Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5209

Search results for: groups

5209 Illicit Arms and the Emergence of Armed Groups in Nigeria

Authors: Halilu Babaji, Adamu Buba


Illicit arms and the emergence of armed groups have witnessed unprecedented situations of political uncertainties in Nigeria, and the twenty-first century globalisation has established the process that has benefited a good number of militia groups and thereby boosting both illicit arms movement and the thriving of terrorist groups, which are largely responsible for the longstanding threat to the national security and stability of the country. This has unleashed unforeseen consequences on the entire Sub-region, following an inflow of weapons and armed fighter which are motivated by weak governance, insecurity and poverty. The social, economic and political environments make it a fertile breeding ground for the penetration and development of terrorist groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: arms, emergence, insecurity, groups

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
5208 Armed Groups and Intra State Conflict: A Study on the Egyptian Case

Authors: Ghzlan Mahmoud Abdel Aziz


This case study aims to identify the intrastate conflicts between the nation state and armed groups. Nowadays, most wars weaken states against armed groups. Thus, it is very important to negotiate with such groups in order to reinforce the law for the protection of victims. These armed groups are the cause of conflicts and they are related with many of humanitarian issues that result out of conflicts. In this age of rivalry; terrorists, insurgents, or transnational criminal parties have surfaced to the top as a reaction to these armed groups in an effort to set up a new world order. Moreover, the intra state conflicts became increasingly treacherous than the interstate conflicts, particularly when nation state systems deal with armed groups which try to influence the state. The unexpected upraising of the Arab Spring during 2011 in parts of the Middle East and North Africa formed various patterns of conflicts. The events of the Arab Spring resulted in current and long term change across the region. Significant modifications in the level, strength and period of armed conflict around the world have been made. Egypt was in the center of these events. It has fought back the armed groups under the name of terrorism and spread common disorder and violence among civilians. On this note, this study focuses on the problem of the transformation in the methods of organized violence within one state rather than between two state or more and analyzes the objectives, strategies, and internal composition of armed groups and the environments that foster them, with a focus on the Egyptian case.

Keywords: armed groups, conflicts, Egyptian armed forces, intrastate conflicts

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5207 Independence and Path Independence on Cayley Digraphs of Left Groups and Right Groups

Authors: Nuttawoot Nupo, Sayan Panma


A semigroup S is said to be a left (right) zero semigroup if S satisfies the equation xy=x (xy=y) for all x,y in S. In addition, the semigroup S is called a left (right) group if S is isomorphic to the direct product of a group and a left (right) zero semigroup. The Cayley digraph Cay(S,A) of a semigroup S with a connection set A is defined to be a digraph with the vertex set S and the arc set E(Cay(S,A))={(x,xa) | x∈S, a∈A} where A is any subset of S. All sets in this research are assumed to be finite. Let D be a digraph together with a vertex set V and an arc set E. Let u and v be two different vertices in V and I a nonempty subset of V. The vertices u and v are said to be independent if (u,v)∉E and (v,u)∉E. The set I is called an independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are independent. The independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of an independent set of D. Moreover, the vertices u and v are said to be path independent if there is no dipath from u to v and there is no dipath from v to u. The set I is called a path independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are path independent. The path independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of a path independent set of D. In this research, we describe a lower bound and an upper bound of the independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups. Some examples corresponding to those bounds are illustrated here. Furthermore, the exact value of the path independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups are also presented.

Keywords: Cayley digraphs, independence number, left groups, path independence number, right groups

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5206 Identify the Traffic Safety Needs among Risky Groups in Iraq

Authors: Aodai Abdul-Illah Ismail


Even though the dramatic progress that has been made in traffic safety, but still millions of peoples get killed or injured as a result of traffic crashes, besides the huge amount of economic losses due to these crashes. So traffic safety continues to be one of the most important serious issues worldwide, and it affects everyone who uses the road network system, whether you drive, walk, cycle, or push a pram. One of the most important sides that offers promise for further progress in relation to traffic safety is related to risky groups (special population groups) who may have higher potential to be involved in accidents. Traffic safety needs of risky groups are different from each other and also from the average population. Due to the various limitations between these special groups from each other and from the average population, it is not possible to address all the issues –at the same time- raising the importance ranking among the other safety issues. This paper explains a procedure used to identify the most critical traffic safety issues of five risky groups, which include younger, older and female drivers, people with disabilities and school aged children. Multi criteria used in selecting the critical issues because the single criteria is not sufficient. Highway safety professionals were surveyed to obtain the ranking of importance among the risky groups and then to develop the final ranking among issues by applying weight for each of the criteria.

