Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 982

Search results for: Gurneesh Singh Anand

982 Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Chaitanya Chawla, Divya Panwar, Gurneesh Singh Anand, M. P. S Bhatia

Abstract:

This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.

Keywords: image forensics, computer graphics, classification, deep learning, convolutional neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
981 Study the Effect of Friction on Barreling Behavior during Upsetting Process Using Anand Model

Authors: H. Mohammadi Majd, M. Jalali Azizpour, V. Tavaf, A. Jaderi

Abstract:

In upsetting processes contact friction significantly influence metal flow, stress-strain state and process parameters. Furthermore, tribological conditions influence workpiece deformation and its dimensional precision. A viscoplastic constitutive law, the Anand model, was applied to represent the inelastic deformation behavior in upsetting process. This paper presents research results of the influence of contact friction coefficient on a workpiece deformation in upsetting process.finite element parameters. This technique was tested for three different specimens simulations of the upsetting and the corresponding material and can be successfully employed to predict the deformation of the upsetting process.

Keywords: friction, upsetting, barreling, Anand model

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980 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

Abstract:

Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
979 Relationship between Age, Gender, Anthropometrics Characteristics and Dynamic Balance in Children Age Group between 5 to 12 Years Old at Anand City, Gujarat

Authors: Dhruveshi B. Rana, Nirav P. Vaghela, Jigar N. Mehta

Abstract:

Objective: To assess the relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics and dynamic balance in 5 to 12 years of children in Anand city. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted. 150 school going children of 5-12 (75-girls, 75-boys) years were recruited from the school of the Anand city-Shivam English Medium school, Veer Vithalbhai Patel school, Adarsh Primary school. Height, weight, arm length, and foot length were measured in 150 children of 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using Time Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test, Pediatric Balance Scale. Results: Positive relationship (r = 0.58 and r= 0.77) were found between increasing age and FRT and PBS scores. A negative relationship (r = - 0.46) was observed between age of boys and TUG test. Significant gender by age group difference was observed in FRT. Arm length and height has the strongest influence on FRT, and age, height, foot length; and arm length has the strongest influence on PBS. Conclusions: Age and arm length have the strongest relationship with the dynamic balance (FRT, PBS). Dynamic balance ability is directly related to the age. It helps the pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance test according to the age.

Keywords: age, gender, anthropometric, dynamic balance

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978 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh

Abstract:

Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosion

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977 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh

Abstract:

Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
976 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan

Abstract:

The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOS

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975 Menstrual Hygiene Management among Young Unmarried Women in India

Authors: Enu Anand, Jayakant Singh

Abstract:

Menstruation among women is an integral part and a natural process that starts with menarche and stops at menopause. Women use sanitary pad, clothes and other methods to prevent blood stain from becoming evident. This paper examines the prevalence and discrepancies in use of hygienic method during menstruation among unmarried women in India using nationally representative District Level Household and facility Survey data (2007-08). The findings suggest that only one-third of the study population used hygienic method during menstruation. Rural-urban and poor-non poor disparity persists across all background characteristics in use of hygienic method. Women with high school and above education (OR=8.8, p<0.001), from richest wealth quintile (OR=5.2, p<0.001) and women following Christian religion (OR=3.6, p<0.001) are more likely to use hygienic method as compared to women with no education, poor household and Hindu women respectively. Locally prepared, low-cost sanitary pads can be promoted across the country for easy accessibility and affordability. Efforts should be made to produce locally prepared low-cost sanitary napkins in bulk and supply it through female health workers such as ANM and Anganwadi worker across the country.

