liao, Qing-Hua Qin, Gang Wang


The hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT)/carbon fiber (CF)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) was fabricated via compound extrusion and injection molding, in which to author’s best knowledge CNT was employed as a nano-coatings on the surface of CF for the first time by spray coating technique. The CNT coatings relative to CF was set at 1 wt% and the CF content relative to the composites varied from 0 to 25 wt% to study the influence of CNT coatings and CF contents on the mechanical, thermal and morphological performance of this hierarchical composites. The results showed that with the rise of CF contents, the mechanical properties, including the tensile properties, flexural properties, and hardness of CNT/CF/HDPE composites, were effectively improved. Furthermore, the CNT-coated composites showed overall higher mechanical performance than the uncoated counterparts. It can be ascribed to the enhancement of interfacial bonding between the CF and HDPE via the incorporation of CNT, which was demonstrated by the scanning electron microscopy observation. Meanwhile, the differential scanning calorimetry data indicated that by the introduction of CNT and CF, the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of HDPE were affected while the melting temperature did not have an obvious alteration.

Keywords: carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, extrusion, high density polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
114 Case-Based Reasoning Approach for Process Planning of Internal Thread Cold Extrusion

Authors: D. Zhang, H. Y. Du, G. W. Li, J. Zeng, D. W. Zuo, Y. P. You


For the difficult issues of process selection, case-based reasoning technology is applied to computer aided process planning system for cold form tapping of internal threads on the basis of similarity in the process. A model is established based on the analysis of process planning. Case representation and similarity computing method are given. Confidence degree is used to evaluate the case. Rule-based reuse strategy is presented. The scheme is illustrated and verified by practical application. The case shows the design results with the proposed method are effective.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, internal thread, cold extrusion, process planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
113 Application of Microparticulated Whey Proteins in Reduced-Fat Yogurt through Hot-Extrusion: Influence on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties

Authors: M. K. Hossain, J. Keidel, O. Hensel, M. Diakite


Fat reduced dairy products are holding a potential market due to health reason. Due to less creamy, and pleasantness, reduced and/or low-fat dairy products are getting less consumer acceptance whereas the fat molecule provides smooth, creamy and a pleasant mouthfeel in dairy products especially yogurt & ice cream. This study was aimed to investigate whether the application of microparticulated whey proteins (MWPs) processed by extrusion cooking, the reduced fat yogurt can achieve similar or higher creaminess compared to whole milk (3.8% fat) and skimmed milk (0.5% fat) yogurt. Full cream and skimmed milk were used to prepare natural stirred yogurt, as well as the dry matter content, also adjusted up to 16% with skimmed milk powder. Whey protein concentrates (WPC80) were used to produce MWPs in particle size of d50 > 5 µm, d50 3<5 µm and d50 < 3 µm through the hot-extrusion process with a screw speed of 400, 600 and 1000 rpm respectively. Furthermore, the commercially available microparticulated whey protein called Simplesse® was also applied in order to compare with extruded MWPs. The rheological and sensory properties of yogurt were assessed, and data were analyzed statistically. The applications of extruded MWPs with 600 and 1000 rpm were achieved significantly (p < 0.05) higher creaminess and preference compared to the whole and skimmed milk yogurt whereas, 400 rpm got lower preference. On the other hand, Simplesse® obtained the lowest creaminess and preference compared to other yogurts, although the contribution of dry matter in yogurt was same as extruded MWPs. The creaminess and viscosities were strongly (r = 0.62) correlated, furthermore, the viscosity from sensory evaluation and the dynamic viscosity of yogurt was also significantly (r = 0.72) correlated which clarifies that the performance of sensory panelists as well as the quality of the products.

