Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: hunger

84 Conflict and Hunger Revisit: Evidences from Global Surveys, 1989-2020

Authors: Manasse Elusma, Thung-Hong Lin, Chun-yin Lee


The relationship between hunger and war or conflict remains to be discussed. Do wars or conflicts cause hunger and food scarcity, or is the reverse relationship is true? As the world becomes more peaceful and wealthier, some countries are still suffered from hunger and food shortage. So, eradicating hunger calls for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between conflict and hunger. Several studies are carried out to detect the importance of conflict or war on food security. Most of these studies, however, perform only descriptive analysis and largely use food security indicators instead of the global hunger index. Few studies have employed cross-country panel data to explicitly analyze the association between conflict and chronic hunger, including hidden hunger. Herein, this study addresses this issue and the knowledge gap. We combine global datasets to build a new panel dataset including 143 countries from 1989 to 2020. This study examines the effect of conflict on hunger with fixed effect models, and the results show that the increase of conflict frequency deteriorates hunger. Peacebuilding efforts and war prevention initiative are required to eradicate global hunger.

Keywords: armed conflict, food scarcity, hidden hunger, hunger, malnutrition

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83 Determinants of Self-Reported Hunger: An Ordered Probit Model with Sample Selection Approach

Authors: Brian W. Mandikiana


Homestead food production has the potential to alleviate hunger, improve health and nutrition for children and adults. This article examines the relationship between self-reported hunger and homestead food production using the ordered probit model. A sample of households participating in homestead food production was drawn from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Survey, a nationally representative cross-section. The sample selection problem was corrected using an ordered probit model with sample selection approach. The findings show that homestead food production exerts a positive and significant impact on children and adults’ ability to cope with hunger and malnutrition. Yet, on the contrary, potential gains of homestead food production are threatened by shocks such as crop failure.

Keywords: agriculture, hunger, nutrition, sample selection

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82 Eradicating Micronutrient Deficiency through Biofortification

Authors: Ihtasham Hamza


In the contemporary world, where the West is afflicted by the diseases of excess nutrition, much of the rest globe suffers at the hands of hunger. A troubling constituent of hunger is micronutrient deficiency, also called hidden hunger. Major dependence on calorie-rich diets and low diet diversification are responsible for high malnutrition rates, especially in African and Asian countries. But the dilemma isn’t immune to solutions. Highlighting the substantial cause to be sole dependence on staples for food, biofortification has emerged as a novel tool to confront the widely distributed jeopardize of hidden hunger. Biofortification potentials the better nutritional approachability to commonalities overcoming various difficulties and reaching the doorstep. The crops associated with biofortification offer a rural-based involvement that, proposal, primarily reaches these more remote populations, which comprise a majority of the malnourished in many countries, and then penetrates to urban populations as assembly overages are marketed. Initial investments in agricultural research at a central location can generate high recurrent benefits at low cost as adapted biofortified cultivars become widely available in countries across time at low recurrent costs as opposed to supplementation which is comparatively expensive and requires continued financing over time, which may be imperilled by fluctuating political curiosity.

Keywords: biofortified crops, hunger, malnutrition, agricultural practices

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81 Literature Analysis of Nutrition in South Africa and How SA Harvest Aims to Improve Nutrition

Authors: Ali Conn, Kimberly Allen


Food and nutrition play a significant role in humans. It helps them function, grow, and develop into better individuals. However, as essential as food may seem to most people, it is not the case for everyone. South Africans, for example, have been suffering from hunger and poverty for the longest time now. With the spread of the COVID-19 virus, their situations have become worse. Millions of children and their families do not have access to food, hence no proper nutrition. They could barely make ends meet, so they make sure to make the most of what little they have for their household. Fortunately, organizations like SA Harvest aim to end hunger in South Africa. However, they still need to know more about how they can help South Africans with their current diet. Currently, most of the diets are composed of maize and rice. They do not have much to spend on fruits, so these commodities are seen as a luxury. With the help of organizations like SA Harvest, South Africans will be educated and more aware of what they need to eat.

Keywords: nutrition, public health, SA Harvest, food

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80 The Limits of Charity: Advancing a Rights-based Justice Model to Remedy Poverty and Hunger

Authors: Tracy Smith-Carrier


In 1995, the World Health Organization declared that poverty was the biggest killer and the greatest cause of suffering in the world. Income is certainly a key social determinant of health, the lack of which causes innumerable health and mental health conditions. In seeking to provide relief from financial hardship for residents within their populace, states in the Global North have largely turned to the non-profit and charitable sector. The stigma and shame of accessing charity is a significant barrier for many, but what is more problematic is that the embrace of the charitable model has let governments off the hook from responding to their international human rights obligations. Although states are signatories to various human rights treaties and conventions internationally, many of these laws have not been implemented domestically. This presentation explores the limits of the charitable model in addressing poverty in countries of the Global North. Unlike in the ages passed, when poverty was thought to be an individual problem, we now know that poverty is largely systemic in nature. In this presentation, we will identify the structural determinants of poverty, outline why people are reticent to access charitable programs and services and how income security is reproduced through the charitable model, and discuss evidence-informed solutions, such as a basic income guarantee, to move beyond the charitable model in favour of a rights-based justice model. To move beyond charity, we must demand that governments recognize our fundamental human rights and address poverty and hunger using a justice model based on substantive human rights.