Keywords: traffic safety, risky groups, old drivers, young drivers

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5205 Employee Assessment Systems in the Structures of Corporate Groups

Authors: D. Bąk-Grabowska, K. Grzesik, A. Iwanicka, A. Jagoda


The process of human resources management in the structures of corporate groups demonstrates certain specificity, resulting from the division of decision-making and executive competencies, which occurs within these structures between a parent company and its subsidiaries. The subprocess of employee assessment is considered crucial, since it provides information for the implementation of personnel function. The empirical studies conducted in corporate groups, within which at least one company is located in Poland, confirmed the critical significance of employee assessment systems in the process of human resources management in corporate groups. Parent companies, most often, retain their decision-making authority within the framework of the discussed process and introduce uniform employee assessment and personnel controlling systems to subsidiary companies. However, the instruments for employee assessment applied in corporate groups do not present such specificity.

Keywords: corporate groups, employee periodical assessment system, holding, human resources management

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5204 Identifying the Traditional Color Scheme in Decorative Patterns Used by the Bahnar Ethnic Group in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Viet Tan


The Bahnar is one of 11 indigenous groups living in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. It is one among the four most popular groups in this area, including the Mnong who speak the same language of Mon Khmer family, while both groups of the Jrai and the Rhade belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language family. These groups once captured fertile plateaus, left their cultural and artistic heritage which affected the remaining small groups. Despite the difference in ethnic origins, these groups seem to share similar beliefs, customs and related folk arts after a very long time living beside each other. However, through an in-depth study, this paper points out the fact that the decorative patterns used by the Bahnar are different from the other ethnic groups, especially in color. Based on historical materials from the local museums and some studies in 1980s when all of the ethnic groups in this area had still lived in self-sufficient condition, this paper characterizes the traditional color scheme used by the Bahnar and identifies the difference in decorative motifs of this group compared to the others by pointing out they do not use green in their usual decorative patterns. Moreover, combined with some field surveys recently, through comparative analysis, it also discovers stylistic variations of these patterns in the process of cultural exchange with the other ethnic groups, both in and out of the region, in modern living conditions. This study helps to preserve and promote the traditional values and cultural identity of the Bahnar people in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, avoiding the fusion of styles among groups during the cultural exchange.

Keywords: Bahnar ethnic group, decorative patterns, the central highlands of Vietnam, the traditional color scheme

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5203 Effect of Fenugreek Seed with Aerobic Exercise Training on Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: M. Nasiri


Aim: Considering the hypoglisimic ad hipolipidimic effect of the fenugreek seed and aerobic exercise training, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fenugreek and aerobic exercise training on insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Methodology: 32 patients with type II diabetes were selected and randomly divided into four groups: control, fenugreek, training and fenugreek - training. Fenugreek groups used 10 grams of fenugreek seeds daily for eight weeks on two occasions before noon and evening meal. Training of groups is also performed a regular program of aerobic exercise 65-55% of maximum heart rate (4 days per week).Two days before and after the training period, blood samples were taken from their brachial veins in a fasting state (12 hours prior to the test) in a sitting position. The data was analyzed used of t-independent and ANOVA at a significance level of α < 0.05. Results: Intra-group changes in all experimental groups showed that significant decrease insulin resistance, and the difference between groups showed significant difference between the groups of fenugreek - training than other groups there. Conclusions: According to the research findings to fenugreek combined with aerobic exercise more beneficial effect on the inhibition of insulin resistance in women with diabetes are recommended to them.

Keywords: fenugreek, training, insulin resistance, diabetes

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5202 The Pile Group Efficiency for Different Embedment Lengths in Dry Sand

Authors: Mohamed M. Shahin


This study investigated the design of the pile foundation to support heavy structures-especially bridges for highways-in the Sahara, which contains many dunes of medium dense sand in different levels, where the foundation is supposed to be piles. The base resistance of smooth model pile groups in sand under static loading is investigated experimentally in a pile soil test apparatus. Improvement were made to the sand around the piles in order to increase the shaft resistance of the single pile and the pile groups, and also base resistance especially for the central pile in pile groups. The study outlines the behaviour of a single-pile, 4-, 5-, and 9- pile groups arranged in a doubly symmetric [square] layout with different embedment lengths and pile spacing in loose dry sand [normal] and dense dry sand [compacted] around the piles. This study evaluate the variation of the magnitude and the proportion of end bearing capacity of individual piles in different pile groups. Also to investigate the magnitude of the efficiency coefficient in the case of different pile groups.

