Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5672

Search results for: relationship conflict

5672 The Efficacy of Contractual Governance on Task and Relationship Conflict in Construction Projects

Authors: Jingya You, Yongqiang Chen, Yuanyuan Hua, Wenqian Wang

Abstract:

Conflict is commonplace in construction projects, and construction projects always involve designing contracts between the owner and the contractor. However, how the contract affects the level of conflict between the owner and the contractor has not been elaborated. The purpose of this paper is to explain the effects of contractual complexity on the level of conflict, including task conflict and relationship conflict, and then to demonstrate the moderating role played by the interdependence between the owner and the contractor. Using data from owners and general contractors in the Chinese construction industry, this research reveals that contractual control will reduce relationship conflict. Contractual coordination will also reduce relationship conflict by the mediating effect of task conflict. Besides, under high joint interdependence, the positive relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict is strengthened, while high interdependence asymmetry has effects on weakening the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict. The findings provide guidance for contract designers to draft suitable contracts in order to effectively deal with conflict. Additionally, this research implies that project managers should highlight the importance of contract in conflict management.

Keywords: construction projects, contract governance, interdependence, relationship conflict, task conflict

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5671 The Influence of Work Experience on Conflict Management Styles of Organizational Members

Authors: Faris Alghamdi

Abstract:

Identifying which conflict management styles organizational members prefer, and what variables influence these selections, is an essential component of organizational conflict management as well as human resource management, particularly in training and development strategies. This study aims to examine the relationship between work experience and preferred conflict management styles. Utilizing the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory- II Form C, data were collected from 109 full-time employees of various organizations in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between the integrating conflict management style and the length of work experience. Nevertheless, this relationship was negative, not positive as hypothesized.

Keywords: conflict management style, organizational members, work experience

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5670 Perceived Power and Conflict Management in Spousal Relationships

Authors: Dana Weimann-Saks, Inbal Peleg-Koriat

Abstract:

The perception of relative power within a couple relies on the resources (emotional-social, materialistic) each partner perceives to have. The present study examines a model in which the perceived power of the couple predicts the spouses’ conflict management. In addition, we examined whether this relationship is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. It was found that the perception of social-emotional power predicts cooperative conflict management styles of the couple. It was also found that this correlation is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. Contrary to the hypothesis, perception of social-emotional power did not predict the use of non-cooperative conflict management styles.

Keywords: spouses’ conflict management, conflict management, perceived quality of the relationship, social-emotional power

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5669 A Pilot Study on the Predictors of Child-Parent Relationship

Authors: Selen Demirtas-Zorbaz

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine if there is any relation between child–parent relationships and parental self-efficacy. The participants of this study are 208 parents, and 82,5% of them are mothers. The children’s age range are differed from 4 to 13 (x̄=7,8). The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between positive relationship with parents and parental self-efficacy (r=0.52, p < .01); and significant negative correlation between conflict with parents and parental self-efficacy (r=-0.28, p < .01). Also, findings reveal that there was no significant correlation between the time spent with the child and conflict with parents (r=-0.08, p>.05). It was also found that there was no significant correlation between the time spends with the child and positive relationship with parents (r=0.08, p > 0.5). In addition to this; regression analysis’ results indicated that parental self-efficacy is significant predictors of conflict (β=-.268, t=-4.002, p < .001) and positive relationship with parents (β =.519, t= 8.733, p < .001) whereas time spent with children is not (β =-.070, t=-1,045, p > .05 for conflict; β =.061, t=1.023, p > .05 for positive relationship with parents).