Keywords: basic income, charity, poverty, income security, hunger, food security, social justice, human rights

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79 Assessment of Households' Food Security and Hunger Level across Communities in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo-Victoria Tobi Dada, Dada Emmanuel


This study assessed households’ food security and hunger levels among different communities with varying educational and economic background in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and its environment. It also examined the impacts of varying demography on the household food security level in the area. This was with a view to providing information on the food security status of the subjects within the study area. Ten different communities with varying demography (Parakin, Mokuro, Ilare, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Staff Quarters, Ibadan Road, Aba-Iya Gani, Eleweran, Iraye, Boosa, and Eku-Isobo) were identified within the study area. Fieldwork was then carried out from 7th to 14th of March, 2016 in each of these communities through survey of market prices of food stuff, diet, and nutrition, social well-being, food accessibility and affordability as well as price fluctuation and variation in household’s social background. Selection of households for the survey was done using stratified random sampling method. Key informants included community heads, landlords, tenants, and household heads. Similarly, information on food security levels with respect to demographic backgrounds was obtained from the use of modified Food and Hunger Insecurity Module (FHIM) structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to one percent of the households’ population per community. The results showed that communities such as Parakin and OAU Senior Staff Quarters were dominated by civil servants, while community such as Boosa was dominated by artisans. Respondents earning between ₦11,000 and ₦20,000 per month, during the study period, had the highest percentage across the selected communities. The household food security indices showed that about 41% of the investigated respondents could not guarantee their household food for a month, while 18% reduced or skipped meals. There were positive significant relationships between monthly income (F-value = 132.04), educational status (F-value = 102.30), occupation (F-value = 104.05) and food budget (F-value = 122.09), all at p < 0.05. However, there was no significant relationship between the monthly food budget and household sizes (t-value = -1.4074, p > 0.05). Food secured households’ had the household heads with a higher level of educational attainment. The study concluded that large variations which existed between socio-economic and educational background among the communities had significant effects on households’ food security level in the study area.

Keywords: food security, households, hunger level, market prices

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78 Can Empowering Women Farmers Reduce Household Food Insecurity? Evidence from Malawi

Authors: Christopher Manyamba


Women in Malawi produce perform between 50-70 percent of all agricultural tasks and yet the majority remain food insecure. The aim of his paper is to build on existing mixed evidence that indicates that empowering women in agriculture is conducive to improving food security. The WEAI is used to provide evidence on the relationship between women’s empowerment in agriculture and household food security. A multinomial logistic regression is applied to the Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) components and the Household Hunger Scale. The overall results show that the WEAI can be used to determine household food insecurity; however it has to be contextually adapted. Assets ownership, credit, group membership and leisure time are positively associated with food security. Contrary to other literature, empowerment in having control and decisions on income indicate negative association with household food security. These results could potentially better inform public, private and civil society stakeholders’ dialogues in creating the most effective and sustainable interventions to help women attain long-term food security.

Keywords: food security, gender, empowerment, agriculture index, framework for African food security, household hunger scale

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77 Impact of Unconditional Cash Transfer Scheme on the Food Security Status of the Elderly in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: R. O. Babatunde, O. M. Igbalajobi, F. Matambalya


Moderate economic growth in developing and emerging countries has led to improvement in the food consumption and nutrition situation in the last two decades. Nevertheless, about 870 million people, with a quarter of them from Sub-Saharan Africa, are still suffering from hunger worldwide. As part of measures to reduce the widespread poverty and hunger, cash transfer programmes are now being implemented in many countries of the world. While nationwide cash transfer schemes are few in Sub-Saharan Africa generally, the available ones are more concentrated in East and Southern Africa. Much of the available literature on social protection had focused on the poverty impact of cash transfer schemes at the household level, with the larger proportion originating from Latin America. On the contrary, much less empirical studies have been conducted on the poverty impact of cash transfer in Sub-Saharan Africa, let alone on the food security and nutrition impact. To fill this gap in knowledge, this paper examines the impact of cash transfer on food security in Nigeria. As a case study, the paper analysed the Ekiti State Cash Transfer Scheme (ECTS). ECTS is an unconditional transfer scheme which was established in 2011 to directly provide cash transfer to elderly persons aged 65 years and above in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Using survey data collected in 2013, we analysed the impact of the scheme on food availability and dietary diversity of the beneficiary households. Descriptive and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) techniques were used to estimate the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) and Average Treatment Effect on the Treated (ATT) among the beneficiary and control groups. Thereafter, a model to test for the impact of participation in the cash transfer scheme on calorie availability and dietary diversity was estimated. The results indicate that while households in the sample are clearly vulnerable, there were statistically significant differences between the beneficiary and control groups. For instance, monthly expenditure, calorie availability and dietary diversity were significantly larger among the beneficiary and consequently, the prevalence and depth of hunger were lower in the group. Econometric results indicate that the cash transfer has a positive and significant effect on food availability and dietary diversity in the households. Expanding the coverage of the present scheme to cover all eligible households in the country and incorporating cash transfer into a comprehensive hunger reduction policy will make it to have a greater impact at improving food security among the most vulnerable households in the country.

