Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: Cameroon

80 Francophone University Students' Attitudes Towards English Accents in Cameroon

Authors: Eric Agrie Ambele

Abstract:

The norms and models for learning pronunciation in relation to the teaching and learning of English pronunciation are key issues nowadays in English Language Teaching in ESL contexts. This paper discusses these issues based on a study on the attitudes of some Francophone university students in Cameroon towards three English accents spoken in Cameroon: Cameroon Francophone English (CamFE), Cameroon English (CamE), and Hyperlectal Cameroon English (near standard British English). With the desire to know more about the treatment that these English accents receive among these students, an aspect that had hitherto received little attention in the literature, a language attitude questionnaire, and the matched-guise technique was used to investigate this phenomenon. Two methods of data analysis were employed: (1) the percentage count procedure, and (2) the semantic differential scale. The findings reveal that the participants’ attitudes towards the selected accents vary in degree. Though Hyperlectal CamE emerged first, CamE second and CamFE third, no accent, on average, received a negative evaluation. It can be deduced from this findings that, first, CamE is gaining more and more recognition and can stand as an autonomous accent; second, that the participants all rated Hyperlectal CamE higher than CamE implies that they would be less motivated in a context where CamE is the learning model. By implication, in the teaching of English pronunciation to francophone learners learning English in Cameroon, Hyperlectal Cameroon English should be the model.

Keywords: teaching pronunciation, English accents, Francophone learners, attitudes

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
79 The Role of International Organizations in the Implementation of Return Migration Policy in Cameroon

Authors: Charles Simplice Mbatsogo Mebo

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With growth picking up again, Africa seems increasingly attractive for its own nationals who return home through new opportunities available for them. The purpose of our research paper is to understand the role of the international partners in Cameroon, with regards to their support for the return and reintegration of migrants. We, therefore, questioned the relevance and effectiveness and efficacy of international instruments in reintegrating returnees to Cameroon. After our analysis that was conducted on the basis of a documentary exploration, interviews, and field surveys, it appears that the contribution of the international partners in Cameroon is proven in relation to their participation in the financing and placement of returned experts. However, their contribution remains insufficient due to their low level of deployment and the insignificant impact of their investments on the reintegration of Cameroonian Diasporas. The research also reveals some exogenous and endogenous constraints that hinder international institutions' actions in terms of accompanying migrants returning to Cameroon. Finally, for a better management of the returnees' issue, it is necessary to set up a mechanism to raise awareness and a coordination system of all international actors involved. It is also relevant to reform the migration policy, build institutional capacities, and improve the juridical-administrative and economic environment so as to favor co-development in Cameroon.

Keywords: international partners, returnees, diaspora, migration policy, co-development

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
78 Immigration in British Southern Cameroons from 2016 to 2020

Authors: Geraldine Ambe

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Cameroon is a country in a country in Central Africa. Before the first World War, Germany colonized Cameroon, including some parts of Gabon, Chad, Nigeria, and the Central African Republic. After the war, the United Nations divided most of the colony into Britain and France. In 1960, Eastern Cameroon (‘La Republique du Cameroon’) gained its independence from France while British Southern Cameroons obtained its independence from Britain. The two entities agreed to live together as a federal state officially called the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1962, the name of the name of the country was changed from the Federal Republic of Cameroon to the United Republic of Cameroon, while the Prime Minister of Western Cameroon was moved to Yaounde. In 1984, President Paul Biya singlehandedly changed the name to the Republic of Cameroon, implying that Southern Cameroon is not recognized in the union again. From the words of Am Cohen, the two territories came together to form a federal government with one currency, one army, and one foreign policy like states in the United States of America. However, the name Republic of Cameroon (‘La Republique du Cameroun’) does not recognize BSC, and this is exactly what has been practiced: politics of exclusion and excessive centralization in Yaounde. In 2016, teachers and Lawyers started strikes to call the attention of the government on the inhalation of the English culture/people. They were greeted with guns, causing the radicalization of the youths. The civil society came together to form a union to address the issues facing the people, and the government took their leaders and sentenced them to live imprisonment. The consequence was a civil war with nobody to dialogue with. Out of Cameroon, more than half a million people from BSC have been taking dangerous trips through the air, land, and sea. In the jungles and the deserts, the snow of Europe, these people have been seen for the last 4 years. This paper will present some personalities, political fractions, and their stands of decentralization, federalism, and independence as the war continues. The paper will further look at the consequence of this crisis on migration in Central and Eastern Europe.