Keywords: child-parent relationship, conflict with parents, positive relationship with parents, parental efficacy

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5668 Conflict and Hunger Revisit: Evidences from Global Surveys, 1989-2020

Authors: Manasse Elusma, Thung-Hong Lin, Chun-yin Lee

Abstract:

The relationship between hunger and war or conflict remains to be discussed. Do wars or conflicts cause hunger and food scarcity, or is the reverse relationship is true? As the world becomes more peaceful and wealthier, some countries are still suffered from hunger and food shortage. So, eradicating hunger calls for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between conflict and hunger. Several studies are carried out to detect the importance of conflict or war on food security. Most of these studies, however, perform only descriptive analysis and largely use food security indicators instead of the global hunger index. Few studies have employed cross-country panel data to explicitly analyze the association between conflict and chronic hunger, including hidden hunger. Herein, this study addresses this issue and the knowledge gap. We combine global datasets to build a new panel dataset including 143 countries from 1989 to 2020. This study examines the effect of conflict on hunger with fixed effect models, and the results show that the increase of conflict frequency deteriorates hunger. Peacebuilding efforts and war prevention initiative are required to eradicate global hunger.

Keywords: armed conflict, food scarcity, hidden hunger, hunger, malnutrition

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5667 The Relationship of Employee’s Job Satisfaction and Job Performance in Service Sector in Bangkok

Authors: Vithaya Intaraphimol

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between employee’s job satisfaction and job performance of hotel’s employees in five-star hotels in Bangkok. This study used self-administration data collection from a sample of 400 employees of five-star hotels in Bangkok. The results indicated that there was a relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. In addition, dysfunctional conflict was related negatively to job satisfaction; meanwhile, functional conflict was related positively to job satisfaction. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between integrating, obliging, avoiding and compromising style and job satisfaction; however; dominating style had a negative relationship with job satisfaction and proved that job satisfaction tend to increase the positive emotion on job satisfaction in the service setting, consequently, employee has ability to deal with problems with more effectively and predictor of job satisfaction due to employee who satisfied with the job seems to remain in the organization and appearing to gain rewarding beneficial.

Keywords: conflict management, job satisfaction, job performance, service sector

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5666 The Effectiveness of Conflict Management of Factories' Employee in Thailand

Authors: Pacharaporn Lekyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the conflict management affecting the workplace and analyze the ability of the prediction of leadership of the headman and the methods to handle the conflict in an organization. The quantitative research and developed the questionnaire in order to collect information from the respondents from 200 samples from leader or manager who worked in frozen food factories in Thailand. The result analysis shows about the problem of the relationship between conflict management factors, leadership, and the confliction in organization. The emotion of the leader in the organization is not the only factor that can affect conflict management but also the emotion of surrounding people which this factor can happen all the time and shows that four out of five factors of interpersonal conflict management have affected on emotion intelligence and also shows that the behaviors of leadership have an influence on conflict management.

Keywords: conflict management, emotional intelligence, leadership, factories' employee

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5665 Examining the Factors That Mediate the Effects of Mindfulness on Conflict Resolution Strategies

Authors: Franco Ceasar Agbalog, Shintaro Yukawa

Abstract:

Mindfulness is increasingly being used as a method for resolving conflict. However, less is known about how its positive outcome develops. To better understand the underlying effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies, this study examines the potential mediating factors between them. The researchers hypothesized that Emotional Intelligence (EI) mediates the effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies due to its similar components to the benefits of mindfulness, such as awareness and control of one’s emotions, awareness and understanding of other’s emotions, and cultivation of compassion and empathy. Using a random sampling, 157 participants completed three questionnaires: Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II). Utilizing the SPSS Process, results showed a significant relationship between mindfulness and EI. However, among the five approaches to conflict resolution, only the integrating style was significantly related to EI. Following the principle of Mediation Analysis, mindfulness has an indirect effect on integrating style. Moreover, mindfulness and conflict resolution strategies were not significantly related. This is a rather surprising result because research literature has always indicated a positive relationship between the two variables. These findings imply that although integrating style is generally considered the best approach in handling conflict, each style may be appropriate depending on the situation. Mindfulness allows practitioners to have a holistic view of the conflict situation and choose the approach they think best for that specific situation. This could explain why statistically, there is no direct effect of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies. This work provides basis for the necessity to investigate the factors of conflict instead of the conflict resolution strategies; factors that can be manipulated and may be directly influenced by mindfulness.