Keywords: calorie availability, cash transfers, dietary diversity, propensity score matching

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76 Increasing Yam Production as a Means of Solving the Problem of Hunger in Nigeria

Authors: Samual Ayeni, A. S. Akinbani


At present when the price of petroleum is going down beyond bearable level, there is a need to diversify the economy towards arable crop production since Nigeria is an agrarian country. Yam plays prominent role in solving the problem of hunger in Nigeria. There is scarcity of information on the effect of fertilizers in increasing the yield of yam and maintaining soil properties in South Western Nigeria. This study was therefore set up to determine fertilizer effect on properties and yield of yam. The experiment was conducted at Adeyemi College of Education Teaching and Research Farm to compare the effect of organic, Organomineral and mineral fertilizers on yield of yam. Ten treatments were used 10t/ha Wood Ash, 10t/ha Cattle Dung, 10t/ha Poultry Manure, 10t/ha Manufactured Organic, 10t/ha Organomineral Fertilizer, 400kg/ha NPK, 400kg/ha SSP, 400kg/ha Urea and control with treatment. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Compared with control, Organomineral fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) increased the soil moisture content, poultry manure, wood ash significantly decreased (< 0.05) the bulk density. Application of 10t/ha Organomineral fertilizer recorded the highest increase in the yield of yam among the treatments.

Keywords: organomineral fertilizer, organic fertilizer, SSP, bulk density

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75 Safety, Healthy, Intact, and Halal as New Indonesia Policy on Food Security and Safety to Support SDG'S: Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Ramadhan Febriansyah, Sarah Novianti, Santi Agustini


Indonesia is a big country with Moslem population. The government must fulfill all needs of the people. However, we do not have a good policy yet especially on healthy, safety and halal food. We try to offer a new solution to overcome this with ASUH (Aman, Sehat, Utuh, Halal) or in English is SHIH (Safe, Healthy, Intact, Halal) as alternative Indonesian policy on food security. This policy is Indonesian Government’s commitment to support Sustainability Development Goals program for the zero hunger (end hunger, to achieve food security and improved nutrition for Indonesian people, of course, to promote sustainable agriculture). Hopefully, it not only can increasing quality on food especially on livestock goods (meat, egg, milk) but also to guarantee the halal food. However, this policy can be an example to others country especially Moslem countries to support SDG’s programs. This research conducted means of the descriptive method; the authors find compare the secondary data obtained from journals, textbook and scientific articles in order to determine the factors that influence food safety and food security. Relevant data used and contain a description of SDG’s as well as about the system food safety and food security that SHIH (Safe, Healthy, Intact and Halal) so these ideas can be implemented.

Keywords: food safety, food security, food sovereignty, halal SDG's

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74 Nutritional Evaluation of Pregnant Women in Nairobi, Kenya for Implementation of a Probiotic Yogurt Program

Authors: Sharareh Hekmat, Michelle Lane


Pregnancy during adolescence affects both the growth and development of mother and baby, particularly in low socioeconomic and food insecure areas. This mixed methods study is aimed at discovering a need for a community-based probiotic yogurt program to assist pregnant women in the Mukuru slum Nairobi, Kenya. Surveys were conducted with pregnant women (14-25 years old, n=43), which included questionnaires on dietary intake, food access, and health/quality of life perception. The frequency and means procedure was used to analyze maternal characteristics, Women’s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) and Household Hunger Scale. 24-hour recalls were analyzed via ESHA Food Processor, and median nutrient intakes were reported as a percent of recommendations. An environmental scan was conducted to assess food availability, accessibility, and quality. WDDS reflected a low-moderate diet variation (3.86 food groups out of 9, SD ± 1.3) among the women. The 24-hour recall suggested an inadequate intake of many nutrients, most significantly B12, potassium and calcium. 86% of women reported little to no household hunger. However, the environmental scan revealed low quality and poor sanitation of food. This study provides evidence that a probiotic program would be desirable, and contribute to the nutritional status of women in the Mukuru community.