Keywords: pile group, base resistance, efficiency coefficient, pile spacing, pile-soil interaction

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5201 The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre

Authors: Sepehr Moradi


This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.

Keywords: single animal fibre fractionation, actual length groups, strength variation, length-diameter groups, diameter variation along fibre

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5200 Understanding Psychological Distress and Protection Issues among Children Associated with Armed Groups

Authors: Grace Onubedo


The primary objective of this research study is to contribute to and deepen the understanding of the realities and conditions for which children recruited by violent extremist organisations in Nigeria live, as well as ascertain the state of their mental health following their reunification with either family or protection workers. The research is intended to contribute to a more focused child protection programming agenda for children associated with armed forces and groups in Nigeria and the wider conflict setting. The extent to which violence has affected the psychological well-being and mental health of children abducted and exposed to activities of Violent Extremist groups remains a largely empirical question. This research attempts to answer the following research questions with the aim of providing further evidences for informed programming: I. What are the demographic characteristics of children associated with armed groups? II. What is the state of their mental health? III. What is the relationship between their background and their mental health?

Keywords: counterterrorism, psychosocial support, psychological distress, children, armed groups

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5199 Three Visions of a Conflict: The Case of La Araucania, Chile

Authors: Maria Barriga


The article focuses on the analysis of three images of the last five years that represent different visions of social groups in the context of the so call “Conflicto Mapuche” in la Araucanía, Chile. Using a multimodal social semiotic approach, we analyze the meaning making of these images and the social groups strategies to achieve visibility and recognition in political contexts. We explore the making and appropriation of symbols and concepts and analyze the different strategies that groups use to built hegemonic views. Among these strategies, we compare the use of digital technologies in design these images and the influence of Chilean Estate's vision on the Mapuche political conflict. Finally, we propose visual strategies to improve basic conditions for dialogue and recognition among these groups.

Keywords: visual culture, power, conflict, indigenous people

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5198 Trust in Virtual Groups: An Exploratory Study Applied to University Students in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa


Emerging technologies present human interaction with new challenges. Individuals are required to interact and collaborate to achieve mutual gain. Accomplishing shared goals requires all parties involved to trust others’ commitment to fulfilling their specified obligations. Trust is harder to establish when groups work virtually and members transcend time, space, and culture. This paper identifies the importance of trust in virtual groups of students at Kuwait University by exposing them to electronic projects on which they collaborate. Students respond to a survey to assess their range of trust within their teams and how the outcome is affected. Gender differences and other demographic factors are analyzed to understand results and rates of trust. The paper concludes with summarizing factors influencing trust development and possible implications.

Keywords: groups, students, trust, virtual

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5197 A Qualitative Study on Metacognitive Patterns among High and Low Performance Problem Based on Learning Groups

Authors: Zuhairah Abdul Hadi, Mohd Nazir bin Md. Zabit, Zuriadah Ismail


Metacognitive has been empirically evidenced to be one important element influencing learning outcomes. Expert learners engage in metacognition by monitoring and controlling their thinking, and listing, considering and selecting the best strategies to achieve desired goals. Studies also found that good critical thinkers engage in more metacognition and people tend to activate more metacognition when solving complex problems. This study extends past studies by performing a qualitative analysis to understand metacognitive patterns among two high and two low performing groups by carefully examining video and audio records taken during Problem-based learning activities. High performing groups are groups with majority members scored well in Watson Glaser II Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA II) and academic achievement tests. Low performing groups are groups with majority members fail to perform in the two tests. Audio records are transcribed and analyzed using schemas adopted from past studies. Metacognitive statements are analyzed using three stages model and patterns of metacognitive are described by contexts, components, and levels for each high and low performing groups.

Keywords: academic achievement, critical thinking, metacognitive, problem-based learning

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5196 Effect of Chemical Modification of Functional Groups on Copper(II) Biosorption by Brown Marine Macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum

Authors: Luciana P. Mazur, Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


The principal mechanism of metal ions sequestration by brown algae involves the formation of complexes between the metal ion and functional groups present on the cell wall of the biological material. To understand the role of functional groups on copper(II) uptake by Ascophyllum nodosum, some functional groups were chemically modified. The esterification of carboxylic groups was carried out by suspending the biomass in a methanol/HCl solution under stirring for 48 h and the blocking of the sulfonic groups was performed by repeating the same procedure for 4 cycles of 48 h. The methylation of amines was conducted by suspending the biomass in a formaldehyde/formic acid solution under shaking for 6 h and the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups on the biomass surface was achieved using dithiodipyridine for 1 h. Equilibrium sorption studies for Cu2+ using the raw and esterified algae were performed at pH 2.0 and 4.0. The experiments were performed using an initial copper concentration of 300 mg/L and algae dose of 1.0 g/L. After reaching the equilibrium, the metal in solution was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. The biological material was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Potentiometric Titration techniques for functional groups identification and quantification, respectively. The results using unmodified algae showed that the maximum copper uptake capacity at pH 4.0 and 2.0 was 1.17 and 0.52 mmol/g, respectively. At acidic pH values most carboxyl groups are protonated and copper sorption suffered a significant reduction of 56%. Blocking the carboxylic, sulfonic, amines and sulfhydryl functional groups, copper uptake decreased by 24/26%, 69/81%, 1/23% and 40/27% at pH 2.0/4.0, respectively, when compared to the unmodified biomass. It was possible to conclude that the carboxylic and sulfonic groups are the main functional groups responsible for copper binding (>80%). This result is supported by the fact that the adsorption capacity is directly related to the presence of carboxylic groups of the alginate polymer, and the second most abundant acidic functional group in brown algae is the sulfonic acid of fucoidan that contributes, to a lower extent, to heavy metal binding, particularly at low pH.

Keywords: biosorption, brown marine macroalgae, copper, ion-exchange

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5195 Libido and Semen Quality Characteristics of Post-Pubertal Rabbit Bucks Fed Ginger Rhizome Meal Based Diets

Authors: I. P. Ogbuewu, I. F. Etuk, V. U. Odoemelam, I. C. Okoli, M. U. Iloeje


The effect of dietary ginger rhizome meal on libido and semen characteristics of post-pubertal rabbit bucks was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 12 weeks. Thirty-six post-pubertal bucks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups of 9 rabbits each in a completely randomized design. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain ginger rhizome meal at 0 g/kg feed (BT0), 5g/kg feed (BT5), 10 g/kg feed (BT10), and 15g/kg feed (BT15) were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals. Results revealed that semen colour changed from cream milky to milky. Data on semen pH and sperm concentration were similar (p>0.05) among the dietary groups. Semen volume for the bucks in BT0 (0.64 mL) and BT5 (0.60 mL) groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in BT10 (0.44 mL) and BT15 (0.46 mL) groups. Total spermatozoa concentration value was significantly (p<0.05) higher in BT0 and BT5 groups than those in BT10 and BT15 groups. Sperm motility and percent live sperm declined (p<0.05) progressively among the treatment groups. Percent dead sperm were significantly (p<0.05) lower for bucks in BT0 group than in BT10 and BT15 groups. Reaction time had a dose-dependent increase; however, the observed difference was not significant (p>0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of ginger rhizome meal at 5-15g per kg feed in ration for post-pubertal rabbit bucks could cause mild depressive effect on semen production and quality.

Keywords: rabbits, semen, libido, ginger

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5194 Comparison of Whole-Body Vibration and Plyometric Exercises on Explosive Power in Non-Athlete Girl Students

Authors: Fereshteh Zarei, Mahdi Kohandel


The aim of this study was investigate and compare plyometric and vibration exercises on muscle explosive power in non-athlete female students. For this purpose, 45 female students from non-athletes selected target then divided in to the three groups, two experimental and one control groups. From all groups were getting pre-tested. Experimental A did whole-body vibration exercises involved standing on one of machine vibration with frequency 30 Hz, amplitude 10 mm and in 5 different postures. Training for each position was 40 seconds with 60 seconds rest between it, and each season 5 seconds was added to duration of each body condition, until time up to 2 minutes for each postures. Exercises were done three times a week for 2 month. Experimental group B did plyometric exercises that include jumping, such as horizontal, vertical, and skipping .They included 10 times repeat for 5 set in each season. Intensity with increasing repetitions and sets were added. At this time, asked from control group that keep a daily activity and avoided strength training, explosive power and. after do exercises by groups we measured factors again. One-way analysis of variance and paired t statistical methods were used to analyze the data. There was significant difference in the amount of explosive power between the control and vibration groups (p=0/048) there was significant difference between the control and plyometric groups (019/0 = p). But between vibration and plyometric groups didn't observe significant difference in the amount of explosive power.