Keywords: menstrual hygiene, sanitary pad, unmarried women, India

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974 Robust Data Image Watermarking for Data Security

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, Ankur Rai, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose secure and robust data hiding algorithm based on DCT by Arnold transform and chaotic sequence. The watermark image is scrambled by Arnold cat map to increases its security and then the chaotic map is used for watermark signal spread in middle band of DCT coefficients of the cover image The chaotic map can be used as pseudo-random generator for digital data hiding, to increase security and robustness .Performance evaluation for robustness and imperceptibility of proposed algorithm has been made using bit error rate (BER), normalized correlation (NC), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) value for different watermark and cover images such as Lena, Girl, Tank images and gain factor .We use a binary logo image and text image as watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher security and robustness against JPEG compression as well as other attacks such as addition of noise, low pass filtering and cropping attacks compared to other existing algorithm using DCT coefficients. Moreover, to recover watermarks in proposed algorithm, there is no need to original cover image.

Keywords: data hiding, watermarking, DCT, chaotic sequence, arnold transforms

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973 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh

Abstract:

Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilance

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972 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SS

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971 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

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970 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini

Abstract:

The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.

Keywords: surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, mechanical properties, shielded metal arc welding

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969 Study of Slum Redevelopment Initiatives for Dharavi Slum, Mumbai and Its Effectiveness in Implementation in Other Cities

Authors: Anurag Jha

Abstract:

Dharavi is the largest slum in Asia, for which many redevelopment projects have been put forth, to improve the housing conditions of the locals. And yet, these projects are met with much-unexpected resistance from the locals. The research analyses the why and the how of the resistances these projects face and analyses these programs and points out the flaws and benefits of such projects, by predicting its impact on the regulars of Dharavi. The research aims to analyze various aspects of Dharavi, which affect its socio-cultural backdrops, such as its history, and eventual growth into a mega slum. Through various surveys, the research aims to analyze the life of a slum dweller, the street life, and the effect of such settlement on the urban fabric. Various development projects such as Dharavi Museum Movement, are analyzed, and a feasibility and efficiency analysis of the proposals for redevelopment of Dharavi Slums has been theorized. Flaws and benefits of such projects, by predicting its impact on the regulars of Dharavi has been the major approach to the research. Also, prediction the implementation of these projects in another prominent slum area, Anand Nagar, Bhopal, with the use of generated hypothetical model has been done. The research provides a basic framework for a comparative analysis of various redevelopment projects and the effect of implementation of such projects on the general populace. Secondly, it proposes a hypothetical model for feasibility of such projects in certain slum areas.

Keywords: Anand Nagar, Bhopal slums, Dharavi, slum redevelopment programmes

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968 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh

Abstract:

The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

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967 Error Analysis of Wavelet-Based Image Steganograhy Scheme

Authors: Geeta Kasana, Kulbir Singh, Satvinder Singh

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In this paper, a steganographic scheme for digital images using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. The cover image is decomposed into wavelet sub bands using IWT. Each of the subband is divided into blocks of equal size and secret data is embedded into the largest and smallest pixel values of each block of the subband. Visual quality of stego images is acceptable as PSNR between cover image and stego is above 40 dB, imperceptibility is maintained. Experimental results show better tradeoff between capacity and visual perceptivity compared to the existing algorithms. Maximum possible error analysis is evaluated for each of the wavelet subbands of an image.

Keywords: DWT, IWT, MSE, PSNR

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966 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructure

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965 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images

Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh

Abstract:

Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.

Keywords: Computer Forensics, Multimedia Forensics, Image Ballistics, Camera Source Identification, Forgery Detection

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964 High Temperature Behavior of a 75Cr3C2–25NiCr Coated T91 Boiler Steel in an Actual Industrial Environment of a Coal Fired Boiler

Authors: Buta Singh Sidhu, Sukhpal Singh Chatha, Hazoor Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the present investigation, 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating was deposited on T91 boiler tube steel substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to enhance high-temperature corrosion resistance. High-temperature performance of bare, as well as HVOF-coated steel specimens was evaluated for 1500 h under cyclic conditions in the platen superheater zone coal-fired boiler, where the temperature was around 900 °C. Experiments were carried out for 15 cycles each of 100 h duration followed by 1 h cooling at ambient temperature. The performance of the bare and coated specimens was assessed via metal thickness loss corresponding to the corrosion scale formation and the depth of internal corrosion attack. 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating deposited on T91 steel imparted better hot corrosion resistance than the uncoated steel. Inferior resistance of bare T91 steel is attributed to the formation of pores and loosely bounded oxide scale rich in Fe2O3.