Keywords: dietary diversity, pregnant women, probiotics, urban slum, Kenya

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73 Women and Food Security: Evidence from Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2011

Authors: Abdullah Al. Morshed, Mohammad Nahid Mia


Introduction: Food security refers to the availability of food and a person’s access to it. It is a complex sustainable development issue, which is closely related to under-nutrition. Food security, in turn, can widely affect the living standard, and is rooted in poverty and leads to poor health, low productivity, low income, food shortage, and hunger. The study's aim was to identify the most vulnerable women who are in insecure positions. Method: 17,842 married women were selected for analysis from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Food security defined as dichotomous variables of skipped meals and eaten less food at least once in the last year. The outcome variables were cross-tabulated with women's socio-demographic characteristics and chi2 test was applied to see the significance. Logistic regression models were applied to identify the most vulnerable groups in terms of food security. Result: Only 18.5% of women said that they ever had to skip meals in the last year. 45.7% women from low socioeconomic status had skip meal for at least once whereas only 3.6% were from women with highest socioeconomic status. Women meal skipping was ranged from 1.4% to 34.2% by their educational status. 22% of women were eaten less food during the last year. The rate was higher among the poorest (51.6%), illiterate (39.9%) and household have no electricity connection (38.1) in compared with richest (4.4%), higher educated (2.0%), and household has electricity connection (14.0%). The logistic regression analysis indicated that household socioeconomic status, and women education show strong gradients to skip meals. Poorest have had higher odds (20.9) than richest and illiterate women had 7.7 higher odds than higher educated. In terms of religion, Christianity was 2.3 times more likely to skip their meals than Islam. On the other hand, a similar trend was observed in our other outcome variable eat less food. Conclusion: In this study we able to identify women with lower economics status and women with no education were mostly suffered group from starvation.

Keywords: food security, hunger, under-nutrition, women

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72 Crop Losses, Produce Storage and Food Security, the Nexus: Attaining Sustainable Maize Production in Nigeria

Authors: Charles Iledun Oyewole, Harira Shuaib


While fulfilling the food security of an increasing population like Nigeria remains a major global concern, more than one-third of crop harvested is lost or wasted during harvesting or in postharvest operations. Reducing the harvest and postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food production and high food import bill, which has had debilitating effects on the country’s economy. One of the goals of Nigeria’s agricultural development policy is to ensure that, the nation produces enough food and be less dependent on importation so as to ensure adequate and affordable food for all. Maize could fill the food gap in Nigeria’s effort to beat hunger and food insecurity. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. Maize grains constitute primary source of food for large percentage of the Nigerian populace, thus a considerable waste of this valuable food pre and post-harvest constitutes such a major agricultural bottleneck; that the reduction of pre and post-harvest losses is now a common food security strategy. In surveys conducted, as much as 60% maize outputs can be lost on the field and during the storage stage due to technical inefficiency. Field losses due to rodent damage alone can account for between 10% - 60% grain losses depending on the location. While the use of scientific storage methods can reduce losses below 2% in storage, timely harvesting of crop can check losses on the fields resulting from rodent damage or pest infestation. A push for increased crop production must be complemented by available and affordable post-harvest technologies that will reduce losses on farmers’ fields as well as in storage.

Keywords: government policy, maize, population increase, storage, sustainable food production, yield, yield losses

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71 Hunger and Health: The Acceptability and Development of Health Coaching in the Food Pantry Environment

Authors: Kelsey Fortin, Susan Harvey


The intersection between hunger and health outcomes is beginning to gain traction among the research community. With new interventions focusing on collaborations between the medical and social service sectors, this study aimed to understand the acceptability and approach of a health coaching intervention within a county-wide Midwest food pantry. Through formative research, the study used mixed methods to review secondary data and conduct surveys and semi-structured interviews with food pantry clients (n=30), staff (n=7), and volunteers (n=10). Supplemental secondary data collected and provided by pantry staff were reviewed to understand the broader pantry context of clientele health and health behaviors, annual food donations, and current pantry programming. Results from secondary data showed that the broader pantry client population reported high rates of chronic disease, low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and poor self-reported health, while annual donation data showed increases in produce availability on pantry shelves. This disconnect between produce availability, client health status, and behaviors was supported in the current study, with pantry staff and volunteers reporting lack of knowledge in produce selection and preparation being amongst the most common client inquiries and barriers to healthy food selection. Additional supports to secondary data came from pantry clients in the current study through self-reported high rates of both individual (60%, n=18) and household (43%, n=13 ) disease diagnosis, low consumption of fruits and vegetables averaging zero to one servings of vegetables (67%, n=20) and fruits (47%, n=14) per day, and low levels of physical activity averaging zero to 120 minutes per week (67%, n=20). Further, pantry clients provided health coaching programmatic recommendations through interviews with feedback such as non-judgmental coaching, accountability measures, and providing participant incentives as considerations for future program design and approach. Volunteers and staff reported the need for client education in food preparation, basic nutrition and physical activity, and the need for additional health expertise to educate and respond to diet related nutrition recommendations. All three stakeholder groups supported hosting a health coach within the pantry to focused on nutrition, physical activity, and health programming, with one client stating, 'I am hoping it really works out [the health coaching program]. I think it would be great for something like this to be offered for someone that isn’t knowledgeable like me.' In conclusion, high rates of chronic disease, partnered with low food, nutrition, and physical activity literacy among pantry clients, demonstrates the need to address health behaviors. With all three stakeholder groups showing acceptability of a health coaching program, partnered with existing literature showing health coaching success as a behavior change intervention, further research should be conducted to pilot the design and implementation of such a program in the pantry setting.