Keywords: conflict resolution strategies, emotional intelligence, mindfulness and conflict, ROCI-II integrating style

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5664 Trust and Conflict Resolution: Relationship Building for Learning

Authors: Jeff Dickie

Abstract:

This research paper combined grounded coding and research questions with the objective to investigate conflict resolution in the classroom. The students’ answers concerning teaching were coded according to phrasal meanings which revealed concepts. These concept codes then became input data into theoretical frameworks. The investigation indicated two conflicts: whether the information was valid and whether to make the study effort which was discussed as perceptions of teacher’s competence in helping to learn. The relevant factors in helping to learn were predominately emotional. These factors were important in the negotiation process to develop relationships. Information validity seemed to be the motivator to begin and participate effectively with the learning process. In effect, confidence in the learning negotiation process with the focus towards relationship building with the subject matter seemed to be the motivator to make the study effort.

Keywords: coding, confidence, competence, conflict resolution, risk, trust, relationship building

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5663 Mobile Communication Technologies, Romantic Attachment and Relationship Quality: An Exploration of Partner Attunement

Authors: Jodie Bradnam, Mark Edwards, Bruce Watt

Abstract:

Mobile technologies have emerged as tools to create and sustain social and romantic relationships. The integration of technologies in close relationships has been of particular research interest with findings supporting the positive role of mobile phones in nurturing feelings of closeness and connection. More recently, the use of text messaging to manage conflict has become a focus of research attention. Four hundred and eleven adults in committed romantic relationships completed a series of questionnaires measuring attachment orientation, relationship quality, texting frequencies, attitudes, and response expectations. Attachment orientation, relationship length, texting for connection and disconnection were significant predictors of relationship quality, specifically relationship intimacy. Text frequency varied as a function of attachment orientation, with high attachment anxiety associated with high texting frequencies and with low relationship quality. Sending text messages of love and support was related to higher intimacy and relationship satisfaction scores, while sending critical or impersonal texts was associated with significantly lower intimacy and relationship satisfaction scores. The use of texting to manage relational conflict was a stronger negative predictor of relationship satisfaction than was the use of texting to express love and affection. Consistent with research on face-to-face communication in couples, the expression of negative sentiments via text were related to lower relationship quality, and these negative sentiments had a stronger and more enduring impact on relationship quality than did the expression of positive sentiments. Attachment orientation, relationship length and relationship status emerged as variables of interest in understanding the use of mobile technologies in romantic relationships.

Keywords: attachment, destructive conflict, intimacy, mobile communication, relationship quality, relationship satisfaction, texting

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5662 Perceived Procedural Justice and Conflict Management in Romantic Relations

Authors: Inbal Peleg Koriat, Rachel Ben-Ari

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to test individual’s conflict management style in romantic relations as a function of their perception of the extent of procedural justice in their partner behavior, and to what extant this relationship is mediated by the quality of the relations. The research procedure included two studies: The first study was a correlative study with 160 participants in a romantic relation. The goal of the first study was to examine the mediation model with self-report questionnaires. The second study was an experimental study with 241 participants. The study was designed to examine the causal connection between perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and conflict management styles. Study 1 indicated a positive connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles (integrating, compromising and obliging). In contrast, a negative connection was not found between PPJ and non-collaborative conflict management styles (avoiding, and dominating). In addition, perceived quality of the romantic relations was found to mediate the connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles. Study 2 validated the finding of Study 1 by showing that PPJ leads the individual to use compromising and integrating conflict management styles. In contrast to Study 1, Study 2 shows that a low PPJ increases the individual’s tendency to use an avoiding conflict management style. The study contributes to the rather scarce research on PPJ role in conflict management in general and in romantic relations in particular. It can provide new insights into cognitive methods of coping with conflict that encourage transformation in the conflict and a way to grow and develop both individually and as a couple.