Keywords: 75Cr3C2-25NiCr, HVOF process, boiler steel, coal fired boilers

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963 Development of a Model Based on Wavelets and Matrices for the Treatment of Weakly Singular Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh

Abstract:

We present a new model based on viscoelasticity for the Non-Newtonian fluids.We use a matrix formulated algorithm to approximate solutions of a class of partial integro-differential equations with the given initial and boundary conditions. Some numerical results are presented to simplify application of operational matrix formulation and reduce the computational cost. Convergence analysis, error estimation and numerical stability of the method are also investigated. Finally, some test examples are given to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Legendre Wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticity

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962 Application of Wavelet Based Approximation for the Solution of Partial Integro-Differential Equation Arising from Viscoelasticity

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh

Abstract:

This work contributes a numerical method based on Legendre wavelet approximation for the treatment of partial integro-differential equation (PIDE). Operational matrices of Legendre wavelets reduce the solution of PIDE into the system of algebraic equations. Some useful results concerning the computational order of convergence and error estimates associated to the suggested scheme are presented. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness and accuracy of proposed numerical method.

Keywords: legendre wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticity

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961 Characteristics of Technology Infrastructure in Small Firms

Authors: Davinder Singh, Jaimal Singh Khamba, Tarun Nanda

Abstract:

Growth of the Indian economy has accelerated to 8% and efforts are on to further propel it to 10%. Undoubtedly, all the segments of the economy, viz. agriculture, industry and services have to improve their contribution to the economy. Growth of Micro-small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) is a sine qua non for the growth of industry, exports and other segments of the economy. Furthermore, promotion of entrepreneurship is also vital for sustenance and upward movement of the current growth trajectory of the economy. The MSME sector acts as a catalyst in upholding and encouraging the creation of the innovative spirit and entrepreneurship in the economy, thereby helping in laying the foundation for rapid industrial development. In this competitive world, they need to be able to confront the increasing competition from developed and emerging economies and to plug into the new market opportunities.

Keywords: characteristics, management, MSMEs, technology infrastructure

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960 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

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959 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

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958 Visualization Tool for EEG Signal Segmentation

Authors: Sweeti, Anoop Kant Godiyal, Neha Singh, Sneh Anand, B. K. Panigrahi, Jayasree Santhosh

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This work is about developing a tool for visualization and segmentation of Electroencephalograph (EEG) signals based on frequency domain features. Change in the frequency domain characteristics are correlated with change in mental state of the subject under study. Proposed algorithm provides a way to represent the change in the mental states using the different frequency band powers in form of segmented EEG signal. Many segmentation algorithms have been suggested in literature having application in brain computer interface, epilepsy and cognition studies that have been used for data classification. But the proposed method focusses mainly on the better presentation of signal and that’s why it could be a good utilization tool for clinician. Algorithm performs the basic filtering using band pass and notch filters in the range of 0.1-45 Hz. Advanced filtering is then performed by principal component analysis and wavelet transform based de-noising method. Frequency domain features are used for segmentation; considering the fact that the spectrum power of different frequency bands describes the mental state of the subject. Two sliding windows are further used for segmentation; one provides the time scale and other assigns the segmentation rule. The segmented data is displayed second by second successively with different color codes. Segment’s length can be selected as per need of the objective. Proposed algorithm has been tested on the EEG data set obtained from University of California in San Diego’s online data repository. Proposed tool gives a better visualization of the signal in form of segmented epochs of desired length representing the power spectrum variation in data. The algorithm is designed in such a way that it takes the data points with respect to the sampling frequency for each time frame and so it can be improved to use in real time visualization with desired epoch length.