Keywords: food insecurity, formative research, food pantries, health coaching, hunger and health

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70 A Shift in Approach from Cereal Based Diet to Dietary Diversity in India: A Case Study of Aligarh District

Authors: Abha Gupta, Deepak K. Mishra


Food security issue in India has surrounded over availability and accessibility of cereal which is regarded as the only food group to check hunger and improve nutrition. Significance of fruits, vegetables, meat and other food products have totally been neglected given the fact that they provide essential nutrients to the body. There is a need to shift the emphasis from cereal-based approach to a more diverse diet so that aim of achieving food security may change from just reducing hunger to an overall health. This paper attempts to analyse how far dietary diversity level has been achieved across different socio-economic groups in India. For this purpose, present paper sets objectives to determine (a) percentage share of different food groups to total food expenditure and consumption by background characteristics (b) source of and preference for all food items and, (c) diversity of diet across socio-economic groups. A cross sectional survey covering 304 households selected through proportional stratified random sampling was conducted in six villages of Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on amount of food consumed, source of consumption and expenditure on food (74 food items grouped into 10 major food groups) was collected with a recall period of seven days. Per capita per day food consumption/expenditure was calculated through dividing consumption/expenditure by household size and number seven. Food variety score was estimated by giving 0 values to those food groups/items which had not been eaten and 1 to those which had been taken by households in last seven days. Addition of all food group/item score gave result of food variety score. Diversity of diet was computed using Herfindahl-Hirschman index. Findings of the paper show that cereal, milk, roots and tuber food groups contribute a major share in total consumption/expenditure. Consumption of these food groups vary across socio-economic groups whereas fruit, vegetables, meat and other food consumption remain low and same. Estimation of dietary diversity show higher concentration of diet due to higher consumption of cereals, milk, root and tuber products and dietary diversity slightly varies across background groups. Muslims, Scheduled caste, small farmers, lower income class, food insecure, below poverty line and labour families show higher concentration of diet as compared to their counterpart groups. These groups also evince lower mean intake of number of food item in a week due to poor economic constraints and resultant lower accessibility to number of expensive food items. Results advocate to make a shift from cereal based diet to dietary diversity which not only includes cereal and milk products but also nutrition rich food items such as fruits, vegetables, meat and other products. Integrating a dietary diversity approach in food security programmes of the country would help to achieve nutrition security as hidden hunger is widespread among the Indian population.

Keywords: dietary diversity, food Security, India, socio-economic groups

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69 Nutritional Status of Food Insecure Students, UWC

Authors: E. C. Swart, E. Kunneke


Background: Disparities in food security exist between communities and households across the country, reflecting continuing social and economic inequalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of food insecurity amongst UWC students. Method: Cross-sectional study recruited 200 students via email and cellphone from an ICS generated list of randomly selected students aged 18-25. Data collection took place during the first two weeks of term 3. Individual appointments were made with consenting participants and conducted in English by trained BSc Dietetics students. Data was analysed using SPSS. The hunger scale used by Stats SA (October 2010) was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a single 24hr recall. Results: Sixty-three percent of the students reported that they do experience some food insecurity whilst 14.5% reported to go hungry due to inadequate access to food. Coping mechanisms during periods of food insecurity include: Asking a friend, neighbour, family member (40%); Borrow (15%); Steal (none); Casual jobs (12%). Anthropometric status of students did not differ statistically significantly by food security status. A statistically significantly greater proportion of Xhosa speaking students reported inadequate money for food. Students residing in residences off campus appear to be least food secure in terms of money available and limiting food intake, whilst those residing at home are less food insecure. Similar proportions of students who receive bursaries or whose parents are paying reported going hungry whilst those who supports themselves never goes hungry. Mean nutrient intake during the previous 24 hours of students who reported inadequate resources to buy food, who eat less due to inadequate resources and who goes hungry only differed statistically significantly for Vitamin B (go hungry) and for fibre (money shortage). In general the nutrient intake is lower for those who reported to eat less and go hungry except for added sugar, vitamin A and folate (go hungry), and energy, fibre, iron, riboflavin and folate (eat less). For students who reported to have inadequate money to buy food, the mean nutrient intake was higher except for calcium and thiamin. The mean body mass index of this group of students was also higher even though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Hunger is present on campus however a single 24hr recall did not confirm statistically significant lower nutrient intakes for students who reported different levels of food insecurity.