Keywords: conflict management style, marriage, procedural justice, romantic relations

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5661 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed

Abstract:

The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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5660 Phases of Marital Conflict among Married Kuwaiti Women

Authors: Hend Almaseb

Abstract:

Gottman proposed a model of marital conflict with three phases: Agenda-Building, Arguing, and Negotiation. Among a sample of 520 married Kuwaiti women, this study examined the relationship between these phases and the following demographic variables: Level of education, Family income, Health, Occupation, and Tribal affiliation. In addition, the study 1) investigated the marital conflict phases the participants reported having experienced or are currently experiencing and 2) identified the variables that predict one of these conflict phases. The results showed a significant relationship between the following: 1) the Agenda-Building phase and Health; 2) the Arguing phase and Family income, Occupation, and Tribal Affiliation; and 3) the Negotiation phase and Level of education. In addition, a linear regression shows a substantial correlation between the two predictor variables (Level of education and Health problems) and the Agenda Building and Negotiation phases and 5) another substantial correlation between Family income and Arguing.

Keywords: clinical social work, Kuwait, marital conflict, women

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5659 Gender Role Conflict and Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Teenagers: A Study Based on High School Students from Guangdong and Yunnan

Authors: Yuan Zhang, Xin Fu, Yixin Tan

Abstract:

Gender role conflict is a key factor influencing the mental health condition of adolescents. It has a strong connection with the noticeably growing mental health crisis of high school students. This study elucidates the relationship between gender role conflict and reports of subjective well-being of teenagers through mixed-methods empirical research based on surveys conducted in two Chinese cities, namely Shenzhen and Yuxi. These two cities are from two provinces of very distinct economic and cultural backgrounds. We believe a comparison between the two cities reveals the unequally distributed social conditions in China. We found that teenagers who possess a higher degree of gender role conflict tend to exhibit more negative emotions and that this relationship is conditioned upon other important factors such as gender, only child status, and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, we discovered that the social environment that is more progressive and open to various gender roles is correlated with higher levels of subjective well-being of teenagers in Shenzhen and Yunnan.

Keywords: gender role conflict, mental health conditions, subjective well-being, social environment

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5658 The Effect of Arms Embargoes on Ongoing Armed Conflict: Are They Really Reducing Conflict Duration?

Authors: Mustafa Kirisci

Abstract:

Arms embargoes have not been adequately examined in terms of their effects on conflict duration. Prior research on arms embargoes has generally investigated the effect of arms embargoes on arms import/export practices and violations in arms embargoes, but it says little about the effect on conflict duration. This paper attempts to fill this gap and aims to investigate the effect of arms embargoes on conflict duration throughout the world. More precisely, the purpose of the paper is to understand how arms embargoes affect the duration of both internal and interstate conflicts. Given the theoretical framework, the main hypothesis of the paper is arms embargoes will have no reduction effect on conflict duration when arms transfer and region are controlled. This hypothesis is tested by using OLS regression. Results indicate that arms embargoes have no effect on both internal and interstate conflict duration. Another crucial result is that both small and major arms transfers made by the embargoed countries during the internal conflict increase the duration of the conflict, but no effect on interstate conflict duration. The final part concludes and provide explanations on what these results imply for finishing the conflict and bringing the peace.

Keywords: arms embargo, arms transfer, internal conflict, international conflict

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5657 Significance of Life Values in Relationship: A Detailed Analysis of Teenage Population

Authors: Preeti Nakhat

Abstract:

Background: Values are essential part of one's life. They are inculcated since the early years of life and shape the personality of the individual. They play a tremendous role in decision making. Teenagers are seen perplexed about the values of their life. The challenge faced by majority of the teenage population in choosing between a positive and negative value is high. The values they adopt remain throughout their life and in every decision, hence it is a crucial topic of research. Research Methodology: This research aimed at finding out the value conflict of teenagers in relations. Hypothesis of the study are: H₀- There is no significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students; H₁– There is a significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students. For the same, the standardized tool, value conflict scale by R. L. Bhardwaj has been used. The tool consists 24 questions of different life situations with multiple choice options. Findings: There is 96% variation in value conflict due to evasion vs. fortitude, dependence vs. self-reliance, selfishness vs. probity, hate vs. love, fear vs. assertion and pragmatism vs. idealism life values. There is a positive association between all the life values and value conflict of higher secondary school students. Percentages of association are: 0.17% between value conflict and evasion vs. fortitude value, 0.16% between value conflict and dependence vs. self-reliance value, 0.17% between value conflict and selfishness vs. probity value, 0.16% between value conflict and hate vs. love value, 0.17% between value conflict and fear vs. assertion, 0.17% between value conflict and pragmatism vs. idealism value. Discussions: The dilemma faced by the students regarding value conflict is high. Bewilderment of being honest or lying, of loving or hating family and friends, being pragmatic or idealistic in life decision, being selfish or selfless is seen among the students. It is the challenge for the future. Teaching of values with a practical aspect should be added in the school curriculum.