Keywords: microparticulation, hot-extrusion, reduced-fat yogurt, whey protein concentrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
112 The Effect of Extrusion Processing on Solubility and Molecular Weight of Water-Soluble Arabinoxylan

Authors: Abdulmannan Fadel


Arabinoxylan is a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), which is one of the most important polysaccharides contained within cereal grains. Wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran contain a significant amount of arabinoxylan (7% in rice bran and 10-12% in wheat endosperm pentosan). Several methods have been used for arabinoxylan extraction with varying degrees of success e.g. enzymatic and alkaline treatment. Yet, the use of extrusion alone as a pre-treatment to increase the yield and reduce the molecular weight in wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran has not been investigated. The samples (wheat pentosan and rice bran) were extruded using a Twin-screw extruder at a range of screw speeds (80 and 160 rpm) and barrel temperatures range (80 to 140°C) with a throughput of 30 Kg hr-1 and moisture content of 25%. Arabinoxylans were extracted with water and the extraction yield and molecular weight was determined using size exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography system. It was found that increasing screw speed from 80 rpm to 160 rpm, did not effect the extraction yield (p < 0.05) of arabinoxylan from either the wheat endosperm pentosan or the rice bran. However, the molecular weight of the extracted arabinoxylans from pentosan was found to decrease with increasing screw speed in wheat endosperm pentosan. These low molecular weight arabinoxylans have been suggested as immunomodulators.

Keywords: arabinoxylans, extrusion, wheat endosperm pentosan, rice bran

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
111 Influence of Silicon Carbide Particle Size and Thermo-Mechanical Processing on Dimensional Stability of Al 2124SiC Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed M. Emara, Heba Ashraf


This study is to investigation the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) particle size and thermo-mechanical processing on dimensional stability of aluminum alloy 2124. Three combinations of SiC weight fractions are investigated, 2.5, 5, and 10 wt. % with different SiC particle sizes (25 μm, 5 μm, and 100nm) were produced using mechanical ball mill. The standard testing samples were fabricated using powder metallurgy technique. Both samples, prior and after extrusion, were heated from room temperature up to 400ºC in a dilatometer at different heating rates, that is, 10, 20, and 40ºC/min. The analysis showed that for all materials, there was an increase in length change as temperature increased and the temperature sensitivity of aluminum alloy decreased in the presence of both micro and nano-sized silicon carbide. For all conditions, nanocomposites showed better dimensional stability compared to conventional Al 2124/SiC composites. The after extrusion samples showed better thermal stability and less temperature sensitivity for the aluminum alloy for both micro and nano-sized silicon carbide.

Keywords: aluminum 2124 metal matrix composite, SiC nano-sized reinforcements, powder metallurgy, extrusion mechanical ball mill, dimensional stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
110 Physical, Microstructural and Functional Quality Improvements of Cassava-Sorghum Composite Snacks

Authors: Adil Basuki Ahza, Michael Liong, Subarna Suryatman


Healthy chips now dominating the snack market shelves. More than 80% processed snack foods in the market are chips. This research takes the advantages of twin extrusion technology to produce two types of product, i.e. directly expanded and intermediate ready-to-fry or microwavable chips. To improve the functional quality, the cereal-tuber based mix was enriched with antioxidant rich mix of temurui, celery, carrot and isolated soy protein (ISP) powder. Objectives of this research were to find best composite cassava-sorghum ratio, i.e. 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20, to optimize processing conditions of extrusion and study the microstructural, physical and sensorial characteristics of the final products. Optimization was firstly done by applying metering section of extruder barrel temperatures of 120, 130 and 140 °C with screw speeds of 150, 160 and 170 rpm to produce direct expanded product. The intermediate product was extruded in 100 °C and 100 rpm screw speed with feed moisture content of 35, 40 and 45%. The directly expanded products were analyzed for color, hardness, density, microstructure, and organoleptic properties. The results showed that interaction of ratio of cassava-sorghum and cooking methods affected the product's color, hardness, and bulk density (p<0.05). Extrusion processing conditions also significantly affected product's microstructure (p<0.05). The direct expanded snacks of 80:20 cassava-sorghum ratio and fried expanded one 70:30 and 80:20 ratio shown the best organoleptic score (slightly liked) while baking the intermediate product with microwave were resulted sensorial not acceptable quality chips.