Keywords: de-noising, multi-channel data, PCA, power spectra, segmentation

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957 Performance Analysis and Energy Consumption of Routing Protocol in Manet Using Grid Topology

Authors: Vivek Kumar Singh, Tripti Singh

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An ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which creates an underlying architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol used for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Nevertheless, the architecture must maintain communication routes although the hosts are mobile and they have limited transmission range. There are different protocols for handling the routing in the mobile environment. Routing protocols used in fixed infrastructure networks cannot be efficiently used for mobile ad-hoc networks, so that MANET requires different protocols. This paper presents the performance analysis of the routing protocols used various parameter-patterns with Two-ray model.

Keywords: AODV, packet transmission rate, pause time, ZRP, QualNet 6.1

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956 The Nexus between Child Marriage and Women Empowerment with Physical Violence in Two Culturally Distinct States of India

Authors: Jayakant Singh, Enu Anand

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Background: Child marriage is widely prevalent in India. It is a form of gross human right violation that succumbs a child bride to be subservient to her husband within a marital relation. We investigated the relationship between age at marriage of women and her level of empowerment with physical violence experienced 12 months preceding the survey among young women aged 20-24 in two culturally distinct states- Bihar and Tamil Nadu of India. Methods: We used the information collected from 10514 young married women (20-24 years) at all India level, 373 in Bihar and 523 in Tamil Nadu from the third round of National Family Health Survey. Empowerment index was calculated using different parameters such as mobility, economic independence and decision making power of women using Principal Component Analysis method. Bivariate analysis was performed primarily using chi square for the test of significance. Logistic regression was carried out to assess the effect of age at marriage and empowerment on physical violence. Results: Lower level of women empowerment was significantly associated with physical violence in Tamil Nadu (OR=2.38, p<0.01) whereas child marriage (marriage before age 15) was associated with physical violence in Bihar (OR=3.27, p<0.001). The mean difference in age at marriage between those who experienced physical violence and those who did not experience varied by 7 months in Bihar and 10 months in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion: Culture specific intervention may be a key to reduction of violence against women as the results showed association of different factors contributing to physical violence in Bihar and Tamil Nadu. Marrying at an appropriate age perhaps is protective of abuse because it equips a woman to assert her rights effectively. It calls for an urgent consideration to curb both violence and child marriage with stricter involvement of family, civil society and the government. In the meanwhile physical violence may be recognized as a public health problem and integrate appropriate treatment to the victims within the health care institution.

Keywords: child marriage, empowerment, India, physical violence

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955 Role of Machine Learning in Internet of Things Enabled Smart Cities

Authors: Amit Prakash Singh, Shyamli Singh, Chavi Srivastav

Abstract:

This paper presents the idea of Internet of Thing (IoT) for the infrastructure of smart cities. Internet of Thing has been visualized as a communication prototype that incorporates myriad of digital services. The various component of the smart cities shall be implemented using microprocessor, microcontroller, sensors for network communication and protocols. IoT enabled systems have been devised to support the smart city vision, of which aim is to exploit the currently available precocious communication technologies to support the value-added services for function of the city. Due to volume, variety, and velocity of data, it requires analysis using Big Data concept. This paper presented the various techniques used to analyze big data using machine learning.

Keywords: IoT, smart city, embedded systems, sustainable environment

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954 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh

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A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

Keywords: uncertain transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problem

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953 Task Scheduling on Parallel System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jasbir Singh Gill, Baljit Singh

Abstract:

Scheduling and mapping the application task graph on multiprocessor parallel systems is considered as the most crucial and critical NP-complete problem. Many genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve such problems. In this paper, two genetic approach based algorithms have been designed and developed with or without task duplication. The proposed algorithms work on two fitness functions. The first fitness i.e. task fitness is used to minimize the total finish time of the schedule (schedule length) while the second fitness function i.e. process fitness is concerned with allocating the tasks to the available highly efficient processor from the list of available processors (load balance). Proposed genetic-based algorithms have been experimentally implemented and evaluated with other state-of-art popular and widely used algorithms.

Keywords: parallel computing, task scheduling, task duplication, genetic algorithm

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