Keywords: British Southern Cameroons, decolonization, Second World War, dialogue, civil war, immigration

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77 Fostering Involvement of Local Inhabitants in Participatory Governance of Cultural Patrimony in Cameroon

Authors: Asah Nelson Asoh, Wanie Clarkson Mvo

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Given the diverse nature of cultural diversity in Cameroon from the forested south to the sudano-sahelian north regions, Cameroon is aptly described as 'Africa in Miniature', which simply means all of Africa in a single country-Cameroon. Cameroon possesses all that can be attractive to the eyes in Africa. Yet, there is a microscopic involvement of the local inhabitants in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development, which greatly jeopardizes conservation endeavors because the community fails to trust governing authorities. This study delves into the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research design and semi-structured interviews with experts in the collection of primary data blended with secondary materials from published sources, including textbooks, scientific journal articles, dissertations, reports, and internet websites. The collected data was presented and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, photographic illustrations, and through intuition. The study fosters the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. This is to ensure community support for the conservation of tourism cultural patrimony in Cameroon in particular and the world at large.

Keywords: participatory governance, cultural patrimony, tourism, socio-economic development, Cameroon

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76 Non-Native Expatriate English: An Emerging Variety (Category of Users) in Cameroon?

Authors: Valentine Ubanako

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This paper investigates a situation that has given rise to a particular kind of variety or category of users of English in Cameroon which I have called here Non-native expatriate English (Users). This paper asserts that Non-expatriates in Cameroon (those who work for native speakers of English) use English in a peculiar manner which is worth investigating. This paper thus looks into the kind of English they use and their attitudes towards other users of different varieties of English and how these non-native expatriates form new identities and try to negotiate social ascendency within a local context. Data for this paper is collected through observation, interviews and questionnaires. Some Cameroonians, especially the educated, believe that they must move to Europe or America, study to a very high level and struggle to be like the white man whereas, the lowly educated (working with native English expatriates), are living their European and American dream in Cameroon among their brothers. Thus, educational attainment is not a necessary criterion for social ascendency.

Keywords: non-native expatriate English, native expatriates, varieties of English, English language, linguistics

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75 Understanding How Democratic Governance Influence Resource Allocation and Utilisation in Economies in Transition: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Terence Maisah Seka

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This paper examines democratic governance within the private and public sectors in economies in transition (Cameroon) by exploring how they influence development in terms of resource allocation to priorities that are locally conceptualized. The benefit of this is an improvement in indigenous and the quality of life for the local population. Using an ethnographic approach, this paper suggests that institutional corruption and state bureaucracy has limited the impact of democratic governance in influencing development. This has seen funds for developments being embezzled; local projects are not being done to satisfaction among others. The paper contributes by proposing measures to eliminate corruption to improve democratic governance, which will improve resource allocation and utilization.

Keywords: democratic governance, resource allocation, utilisation, Cameroon

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74 Filling the Policy Gap for Coastal Resources Management: Case of Evidence-Based Mangrove Institutional Strengthening in Cameroon

Authors: Julius Niba Fon, Jean Hude E. Moudingo

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Mangrove ecosystems in Cameroon are valuable both in services and functions as they play host to carbon sinks, fishery breeding grounds and natural coastal barriers against storms. In addition to the globally important biodiversity that they contain, they also contribute to local livelihoods. Despite these appraisals, a reduction of about 30 % over a 25 years period due to anthropogenic and natural actions has been recorded. The key drivers influencing mangrove change include population growth, climate change, economic and political trends and upstream habitat use. Reversing the trend of mangrove loss and growing vulnerability of coastal peoples requires a real commitment by the government to develop and implement robust level policies. It has been observed in Cameroon that special ecosystems like mangroves are insufficiently addressed by forestry and/or environment programs. Given these facts, the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) in partnership with the Government of Cameroon and other development actors have put in place the project for sustainable community-based management and conservation of mangrove ecosystems in Cameroon. The aim is to address two issues notably the present weak institutional and legal framework for mangrove management, and the unrestricted and unsustainable harvesting of mangrove resources. Civil society organizations like the Cameroon Wildlife Conservation Society, Cameroon Ecology and Organization for the Environment and Development have been working to reduce the deforestation and degradation trend of Cameroon mangroves and also bringing the mangrove agenda to the fore in national and international arenas. Following a desktop approach, we found out that in situ and ex situ initiatives on mangrove management and conservation exist on propagation of improved fish smoke ovens to reduce fuel wood consumption, mangrove forest regeneration, shrimps farming and mangrove protected areas management. The evidence generated from the field experiences are inputs for processes of improving the legal and institutional framework for mangrove management in Cameroon, such as the elaboration of norms for mangroves management engaged by the government.