Keywords: vibration, plyometric, exercises, explosive power, non-athlete

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5193 Evaluation of Progesterone and Estradiol17-ß Levels in Ewes Induced with Different Methods

Authors: E. Sinem Ozdemir Salci, Nazmiye Gunes, Guven Ozkaya, Gulsen Goncagul, Kamil Seyrek Intas


The aim of this study was to show the effects of progesterone and estrogen concentrations in ewes induced with different induction of parturition methods. Twenty-four healthy ewes (n=24) on 138th gestation day were randomly separated according to induction methods (group I (n=6), (0.09% NaCl), group II (n=6) (dexamethasone, 16 mg im.), group III (n=6) (aglepristone 5mg/kg sc.) and group IV (n=6) (aglepristone, 2,5 mg/kg sc.+dexamethasone 8 mg im.). The blood samples of the ewes were collected at 12 hours intervals from induction time to the postpartum 2nd day in order to determine progesterone and estradiol 17-ß levels. These hormone concentrations were determined by ELISA, and obtained results were statistically analyzed with Kruskal Wallis and Dunn tests between the groups, and Friedman and Wilcoxon test within the groups. The results pointed out that there was no significant difference within the groups in terms of estradiol 17-ß (group 1, p=0.508; group 2, p=0.054; group 3, p=0.672; group 4, p=0,170). And there was only a significant difference at 138th day (p=0,019) between groups II and IV (p=0,010). There was a significant difference in terms of progesterone concentration within group 1, 2 and 4 (p=0.000). And there was a significant difference at all times except 138th day between the groups (p<0.05). As a conclusion, the induction of parturition methods could be performed successfully. These methods have no effect on estradiol 17-ß concentration but also make changings on progesterone concentrations as in groups 3 and 4.

Keywords: ewe, estradiol 17-ß, induction of parturition, progesterone

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5192 Location and Group Specific Differences in Human-Macaque Interactions in Singapore: Implications for Conflict Management

Authors: Srikantan L. Jayasri, James Gan


The changes in Singapore’s land use, natural preference of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to live in forest edges and their adaptability has led to interface between humans and macaques. Studies have shown that two-third of human-macaque interactions in Singapore were related to human food. We aimed to assess differences among macaques groups in their dependence on human food and interaction with humans as indicators of the level of interface. Field observations using instantaneous scan sampling and all occurrence ad-lib sampling were carried out for 23 macaque groups over 28 days recording 71.5 hours of observations. Data on macaque behaviour, demography, frequency, and nature of human-macaque interactions were collected. None of the groups were found to completely rely on human food source. Of the 23 groups, 40% of them were directly or indirectly provisioned by humans. One-third of the groups observed engaged in some form of interactions with the humans. Three groups that were directly fed by humans contributed to 83% of the total human-macaque interactions observed during the study. Our study indicated that interactions between humans and macaques exist in specific groups and in those fed by humans regularly. Although feeding monkeys is illegal in Singapore, such incidents seem to persist in specific locations. We emphasize the importance of group and location-specific assessment of the existing human-wildlife interactions. Conflict management strategies developed should be location specific to address the cause of interactions.

Keywords: primates, Southeast Asia, wildlife management, Singapore

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5191 Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues by Various Physiological Groups of Population in Andhra Pradesh, South India

Authors: Padmaja R. Jonnalagadda


Dietary exposure assessment of fifteen pesticide residues was done in Andhra Pradesh. Twelve commonly consumed foods including water, which were representative of the diet, were collected, processed as table ready and analysed for the presence of various Organochlorines, organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. All the samples were contaminated with one or more of the 15 pesticide residues and all of them were within the MRLs. DDT and its isomers, Chlorpyriphos and Cypermethrin were frequently detected in many of the food samples. The mean concentration of the pesticide residues ranged from 0.02 μg kg-1 to 5.1 μg kg-1 (fresh weight) in the analysed foods. When exposure assessments was carried out for different age, sex and physiological groups it was found that the estimates of daily dietary intakes of the analysed pesticide residues in the present study are much lower than the violative levels in all age groups that were computed.