Keywords: anthropometry, dietary intake, nutritional status, students

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68 Cryptosystems in Asymmetric Cryptography for Securing Data on Cloud at Various Critical Levels

Authors: Sartaj Singh, Amar Singh, Ashok Sharma, Sandeep Kaur


With upcoming threats in a digital world, we need to work continuously in the area of security in all aspects, from hardware to software as well as data modelling. The rise in social media activities and hunger for data by various entities leads to cybercrime and more attack on the privacy and security of persons. Cryptography has always been employed to avoid access to important data by using many processes. Symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography have been used for keeping data secrets at rest as well in transmission mode. Various cryptosystems have evolved from time to time to make the data more secure. In this research article, we are studying various cryptosystems in asymmetric cryptography and their application with usefulness, and much emphasis is given to Elliptic curve cryptography involving algebraic mathematics.

Keywords: cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptography

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67 Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, '4P’s': Breaking the Vicious Poverty Cycle

Authors: Bernadette F. De La Cruz, Susan Marie R. Dela Cruz, Georgia D. Demavibas


Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P) is a conditional cash transfer program in the Philippines pay extremely poor household-beneficiaries in order to fulfill the country’s commitment to the number one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). 4P's send 10,235,256 school children aged 6-18 from a total of 4,353,597 registered households with an average of two to three children. We analyze this program in Iloilo, Philippines. We show that this program can be made efficient by selecting beneficiaries and calibrating transfer for a maximum breaking of intergenerational poverty cycle of hunger, health and achieve higher education.

Keywords: ESGP-PA, millennium development goals, house hold beneficiaries, cash transfer

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66 Food for Health: Understanding the Importance of Food Safety in the Context of Food Security

Authors: Carmen J. Savelli, Romy Conzade


Background: Access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food is a basic human necessity, required to sustain life and promote good health. Food safety and food security are therefore inextricably linked, yet the importance of food safety in this relationship is often overlooked. Methodologies: A literature review and desk study were conducted to examine existing frameworks for discussing food security, especially from an international perspective, to determine the entry points for enhancing considerations for food safety in national and international policies. Major Findings: Food security is commonly understood as the state when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Conceptually, food security is built upon four pillars including food availability, access, utilization and stability. Within this framework, the safety of food is often wrongly assumed as a given. However, in places where food supplies are insufficient, coping mechanisms for food insecurity are primarily focused on access to food without considerations for ensuring safety. Under such conditions, hygiene and nutrition are often ignored as people shift to less nutritious diets and consume more potentially unsafe foods, in which chemical, microbiological, zoonotic and other hazards can pose serious, acute and chronic health risks. While food supplies might be safe and nutritious, if consumed in quantities insufficient to support normal growth, health and activity, the result is hunger and famine. Recent estimates indicate that at least 842 million people, or roughly one in eight, still suffer from chronic hunger. Even if people eat enough food that is safe, they will become malnourished if the food does not provide the proper amounts of micronutrients and/or macronutrients to meet daily nutritional requirements, resulting in under- or over-nutrition. Two billion people suffer from one or more micronutrient deficiencies and over half a billion adults are obese. Access to sufficient amounts of nutritious food is not enough. If food is unsafe, whether arising from poor quality supplies or inadequate treatment and preparation, it increases the risk of foodborne infections such as diarrhoea. 70% of diarrhoea episodes occurring annually in children under five are due to biologically contaminated food. Conclusions: An integrated approach is needed where food safety and nutrition are systematically introduced into mainstream food system policies and interventions worldwide in order to achieve health and development goals. A new framework, “Food for Health” is proposed to guide policy development and requires all three aspects of food security to be addressed in balance: sufficiency, nutrition and safety.

Keywords: food safety, food security, nutrition, policy

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65 Securing Land Rights for Food Security in Africa: An Appraisal of Links Between Smallholders’ Land Rights and the Right to Adequate Food in Ethiopia

Authors: Husen Ahmed Tura


There are strong links between secure land rights and food security in Africa. However, as land is owned by governments, land users do not have adequate legislative protection. This article explores normative and implementation gaps in relation to small-scale farmers’ land rights under the Ethiopia’s law. It finds that the law facilitates eviction of small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples from their land without adequate alternative means of livelihood. It argues that as access to land and other natural resources is strongly linked to the right to adequate food, Ethiopia should reform its land laws in the light of its legal obligations under international human rights law to respect, protect and fulfill the right to adequate food and ensure freedom from hunger.

Keywords: smallholder, secure land rights , food security, right to food, land grabbing, forced evictions

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64 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan


About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

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63 Ways to Define the Most Sustainable Actions for Water Shortage Prevention in Mega Cities, Especially in Developing Countries

Authors: Keivan Karimlou, Nemat Hassani, Abdollah Rashidi Mehrabadi


Climate change, industrial bloom, population growth and mismanagement are the most important factors that lead to water shortages around the world. Water shortages often lead to forced immigration, war, and thirst and hunger, especially in developing countries. One of the simplest solutions to solve the water shortage issues around the world is transferring water from one watershed to another; however it may not be a suitable solution. Water managers around the world use supply and demand management methods to decrease the incidence of water shortage in a sustainable manner. But as a matter of economic constraints, they must define a method to select the best possible action to reduce and limit water shortages. The following paper recognizes different kinds of criteria to select the best possible policy for reducing water shortage in mega cities by examining a comprehensive literature review.