Keywords: cassava-sorghum composite, extrusion, microstructure, physical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
109 Effect of Rapeseed Press Cake on Extrusion System Parameters and Physical Pellet Quality of Fish Feed

Authors: Anna Martin, Raffael Osen


The demand for fish from aquaculture is constantly growing. Concurrently, due to a shortage of fishmeal caused by extensive overfishing, fishmeal substitution by plant proteins is getting increasingly important for the production of sustainable aquafeed. Several research studies evaluated the impact of plant protein meals, concentrates or isolates on fish health and fish feed quality. However, these protein raw materials often require elaborate and expensive manufacturing and their availability is limited. Rapeseed press cake (RPC) – a side product of de-oiling processes – exhibits a high potential as a plant-based fishmeal alternative in fish feed for carnivorous species due to its availability, low costs and protein content. In order to produce aquafeed with RPC, it is important to systematically assess i) inclusion levels of RPC with similar pellet qualities compared to fishmeal containing formulations and ii) how extrusion parameters can be adjusted to achieve targeted pellet qualities. However, the effect of RPC on extrusion system parameters and pellet quality has only scarcely been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of feed formulation, extruder barrel temperature (90, 100, 110 °C) and screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) on extrusion system parameters and the physical properties of fish feed pellets. A co-rotating pilot-scale twin screw extruder was used to produce five iso-nitrogenous feed formulations: a fish meal based reference formulation including 16 g/100g fishmeal and four formulations in which fishmeal was substituted by RPC to 25, 50, 75 or 100 %. Extrusion system parameters, being product temperature, pressure at the die, specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, were monitored while samples were taken. After drying, pellets were analyzed regarding to optical appearance, sectional and longitudinal expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density, water stability, durability and specific hardness. In our study, the addition of minor amounts of RPC already had high impact on pellet quality parameters, especially on expansion but only marginally affected extrusion system parameters. Increasing amounts of RPC reduced sectional expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density and specific hardness and increased longitudinal expansion compared to a reference formulation without RPC. Water stability and durability were almost not affected by RPC addition. Moreover, pellets with rapeseed components showed a more coarse structure than pellets containing only fishmeal. When the adjustment of barrel temperature and screw speed was investigated, it could be seen that the increase of extruder barrel temperature led to a slight decrease of SME and die pressure and an increased sectional expansion of the reference pellets but did almost not affect rapeseed containing fish feed pellets. Also changes in screw speed had little effects on the physical properties of pellets however with raised screw speed the SME and the product temperature increased. In summary, a one-to-one substitution of fishmeal with RPC without the adjustment of extrusion process parameters does not result in fish feed of a designated quality. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of raw materials and their behavior under thermal and mechanical stresses as applied during extrusion is required.

Keywords: extrusion, fish feed, press cake, rapeseed

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108 Cladding Technology for Metal-Hybrid Composites with Network-Structure

Authors: Ha-Guk Jeong, Jong-Beom Lee


Cladding process is very typical technology for manufacturing composite materials by the hydrostatic extrusion. Because there is no friction between the metal and the container, it can be easily obtained in uniform flow during the deformation. The general manufacturing process for a metal-matrix composite in the solid state, mixing metal powders and ceramic powders with a suited volume ratio, prior to be compressed or extruded at the cold or hot condition in a can. Since through a plurality of unit processing steps of dispersing the materials having a large difference in their characteristics and physical mixing, the process is complicated and leads to non-uniform dispersion of ceramics. It is difficult and hard to reach a uniform ideal property in the coherence problems at the interface between the metal and the ceramic reinforcements. Metal hybrid composites, which presented in this report, are manufactured through the traditional plastic deformation processes like hydrostatic extrusion, caliber-rolling, and drawing. By the previous process, the realization of uniform macro and microstructure is surely possible. In this study, as a constituent material, aluminum, copper, and titanium have been used, according to the component ratio, excellent characteristics of each material were possible to produce a metal hybrid composite that appears to maximize. MgB₂ superconductor wire also fabricated via the same process. It will be introduced to their unique artistic and thermal characteristics.