Keywords: table ready foods, pesticide residues, dietary intake, physiological groups, risk

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5190 Self Help Groups among the Ao Nagas : A Case Study of Alongkima of Nagaland, NorthEast India

Authors: Imkongtenla Pongen


Self Help Groups (SGHs) are socio-commercial instruments in addressing urban poverty and strengthening livelihoods. Being a member of Self Help Group helped in mutual exchanges of ideas, develop risk taking behaviour, learns flexibility in planning of a programme, and interpersonal communication within the group. In the present study, an attempt has been made to examine the functions, characteristics and practices of Self Help Groups and its impact on sustainable development among the Ao Nagas of Alongkima, Nagaland, NorthEast India. They are a tribal group and racially belong to the Mongoloid stock and linguistically to the Tibeto-Burman group. They follow endogamous, patriarchal, and patrilineal system. Major characteristics of Self Help groups in this study are found to be team spirit and group cohesiveness. Such groups are found to be geared towards a number of self-sufficiency based business ventures. The problems faced in normal functioning of the groups are unpunctuality and the inability to attend a meeting by all the members .Participation in such groups has increased women’s influence over the economic resources and decision making in the household, improved self-confidence and living standard, capacity building, self- dependent and self-reliant with no educational and entrepreneurial background, generate savings and hone their skills as motivators and leaders. All these has enhanced her status in every sphere of life in par with the opposite gender. In a nutshell, we can say that what she cannot achieve as an individual, she can achieve as a member of a Self Help Group. Hence, we should try to develop mechanisms to guarantee the sustainability of Self Help Groups which depends on the way they can deal with both internal and external conflicts like globalization and competition from new markets.

Keywords: Ao nagas, microfinance, self help group, women empowerment

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5189 Effect of Gender on Carcass Parameters in Japanese Quail

Authors: M. Bolacali


This study was conducted to determine the effects of and sex on the carcass characteristics in Japanese quails. A total of 320 (160 for each sex groups) one-day-old quail chicks were randomly allocated to the sex groups, each containing 160 chicks according to a completely randomized design. Each gender was then divided into five replicate groups of 32 chicks. According to sex groups, the chicks of all replicate groups were housed in cages. The normality of distribution for all data was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test at 95% confidence interval. A P value of ≤ 0.05 was interpreted as different. The statistical analysis for normal distribution data of the dietary groups was carried out with the general linear model procedure of SPSS software. The results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of five replications. Duncan’s multiple range test was used for multiple comparisons in important groups. Data points bearing different letters are significantly different P ≤ 0.05. For the distribution of data that was different from normal, Kruskal Wallis H-Test was applied as a nonparametric test, and the results were expressed as median, minimum and maximum values. Pairwise comparisons of groups were made when Kruskal Wallis H-Test was significant. The study period lasted 42 days. Hot carcass, cold carcass, heart, and leg percentages in male quails was higher than female quails (P < 0.05), but liver, and breast percentages in female quails was higher than male quails (P > 0.05). The highest slaughter and carcass weight values were determined in the female quails in the cage. As a conclusion, it may be recommended to quail meat producers, who would like to obtain higher carcass weight to make more economic profit, to raise female quails in cage.

Keywords: carcass yield, chick, gender, management

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5188 The Influence of Superordinate Identity and Group Size on Group Decision Making through Discussion

Authors: Lin Peng, Jin Zhang, Yuanyuan Miao, Quanquan Zheng


Group discussion and group decision-making have long been a topic of research interest. Traditional research on group decision making typically focuses on the strategies or functional models of combining members’ preferences to reach an optimal consensus. In this research, we want to explore natural process group decision making through discussion and examine relevant, influential factors--common superordinate identity shared by group and size of the groups. We manipulated the social identity of the groups into either a shared superordinate identity or different subgroup identities. We also manipulated the size to make it either a big (6-8 person) group or small group (3-person group). Using experimental methods, we found members of a superordinate identity group tend to modify more of their own opinions through the discussion, compared to those only identifying with their subgroups. Besides, members of superordinate identity groups also formed stronger identification with group decision--the results of group discussion than their subgroup peers. We also found higher member modification in bigger groups compared to smaller groups. Evaluations of decisions before and after discussion as well as group decisions are strongly linked to group identity, as members of superordinate group feel more confident and satisfied with both the results and decision-making process. Members’ opinions are more similar and homogeneous in smaller groups compared to bigger groups. This research have many implications for further research and applied behaviors in organizations.