Keywords: criteria, management, shortage, sustainable, water

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62 Analyzing a Human Rights Approach to Poverty and Development Goals in the ASEAN Region

Authors: Nithya Devi


Poverty, hunger and water scarcity are threats to human rights and are assaults on human dignity. The very existence of man is questioned when his basic rights are violated. Addressing this social phenomenon should be a key objective of any human rights discourse. The origins of these problems have various root causes. For Asia, colonisation was an essential factor that caused great inequalities in the distribution of wealth. In the post-colonial era, the colonised states were developing nations grappling with these issues. Today, some of the developing states have progressed to developed nations. However, others remain as economically vulnerable countries. Within states, the widening income gap poses further threat to human rights. Hence ASEAN states have prioritised socio-economic rights, particularly basic needs, in the human rights discourse in this region. To date, poverty and development goals are given primary importance. This paper seeks to show how a human rights approach has dealt with poverty and development goals in this region and evaluates its effectiveness in addressing these concerns.

Keywords: ASEAN, development, human rights, poverty

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61 Corruption and the Entrenchment of the Rule of Law in Nigeria

Authors: Grace Titilayo, Kolawole-Amao


Influence and authority of law within society should be respected by all and sundry regardless of individual status. Rule of law implies that every citizen is subject to the law. In a society governed by the rule of law, government and its officials and agents are also held subject to and accountable under the law. Law should not be employed to suit individual tenets. Where the rule of law operates, the government is the government of law and not of men. Corruption is a factor that kills the growth of the rule of law. Where corruption flourishes, the rule of law fails, simply put, corruption is a threat to the rule of law. It bastardized and undermines the rule of law and good governance principles - where men rule at their discretion rather than the use of the rule of law which makes governance processes ineffective. Corruption is prevalent all over the world, and has extremely far reaching effects. Many of the world’s greatest challenges have been amplified by corruption, for example poverty, unequal distribution of wealth and resources, and world hunger and it weakens the application and the entrenchment of the rule of law. It saps citizens' trust in their governments and undercuts government credibility. This paper will discuss the rule of law in the present democratic system in Nigeria, the impact of corruption on the rule of law in Nigeria and how corruption undermines and subverts the entrenchment of the rule of law in the present day Nigeria.

Keywords: rule of law, corruption, Nigeria, influence, authority

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60 Functioning of Public Distribution System and Calories Intake in the State of Maharashtra

Authors: Balasaheb Bansode, L. Ladusingh


The public distribution system is an important component of food security. It is a massive welfare program undertaken by Government of India and implemented by state government since India being a federal state; for achieving multiple objectives like eliminating hunger, reduction in malnutrition and making food consumption affordable. This program reaches at the community level through the various agencies of the government. The paper focuses on the accessibility of PDS at household level and how the present policy framework results in exclusion and inclusion errors. It tries to explore the sanctioned food grain quantity received by differentiated ration cards according to income criterion at household level, and also it has highlighted on the type of corruption in food distribution that is generated by the PDS system. The data used is of secondary nature from NSSO 68 round conducted in 2012. Bivariate and multivariate techniques have been used to understand the working and consumption of food for this paper.

Keywords: calories intake, entitle food quantity, poverty aliviation through PDS, target error

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59 Status of India towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

Authors: Rupali Satsangi


14 years ago, leaders from every country agreed on a vision for the future – a world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival prospects for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunities for women, and a healthier environment; a world in which developed and developing countries work in partnership for the betterment of all. This vision took the shape of eight Millennium Development Goals, which provide countries around the world a framework for development and time-bound targets by which progress can be measured. However, India has found 35 of the indicators as relevant to India. India’s MDG-framework has been contextualized through a concordance with the existing official indicators of corresponding dimensions in the national statistical system. The present study based on secondary data analyzed the status of India towards achieving the MDGs after reviewing the data study find out that India can miss the MDGs Bus in women health, sanitation and global partnership. These goals were less addressed by India in his policies and takeoffs.

Keywords: millennium development goals, national statistical system, global partnership, healthier environment

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58 Geographic Information Systems as a Tool to Support the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Gulnara N. Nabiyeva, Stephen M. Wheeler


Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a multipurpose computer-based tool that provides a sophisticated ability to map and analyze data on different spatial layers. However, GIS is far more easily applied in some policy areas than others. This paper seeks to determine the areas of sustainable development, including environmental, economic, and social dimensions, where GIS has been used to date to support efforts to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and to discuss potential areas where it might be used more. Based on an extensive analysis of published literature, we ranked the SDGs according to how frequently GIS has been used to study related policy. We found that SDG#15 “Life on Land” is most often addressed with GIS, following by SDG#11 “Sustainable Cities and Communities”, and SDG#13 “Climate Action”. On the other hand, we determined that SDG#2 “Zero Hunger”, SDG#8 “Decent Work and Economic Growth”, and SDG#16 “Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions” are least addressed with GIS. The paper outlines some specific ways that GIS might be applied to the SDGs least linked to this tool currently.