Keywords: dilemma, conflict, school, values

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5656 Mass Media and Electoral Conflict Management in Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Okpanachi Linus Odiji, Chris Ogwu Attah

Abstract:

Election is no doubt widely assumed as one of the most suitable means of resolving political quagmires even though it has never been bereft of conflict which can manifest before, during, or after polls. What, however, advances democracy and promotes electoral integrity is the existence and effectiveness of institutional frameworks for electoral conflict management. Electoral conflicts are no doubt unique in the sense that they represent the struggles of people over the control of public resources. In most cases, the stakes involved are high and emotional that they do not only undermine inter-group relationship but also threaten national security. The need, therefore, for an effectively functional conflict management apparatus becomes imperative. While at the State level, there exist numerous governmental initiatives at various electoral stages aimed at managing conflicts, this paper examines the activities of the mass media, which is another prominent stakeholder in the electoral process. Even though media influence has increased tremendously in the last decade, researchers are yet to agree on its utility in the management of conflicts. Guided by the social responsibility theory of media reporting and drawing data from observed trends in Kogi state, the paper, which context analyses the 2019 gubernatorial election coverage in the state, observes both conflict escalation and de-escalation roles in the media. To mitigate conflict reporting misrepresentation, therefore, a common approach to conflict reporting should be designed and ordered by the National Broadcasting Commission as well as the Nigerian Press Council. This should be garnished with the training of journalists on conflict reporting and development of a standard conflict reporting procedure.

Keywords: conflict management, electoral conflict, mass media, media reporting

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5655 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy

Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola

Abstract:

The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.

Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, low

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5654 Impact of Work and Family Conflict on Employee Self Esteem

Authors: Romana P. Khokhar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of work-family conflict on self-esteem. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that 1) work-family conflict has an impact on self- esteem, 2). There would be a gender difference on the variable of work family conflict. Data for this study was taken from a sample of 70 employees within the banking industry since this industry is generally associated with higher levels of work-family conflict. Statistical tests performed were regression and t-test. Self-esteem was assessed with the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Work-Family Conflict Scale (WFCS; Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. 1996) was used to assess the level of work –family conflict. The results indicated that an increase in work-family conflict resulted in lower self-esteem due to the various pressures evidenced in a complicated network of direct and indirect influences. It was also determined that there is less effect of work-family conflict on the female workers, as opposed to the male population, leading to the conclusion that in the case of the female workers the impact on self-esteem was not significant.

Keywords: work and family conflict, self-esteem, employee

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5653 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen

Abstract:

The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

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5652 Assessment of Pastoralist-Crop Farmers Conflict and Food Security of Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Salau, I. F. Ayanda, I. Afe, M. O. Adesina, N. B. Nofiu

Abstract:

Food insecurity is still a critical challenge among rural and urban households in Nigeria. The country’s food insecurity situation became more pronounced due to frequent conflict between pastoralist and crop farmers. Thus, this study assesses pastoralist-crop farmers’ conflict and food security of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to measure the food security status of the respondents, quantify pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict, determine the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers conflict on food security and describe the effective coping strategies adopted by the respondents to reduce the effect of food insecurity. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques will be used to select 250 farming households for the study. The analytical tools include descriptive statistics, Likert-scale, logistic regression, and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the percentage of households that were food secure and insecure will be known. Pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict will be measured empirically by quantifying loses due to the conflict. The logistic regression will indicate if pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict is a critical determinant of food security among farming households in the study area. The coping strategies employed by the respondents in cushioning the effects of food insecurity will also be revealed. Empirical studies on the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict on food security are rare in the literature. This study will quantify conflict and reveal the direction as well as the extent of the relationship between conflict and food security. It could contribute to the identification and formulation of strategies for the minimization of conflict among pastoralist and crop farmers in an attempt to reduce food insecurity. Moreover, this study could serve as valuable reference material for future researches and open up new areas for further researches.