Keywords: group decision making, group size, identification, modification, superordinate identity

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5187 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki


30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: albumin, amylase, cholesterol, crack, HDL, LDL, lipase, protein, rat, triglycerides, VLDL

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5186 Evaluation of Re-mineralization Ability of Nanohydroxyapatite and Coral Calcium with Different Concentrations on Initial Enamel Carious Lesions

Authors: Ali Abdelnabi, Nermeen Hamza


Coral calcium is a boasting natural product and dietary supplement which is considered a source of alkaline calcium carbonate, this study is a comparative study, comparing the remineralization effect of the new product of coral calcium with that of nano-hydroxyapatite. Methodology: a total of 35 extracted molars were collected, examined and sectioned to obtain 70 sound enamel discs, all discs were numbered and examined by scanning electron microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays(EDAX) for mineral content, subjected to artificial caries, and mineral content was re-measured, discs were divided into seven groups according to the remineralizing agent used, where groups 1 to 3 used 10%, 20%, 30% nanohydroxyapatite gel respectively, groups 4 to 6 used 10%, 20%, 30% coral calcium gel and group 7 with no remineralizing agent (control group). All groups were re-examined by EDAX after remineralization; data were calculated and tabulated. Results: All groups showed a statistically significant drop in calcium level after artificial caries; all groups showed a statistically significant rise in calcium content after remineralization except for the control group; groups 1 and 5 showed the highest increase in calcium level after remineralization. Conclusion: coral calcium can be considered a comparative product to nano-hydroxyapatite regarding the remineralization of enamel initial carious lesions.

Keywords: artificial caries, coral calcium, nanohydroxyapatite, re-mineralization

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5185 The Effect of Endurance Training and Ginseng Consumption on VEGF and PDGF Plasma in Untrained Females

Authors: Barari Alireza, Seyed Hossein Alavi, Ghasemi Mohamad


Objectives: VEGF and PDGF play central role in the processes of angiogenesis and vascular changes in most body tissues. The aim of the present study to determine effect of endurance training with ginseng on VEGF and PDGF levels is untrained female. Methods: Statistic society of this study was untraining male students of Azad University of Sari Branch in year of 2012-2013. Forty young untrained female (age 21.3 ± 0.90 year, height162.08±8.07cm , body weight 65.45± 7.6 kg and body mass index [BMI] 23.23 ± 2.64 kg/m2) were randomly divided into four groups: control(C), endurance(E), ginseng (G), endurance and ginseng (EG). Participants in training groups performed endurance training for 6 weeks and three sessions per week with 60-80% HRmax. Subjects perform endurance training and consumed ginseng for six weeks. Blood samples from the subjects before and after the test was performed. One wey ANOVA were used to test for differences between group and pair T-test were used for differences within groups. In all cases, P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A higher and significant Vo2 max was found in E and EG groups, while no change in other groups. BMI and Fat% were significantly decreased in EG group. No significant difference was found between and within groups in VEGF level. A higher and significant PDGF was only in endurance group, while there was significant reduction observed in G and EG groups. One-way ANOVA for PDGF showed significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The finding of the current study indicated that ginseng likely could through reducing of angiogenesis factors Such as VEGF and PDGF and reduced activity of tumor necrosis factor and inhibited inflammatory process.

Keywords: endurance, ginseng, VEGF, PDGF, untrained female

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5184 Self-Management among the Ethnic Groups with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thailand

Authors: Siwarak Kitchanapaibul, Warren Gillibrand, Rob Burton


The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been rising all over the world. Self-management is required for diabetes mellitus patients. The objective of this study is to explore the self-management among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand, an upper middle-income country which is located in South East Asia. The ethnic groups in Thailand are a minority group which has limited education and a different culture, language, costume and lifestyle from Thai people. The qualitative exploratory study was used in this study. In-depth interviews with semi-structured open questions were conducted by 20 participants from purposive sampling. These participants were the ethnic groups who have type 2 diabetes mellitus, received the services from a region hospital, understood Thai and were willing to participate. Content analysis was adopted for the study. The results showed that all of the participants controlled their diet before the appointment day and never miss their appointment. Only 3 participants did their exercise while 2 participants stated that they occasionally forgot to take medicine. 10 participants use the herbs for reducing the sugar level. 12 participants drank a lot of water after a lapse in the diet because they believed that water could dilute the sugar. The findings identified 5 themes; ‘controlling diet before appointment day’; ‘drinking water after a lapse in diet’; ‘medication being a vital importance’; ‘exercise is unimportant’; and ‘taking herbs for sugar reduction’. The results of this study are important to the health professionals to understand the self-management of Ethnic groups and use the data to create the appropriate intervention for promoting health among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand. The findings will lead to the revision of health policy and the procedure for promoting health in this special ethnic groups.