Keywords: cladding process, metal-hybrid composites, hydrostatic extrusion, electronic/thermal characteristics

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107 Sorghum Polyphenols Encapsulated by Spray Drying, Using Modified Starches as Wall Materials

Authors: Adriana Garcia G., Alberto A. Escobar P., Amira D. Calvo L., Gabriel Lizama U., Alejandro Zepeda P., Fernando Martínez B., Susana Rincón A.


Different studies have recently been focused on the use of antioxidants such as polyphenols because of to its anticarcinogenic capacity. However, these compounds are highly sensible to environmental factors such as light and heat, so lose its long-term stability, besides possess an astringent and bitter taste. Nevertheless, the polyphenols can be protected by microcapsule formulation. In this sense, a rich source of polyphenols is sorghum, besides presenting a high starch content. Due to the above, the aim of this work was to obtain modified starches from sorghum by extrusion to encapsulate polyphenols the sorghum by spray drying. Polyphenols were extracted by ethanol solution from sorghum (Pajarero/red) and determined by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, obtaining GAE at 30 mg/g. Moreover, was extracted starch of sorghum (Sinaloense/white) through wet milling (yield 32 %). The hydrolyzed starch was modified with three treatments: acetic anhydride (2.5g/100g), sodium tripolyphosphate (4g/100g), and sodium tripolyphosphate/ acetic anhydride (2g/1.25g by each 100 g) by extrusion. Processing conditions of extrusion were as follows: barrel temperatures were of 60, 130 and 170 °C at the feeding, transition, and high-pressure extrusion zones, respectively. Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed bands exhibited of acetyl groups (1735 cm-1) and phosphates (1170 cm-1, 910 cm-1 and 525 cm-1), indicating the respective modification of starch. Besides, all modified starches not developed viscosity, which is a characteristic required for use in the encapsulation of polyphenols using the spray drying technique. As result of the modification starch, was obtained a water solubility index (WSI) from 33.8 to 44.8 %, and crystallinity from 8 to 11 %, indicating the destruction of the starch granule. Afterwards, microencapsulation of polyphenols was developed by spray drying, with a blend of 10 g of modified starch, 60 ml polyphenol extract and 30 ml of distilled water. Drying conditions were as follows: inlet air temperature 150 °C ± 1, outlet air temperature 80°C ± 5. As result of the microencapsulation: were obtained yields of 56.8 to 77.4 % and an efficiency of encapsulation from 84.6 to 91.4 %. The FTIR analysis showed evidence of microcapsules loaded with polyphenols in bands 1042 cm-1, 1038 cm-1 and 1148 cm-1. Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed transition temperatures from 144.1 to 173.9 °C. For the order hand, analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were observed rounded surfaces with concavities, typical feature of microcapsules produced by spray drying, how result of rapid evaporation of water. Finally, the modified starches were obtained by extrusion with good characteristics for use as cover materials by spray drying, where the phosphorylated starch was the best treatment in this work, according to the encapsulation yield, efficiency, and transition temperature.

Keywords: encapsulation, extrusion, modified starch, polyphenols, spray drying

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106 Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Copper Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation Technique-Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

Authors: Krishnaiah Arkanti, Ramulu Malothu


The experiments have been conducted to study the mechanical properties of commercially pure copper processing at room temperature by severe plastic deformation using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) through a die of 90oangle up to 3 passes by route BC i.e. rotating the sample in the same direction by 90o after each pass. ECAE is used to produce from existing coarse grains to ultra-fine, equiaxed grains structure with high angle grain boundaries in submicron level by introducing a large amount of shear strain in the presence of hydrostatic pressure into the material without changing billet shape or dimension. Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. Yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility are structure sensitive properties and vary with the structure of the material. Microhardness and tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the hardness, strength and ductility of the ECAE processed materials. The results reveal that the strength and hardness of commercially pure copper samples improved significantly without losing much ductility after each pass.