Keywords: agriculture, conflict, coping strategies, food security, logistic regression

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5651 Investigating the relationship between Emotional Intelligence of principals in high schools(secondary school principals) and Teachers Conflict Management: A Case Study on secondary schools, Tehran, Iran

Authors: Amir Ahmadi, Hossein Ahmadi, Alireza Ahmadi

Abstract:

Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to empathize, persevere, control impulses, communicate clearly, make thoughtful decisions, solve problems, and work with others in a way that earns friends and success. These abilities allow an individual to recognize and regulate emotion, develop self-control, set goals, develop empathy, resolve conflicts, and develop skills needed for leadership and effective group participation. Due to the increasing complexity of organizations and different ways of thinking, attitudes and beliefs of individuals, conflict as an important part of organizational life has been examined frequently. The main point is that the conflict is not necessarily in organization, unnecessary; but it can be more creative (increase creativity), to promote innovation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between principals emotional intelligence as one of the factors affecting conflict management among teachers. This relation was analyzed through cluster sampling with a sample size consisting of 120 individuals. The results of the study showed that at the 95% level of confidence, the two secondary hypotheses (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals and use of competition and cooperation strategies of conflict management among teachers) were confirmed, but the other three secondary hypotheses (i.e. the relation between emotional intelligence of managers and use of avoidance, adaptation and adaptability strategies of conflict management among teachers) were rejected. The primary hypothesis (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals with conflict management among teachers) is supported.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, conflict, conflict management, strategies of conflict management

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5650 Gender Difference and Conflict Management Strategy Preference among Managers in Public Organizations in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: D. I. Akintayo, C. O. Aje

Abstract:

This study investigated the moderating influence of gender difference and conflict resolution strategy preference on managers` efficiency in managing industrial conflict in work organizations in South-Western Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of gender difference and conflict resolution strategy preference to managerial efficiency towards ensuring sustainable industrial peace and harmonious labour-management relations at workplaces in Nigeria. Descriptive ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of 185 respondents were selected for the study using purposive stratified sampling technique. A set of questionnaire titled ‘Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory’ (ROCI) and Managerial Conflict Efficiency Scale (MCES) were adopted for the study. The three generated hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that: A significant relationship exists between gender difference and conflict management preference of the managers(r = 0.644; P < 0.05). I t was also found that there was no significant difference between male and female managers’ conflict management strategy preference (t (181) = 11.08; P > 0.05).The finding reveals that there is no significant difference between female and male managers’ conflict management efficiency on the basis of conflict management preference of the managers (t (181) = 10.23; P > 0.05). Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that collective bargaining strategy should be encouraged as conflict resolution strategy in order to guarantee effective management of industrial conflict and harmonious labour-management relations. Also, both male and female managers should be empowered to be appointed to managerial positions and should avoid the use of coercion, competition, aggressiveness and pro-task in the course of managing industrial conflict. Rather, persuasion, compromising, relational, lobbying and participatory approaches should be employed during collective bargaining process in order to foster effective management of conflict at workplaces.

Keywords: conflict management, gender difference, managerial studies, public organization and managers, strategy preference

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5649 Opportunities for Effective Conflict Management Caused by Global Crises

Authors: Marine Kobalava

Abstract:

The article analyzes current global crises in the world, explains the causes of crises, substantiates that in the main cases the process accompanying the crisis are conflict situations. The paper argues that crises can become predictable if threats are identified and addressed by a company, organization, corporation, and others. Accordingly, mechanisms for the neutralization of conflict potential are proposed, the need to develop a communication strategy and create and redistribute information flows is justified. Conflict situations are assessed according to the types of crisis and it is considered that the conflict can become a prerequisite for the crisis. The paper substantiates the need to differentiate theories of crises and conflicts. Based on the evaluative judgment, conflict management measures are proposed taking into account institutionalization, conflict resolution norms and rules. The paper identifies the potential for conflicts created in the context of global crises and suggests local ways and mechanisms for their effective management. The involvement of the company's Public relations (PR) and relevant communication from the qualified staff is considered important. Conclusions are drawn on the problems of effective conflict management caused by global crises and recommendations for conflict resolution have been proposed.