Keywords: self-management, diabetes, ethnic groups, Thailand

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5183 Meat Yield and Proximate Composition Relations of Seabream (Sparus aurata) and Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Different Sizes

Authors: Mehmet Celik, Celal Erbas, Mehtap Baykal, Aygül Kucukgulmez, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu


In this study, determination of differences in fresh meat yield and proximate compositions of different weight groups of sea bream and sea bass grown in cages in Izmir region of the Aegean Sea were aimed. For this purpose, the length and weight of five different weight groups of sea bass (I: 175.8±5.2, II: 227.3±10.2, III: 293.3±21.3, IV: 404±9.9, V: 508.7±46 g) and sea bream (I: 146.6±13.6, II: 239.8±21.7, III: 279.2±20.8, IV: 400.9±10.5, V: 546.8±0.8 g) were measured and the amount of edible and non-edible parts were determined. Besides this, protein, lipid, dry matter, ash, condition factor, HSI and VSI values were compared according to different weight groups for each species. According to the results of analysis, while the absolute meat yields of sea bream was between 69-294 g, it was between 71-252 g for the sea bass and the highest meat yields were found in fifth (V) weight groups of fish for both species. The relative meat yield (%) was determined in weight group II for sea bass and in the IV. group in sea bream with 51.9%. However, the amount of muscle tissue lipids in I. and V. weight groups of sea bream ranged between 3.6 to 11.9 % and ranged between 6.2 to 9.0 % for sea bass respectively. Protein, fillet and ash content increased in direct proportion to the weight. As a result, it can be speculated that when the meat yield and lipid rates were considered, IV. group in sea bream and II. group in sea bass are the most advantageous groups for the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2015-3830.

Keywords: sea bream, sea bass, meat yield, proximate composition, different weight

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5182 The Role Support Groups Play in Decreasing Depression and PTSD in Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review

Authors: Julianne Macmullen


Due to advances in technology and early detection and treatment of cancer, many cancer patients are surviving longer than five years post-diagnosis. Most cancer patients suffer from depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point during diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. A subgroup of patients will continue to suffer from depression and PTSD and require early intervention. Support groups provide patients with the emotional and informational support they require while also giving survivors a sense of community, friendship, and purpose. This type of support is recognized by researchers to improve the quality of life while also decreasing depression and PTSD symptoms. The gaps in the literature include cultural diversity, minorities, and support groups involving cancer types other than breast cancer. Another gap in the literature includes the perceptions of cancer patients as well as longitudinal studies to determine the relationships between support groups and decreased depression and PTSD rates over time. Future research is required to fill the gaps in the literature mentioned previously. Future research is also needed to analyze the difference in age groups and different types of support groups such as professionally-led, peer-led, and online. Implications for practice involve providers assessing for the symptoms of depression and PTSD in order to offer prompt treatment and support services to those patients. In conclusion, social support by way of support groups improves the quality of life, gives survivors a sense of purpose to help others while also gaining the support they need, and reduces the rate of depressive episodes related to PTSD.

Keywords: cancer survivor, survivorship, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, support groups

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5181 Political Empowerment of Japanese Women: Roles and Strategies of Social Movements and Feminist Groups

Authors: Soliman Rosemary


Despite the widespread movements towards democratization in most countries, women are still largely underrepresented at most levels of governments, especially in ministerial and other executive bodies. This paper is going to focus on the status quo of women political marginalization in Japan and the role social movements, feminist groups and campaigns play in raising the number of female politicians in administrative decision making process. The paper will raise some Japanese feminist groups such as ‘WIN WIN’ and ‘Q no Kai’ and other feminist groups as case studies. The study will help in furthering the understanding of women political empowerment in Japan and the strategies of contemporary social movements in raising the awareness of the importance of gender quota in the electoral system to be able to place new items on the political agenda that reflect and address women's gender-specific concerns, values and experiences, and providing new perspectives on mainstream political issues.

Keywords: feminist, political empowerment, quota, social movements

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5180 Nutrition Bio-Shield Superfood: Healthy and Live Herbal Supplement for Immune System Enhancement

Authors: Azam Bayat, Aref Khalkhali, Ali Reza Mahjoub


Healthy and viable herbal supplement were prepared from wheat by a green route. This organic biomaterial was named Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS). The NBS supplement had various vitamins, macro and micro molecules, and ingredients. In this study, 20 small Balb/C labile specimens were used in a weighing 30 ± 5 range. The samples were randomly divided into different groups, then the groups were divided into 5 groups. According to the results of this study, the mean number of white blood cells and neutrophil percentage in the experimental group receiving healthy and live dietary supplement showed a significant increase at the 5% probability level in all three groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight of the mouse compared to the control group. In general, the dietary supplement increases the level of immunity.

Keywords: healthy and live herbal supplement, biomaterial, immune system, enhancement

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