Keywords: GIS, GIS application, sustainable community development, sustainable development goals

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57 Challenges of Good Government in Enhancing Food Security for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Egboja Simon, Agi Sunday


One of the most important key to success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self - sufficiency and independence. There have been challenges in food security related issues in many developing nations. The problems may be as a result of rise in food price across the globe diminishing global food reserve and erratic weather patterns among other factors. In Nigeria several Agricultural politics have been formulated to curtail food security challenges. Unfortunately, these policies have not yielded the deserved results of increase food production. This paper is designed to identify the various challenges confronting food security in Nigeria with a view of highlighting the reasons that accounting for these problems. This paper also suggests ways of addressing these challenges and concludes by saying that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seed and agro chemicals education of the farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of villages based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produce should be encouraged.

Keywords: governance, security, food, development, conflict, hunger, society, sustainability

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56 Mean Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Adequacy Ratio in India: Occurrence of Hidden Hunger in Indians

Authors: Abha Gupta, Deepak K. Mishra


The focus of food security studies in India has been on the adequacy of calories and its linkage with poverty level. India currently being undergoing a massive demographic and epidemiological transition has demonstrated a decline in average physical activity with improved mechanization and urbanization. Food consumption pattern is also changing with decreasing intake of coarse cereals and a marginal increase in the consumption of fruits, vegetables and meat products resulting into a nutrition transition in the country. However, deficiency of essential micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals is rampant despite their growing importance in fighting back with lifestyle and other modern diseases. The calorie driven studies can hardly tackle the complex problem of malnutrition. This paper fills these research lacuna and analyses mean intake of different major and micro-nutrients among different socio-economic groups and adequacy of these nutrients from recommended dietary allowance. For the purpose, a cross-sectional survey covering 304 households selected through proportional stratified random sampling was conducted in six villages of Aligarh district of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Data on quantity consumed of 74 food items grouped into 10 food categories with a recall period of seven days was collected from the households and converted into energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C using standard guidelines of National Institute of Nutrition. These converted nutrients were compared with recommended norms given by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau. Per capita nutrient adequacy was calculated by dividing mean nutrient intake by the household size and then by comparing it with recommended norm. Findings demonstrate that source of both macro and micro-nutrients are mainly cereals followed by milk, edible oil and sugar items. Share of meat in providing essential nutrients is very low due to vegetarian diet. Vegetables, pulses, nuts, fruits and dry fruits are a poor source for most of the nutrients. Further analysis evinces that intake of most of the nutrients is higher than the recommended norm. Riboflavin is the only vitamin whose intake is less than the standard norm. Poor group, labour, small farmers, Muslims, scheduled caste demonstrate comparatively lower intake of all nutrients than their counterpart groups, though, they get enough macro and micro-nutrients significantly higher than the norm. One of the major reasons for higher intake of most of the nutrients across all socio-economic groups is higher consumption of monotonous diet based on cereals and milk. Most of the nutrients get their major share from cereals particularly wheat and milk intake. It can be concluded from the analysis that although there is adequate intake of most of the nutrients in the diet of rural population yet their source is mainly cereals and milk products depicting a monotonous diet. Hence, more efforts are needed to diversify the diet by giving more focus to the production of other food items particularly fruits, vegetables and pulse products. Awareness among the population, more accessibility and incorporating food items other than cereals in government social safety programmes are other measures to improve food security in India.

Keywords: hidden hunger, India, nutrients, recommended norm

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55 Comparison of Carcass Weight of Pure and Mixed Races Namebar 30-Day Squabs

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad


The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare carcass weight of pure and mixed races Namebar 30-day pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, and some auxiliary variables. In this paper, 68 pieces of pigeons as 34 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. A natural incubation was done from each pair. All produced chickens were slaughtered at 30 days age after 12 hours hunger. Then their carcasses were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. A covariance analysis was used since there were many auxiliary variables and unequal observations. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Mean weight of carcass in pure race (Namebar-Namebar) with 8 records, 219.5±61.3 gr and mixed races of Kabood-Namebar, Parvazy-Namebar, Tizpar-Namebar, Namebar-Kabood, Namebar-Tizpar, and Namebar-Parvazy with 8, 10, 8, 12, 12, and 10 records were 369.9±54.6, 338.3±52.7, 224.5±73.6, 142.3±67.8, 155.6±56.2, and 170.2±55 gr, respectively.. Difference carcass weight of 30-day of Namebar-Namebar race with Namebar-Kabood, Namebar-Parvazy, Namebar-Tizpar, Parvazy-Namebar and Tizpar-Namebar mixed races was not significant, and was significant in level 5% with Kabood- Namebar (P < 0.05). Effect of sex and age were also significant in 1% level (P < 0.01), but mutual effect of sex and race was not significant. The results showed that most and least weights of carcass belonged to Kabood-Namebar and Namebar-Kabood.

Keywords: squab, Namebar race, 30-day carcass weight, pigeons

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