Keywords: global crises, conflict situations, conflict identification, conflict management, conflict potential

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5648 The Impact of Character Strengths on Employee Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Work-Family Relationship

Authors: Jing Wang, Yong Wang

Abstract:

For organizational development, employee well-being is critical and has been influenced deeply by character strengths. Therefore, investigating the relationship between character strengths and employee well-being and its inner mechanism is crucial. In this study, we explored the features of Chinese employees' character strengths, studied the relationship between character strengths and employees' subjective well-being, work well-being and psychological well-being respectively, and examined the mediating effect of work-family relationship (both enrichment and conflict). An online survey was conducted. The results showed that: (1) The top five character strengths of Chinese employees were gratitude, citizenship, kindness, appreciation of beauty and excellence, justice, while the bottom five ones were creativity, authenticity, bravery, spirituality, open-mindedness. (2) Subjective well-being was significantly correlated to courage, humanity, transcendence and justice. Work well-being was significantly correlated to wisdom, courage, humanity, justice and transcendence. Psychological well-being was significantly correlated to all the above five character strengths and temperance. (3) Wisdom and humanity influenced Chinese employees’ subjective well-being through work-family enrichment. Justice enhanced psychological well-being via work-family enrichment; meanwhile, it also played a positive role in subjective well-being, work well-being, and psychological well-being by decreasing the family-work conflict. At the end of this paper, some theoretical and practical contributions to organizational management were further discussed.

Keywords: character strengths, work-family conflict, work-family enrichment, employee well-being, work well-being

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5647 Impact of Work Experience and Gender on Decisional Conflict

Authors: Mohsin Aslam Khan

Abstract:

Decision making tendency varies in people with different socio demographics. This study was conducted to identify the impact of work experience on decisional conflict and whether there is a gender differences in decisional conflict. Convenience sampling was more appropriate for this exploratory research. AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale, (1995) with cronbach alpha 0.900 was administered on sample size of 109 participants (62males, 47females). The responses were scored according to the AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale manual, (1995). The results of the study indicate that work experience has no significant impact on decisional conflict, whereas gender differences in decisional conflict illustrates significant mean score differences among male and female participants.

Keywords: decision making, decisional conflict, gender decision making, work experience

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5646 On the Use of Reliability Factors to Reduce Conflict between Information Sources in Dempster-Shafer Theory

Authors: A. Alem, Y. Dahmani, A. Hadjali, A. Boualem

Abstract:

Managing the problem of the conflict, either by using the Dempster-Shafer theory, or by the application of the fusion process to push researchers in recent years to find ways to get to make best decisions especially; for information systems, vision, robotic and wireless sensor networks. In this paper we are interested to take account of the conflict in the combination step that took the conflict into account and tries to manage such a way that it does not influence the decision step, the conflict what from reliable sources. According to [1], the conflict lead to erroneous decisions in cases where was with strong degrees between sources of information, if the conflict is more than the maximum of the functions of belief mass K > max1...n (mi (A)), then the decision becomes impossible. We will demonstrate in this paper that the multiplication of mass functions by coefficients of reliability is a decreasing function; it leads to the reduction of conflict and a good decision. The definition of reliability coefficients accurately and multiply them by the mass functions of each information source to resolve the conflict and allow deciding whether the degree of conflict. The evaluation of this technique is done by a use case; a comparison of the combination of springs with a maximum conflict without, and with reliability coefficients.