Keywords: equal channel angular extrusion, severe plastic deformation, copper, mechanical properties

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105 Preparation of Corn Flour Based Extruded Product and Evaluate Its Physical Characteristics

Authors: C. S. Saini


The composite flour blend consisting of corn, pearl millet, black gram and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:5:10:5 was taken to prepare the extruded product and their effect on physical properties of extrudate was studied. The extrusion process was conducted in laboratory by using twin screw extruder. The physical characteristics evaluated include lateral expansion, bulk density, water absorption index, water solubility index, rehydration ratio and moisture retention. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used to decide the level of processing variables i.e. feed moisture content (%), screw speed (rpm), and barrel temperature (oC) for the experiment. The data obtained after extrusion process were analyzed by using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial model for the dependent variables was established to fit the experimental data. The numerical optimization studies resulted in 127°C of barrel temperature, 246 rpm of screw speed, and 14.5% of feed moisture as optimum variables to produce acceptable extruded product. The responses predicted by the software for the optimum process condition resulted in lateral expansion 126 %, bulk density 0.28 g/cm3, water absorption index 4.10 g/g, water solubility index 39.90 %, rehydration ratio 544 % and moisture retention 11.90 % with 75 % desirability.

Keywords: black gram, corn flour, extrusion, physical characteristics

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104 Development and Structural Characterization of a Snack Food with Added Type 4 Extruded Resistant Starch

Authors: Alberto A. Escobar Puentes, G. Adriana García, Luis F. Cuevas G., Alejandro P. Zepeda, Fernando B. Martínez, Susana A. Rincón


Snack foods are usually classified as ‘junk food’ because have little nutritional value. However, due to the increase on the demand and third generation (3G) snacks market, low price and easy to prepare, can be considered as carriers of compounds with certain nutritional value. Resistant starch (RS) is classified as a prebiotic fiber it helps to control metabolic problems and has anti-cancer colon properties. The active compound can be developed by chemical cross-linking of starch with phosphate salts to obtain a type 4 resistant starch (RS4). The chemical reaction can be achieved by extrusion, a process widely used to produce snack foods, since it's versatile and a low-cost procedure. Starch is the major ingredient for snacks 3G manufacture, and the seeds of sorghum contain high levels of starch (70%), the most drought-tolerant gluten-free cereal. Due to this, the aim of this research was to develop a snack (3G), with RS4 in optimal conditions extrusion (previously determined) from sorghum starch, and carry on a sensory, chemically and structural characterization. A sample (200 g) of sorghum starch was conditioned with 4% sodium trimetaphosphate/ sodium tripolyphosphate (99:1) and set to 28.5% of moisture content. Then, the sample was processed in a single screw extruder equipped with rectangular die. The inlet, transport and output temperatures were 60°C, 134°C and 70°C, respectively. The resulting pellets were expanded in a microwave oven. The expansion index (EI), penetration force (PF) and sensory analysis were evaluated in the expanded pellets. The pellets were milled to obtain flour and RS content, degree of substitution (DS), and percentage of phosphorus (% P) were measured. Spectroscopy [Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)], X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were performed in order to determine structural changes after the process. The results in 3G were as follows: RS, 17.14 ± 0.29%; EI, 5.66 ± 0.35 and PF, 5.73 ± 0.15 (N). Groups of phosphate were identified in the starch molecule by FTIR: DS, 0.024 ± 0.003 and %P, 0.35±0.15 [values permitted as food additives (<4 %P)]. In this work an increase of the gelatinization temperature after the crosslinking of starch was detected; the loss of granular and vapor bubbles after expansion were observed by SEM; By using X-ray diffraction, loss of crystallinity was observed after extrusion process. Finally, a snack (3G) was obtained with RS4 developed by extrusion technology. The sorghum starch was efficient for snack 3G production.

Keywords: extrusion, resistant starch, snack (3G), Sorghum

Procedia PDF Downloads 220