Keywords: Dempster-Shafer theory, fusion process, conflict managing, reliability factors, decision

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5645 Antecedents and Consequents of Organizational Politics: A Select Study of a Central University

Authors: Poonam Mishra, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Swami

Abstract:

Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of percieved organizational politics with three levels of antecedents (i.e., organizational level, work environment level and individual level)and its consequents simultaneously. The study addresses antecedents and consequents of percieved political behavior in the higher education sector of India with specific reference to a central university. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: A conceptual framework and hypotheses were first developed on the basis of review of previous studies on organizational politics. A questionnaire was then developed carrying 66 items related to 8-constructs and demographic characteristics of respondents. Jundegemental sampling was used to select respondents. Primary data is collected through structured questionnaire from 45 faculty members of a central university. The sample constitutes Professors, Associate Professors and Assistant Professors from various departments of the University. To test hypotheses data was analyzed statistically using partial least square-structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings: Results indicated a strong support for OP’s relationship with three of the four proposed antecedents that are, workforce diversity, relationship conflict and need for power with relationship conflict having the strongest impact. No significant relationship was found between role conflict and perception of organizational politics. The three consequences that is, intention to turnover, job anxiety, and organizational commitment are significantly impacted by perception of organizational politics. Practical Implications– This study will be helpful in motivating future research for improving the quality of higher education in India by reducing the level of antecedents that adds to the level of perception of organizational politics, ultimately resulting in unfavorable outcomes. Originality/value: Although a large number of studies on atecedents and consequents of percieved organizational politics have been reported, little attention has been paid to test all the separate but interdependent relationships simultaneously; in this paper organizational politics will be simultaneously treated as a dependent variable and same will be treated as independent variable in subsequent relationships.

Keywords: organizational politics, workforce diversity, relationship conflict, role conflict, need for power, intention to turnover, job anxiety, organizational commitment

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5644 The Russian-Ukrainian Conflict: An Imperial, Neoliberal Limbo

Authors: Anna Savchenko

Abstract:

The dissolution of the Soviet Union brought about a wave of decolonisation throughout the Soviet space in the 1990s. While this emancipation ushered in an era of reform in the newly independent states, it also opened up the opportunity for countries such as Ukraine to be (re)colonised by a different ruling power: the European Union. Ukraine’s relationship with the EU has been further complicated by the fact that the country’s political leadership has aligned itself with a Western agenda of democratisation. This article challenges the neoliberal belief that the global market can spurn democratisation by analysing the way in which market privatisation in Ukraine has allowed for mass corruption to flourish. I submit that neoliberalism, or the sheer force of the global market, is just as colonising as modern-day imperialism has proven to be by providing an analytical synthesis of Russia and Ukraine’s century-old conflict. The EU’s demonstrated inability to mediate cross-border conflict in the region foreshadows that Ukraine may have been economically colonised by another failing state.

Keywords: neoliberalism, imperealism, Russian-Ukrainian conflict, democratisation, colonisation

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5643 Perceiving Interpersonal Conflict and the Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Emily Rivera, Toni DiDona

Abstract:

The Big Five personality traits is a hierarchical classification of personality traits that applies factor analysis to a personality survey data in order to describe human personality using five broad dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness (Fetvadjiev & Van de Vijer, 2015). Research shows that personality constructs underline individual differences in processing conflict and interpersonal relations. (Graziano et al., 1996). This research explores the understudied correlation between the Big Five personality traits and perceived interpersonal conflict in the workplace. It revises social psychological literature on Big Five personality traits within a social context and discusses organizational development journal articles on the perceived efficacy of conflict tactics and approach to interpersonal relationships. The study also presents research undertaken on a survey group of 867 subjects over the age of 18 that were recruited by means of convenience sampling through social media, email, and text messaging. The central finding of this study is that only two of the Big Five personality traits had a significant correlation with perceiving interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Individuals who score higher on agreeableness and neuroticism, perceive more interpersonal conflict in the workplace compared to those that score lower on each dimension. The relationship between both constructs is worthy of research due to its everyday frequency and unique individual psycho-social consequences. This multimethod research associated the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict. Its findings that can be utilized to further understand social cognition, person perception, complex social behavior and social relationships in the work environment.

Keywords: five-factor model, interpersonal conflict, personality, The Big Five personality traits

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