Keywords: mangrove ecosystem, legal and institutional framework, climate change, civil society organizations

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73 Restructuring Cameroon's Educational System: The Value of Inclusive Education for Children with Visual Impairment

Authors: Samanta Tiague, Igor Michel Gachig

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The practice of inclusive education within general education classrooms is becoming more prevalent in Cameroon. In this context, quality Education is an important driver of the development agenda in this era of global sustainable development. This requires that the Cameroon’s educational system be strategically restructured to provide every citizen with the needed quality education for sustainable development. This study thus examined the need for the restructuring of the Cameroon educational system towards inclusive education as a target of the Sustainable Development Goal #4 (Ensure Quality Education), from a critical disability theory perspective. Special focus was on the education of children with visual impairment in the early childhood classroom. This study is suggesting a model design of responsive and contextual inclusive education policies, and the provision of quality human, material and financial educational resources to support the improvement of curriculums and inclusive instructional strategies. This paper is therefore designed as a basic starting point for early childhood educators with limited to no experience in working with students having visual impairments. Ultimately, this work represents a contribution to early childhood educators toward understanding visual impairment challenges and innovative practices to approach accessibility in a meaningful way to students in Cameroon. This is important to achieve quality education due to the peculiar nature of the educational needs of children with visual impairment, toward attainment of the global sustainable development agenda.

Keywords: early childhood educators, inclusive education, sustainable development, visual impairment

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72 Modelling a Distribution Network with a Hybrid Solar-Hydro Power Plant in Rural Cameroon

Authors: Contimi Kenfack Mouafo, Sebastian Klick

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In the rural and remote areas of Cameroon, access to electricity is very limited since most of the population is not connected to the main utility grid. Throughout the country, efforts are underway to not only expand the utility grid to these regions but also to provide reliable off-grid access to electricity. The Cameroonian company Solahydrowatt is currently working on the design and planning of one of the first hybrid solar-hydropower plants of Cameroon in Fotetsa, in the western region of the country, to provide the population with reliable access to electricity. This paper models and proposes a design for the low-voltage network with a hybrid solar-hydropower plant in Fotetsa. The modelling takes into consideration the voltage compliance of the distribution network, the maximum load of operating equipment, and most importantly, the ability for the network to operate as an off-grid system. The resulting modelled distribution network does not only comply with the Cameroonian voltage deviation standard, but it is also capable of being operated as a stand-alone network independent of the main utility grid.

Keywords: Cameroon, rural electrification, hybrid solar-hydro, off-grid electricity supply, network simulation

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71 Cameroon’s State Bilingualism: Mending Fences between Linguistic Communities

Authors: Charles Esambe Alobwede

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From the time of the biblical story of the Tower of Babel, languages as well as people have learnt to co-exist. It is obvious that when languages co-exist, there is the inevitable tendency of linguistic influence. This is because a language can either be a unifying factor or a factor of division within a given community, especially in a multicultural and multi-linguistic community where such a situation has led to socio-political and economic tension. Thus, leaders of such communities have a duty to plan and implement a language policy that will meet the needs of all members of the community in order to enhance its corporateness. The present article will focus on some of the major reasons that prompted the government of Cameroon to embark on an official bilingual policy after independence in 1961 and then evaluate the evolution of the linguistic situation. The article will equally look at the consequences, especially on a socio-political platform and what today has been termed 'the Anglophone problem' in Cameroon which has caused a fuse between the country’s minority Anglophone population and the majority Francophone administration. Data for the present article is collected from literature on the state of official bilingualism in Cameroon, newspapers articles on the prevailing situation in the country and interviews with actors on the field.

Keywords: language policy, linguistic influence, multicultural, official bilingualism, socio-political tension

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70 Global and Domestic Response to Boko Haram Terrorism on Cameroon 2014-2018

Authors: David Nchinda Keming

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The present study is focused on both the national and international collective fight against Boko Haram terrorism on Cameroon and the rule played by the Lake Chad Basin Countries (LCBCs) and the global community to suffocate the sect’s activities in the region. Although countries of the Lake Chad Basin include: Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria and Niger others like Benin also joined the course. The justification for the internationalisation of the fight against Boko Haram could be explained by the ecological and international climatic importance of the Lake Chad and the danger posed by the sect not only to the Lake Chad member countries but to global armed, civil servants and the international political economy. The study, therefore, kick start with Cameroon’s reaction to Boko Haram’s terrorist attacks on its territory. It further expounds on Cameroon’s request on bilateral diplomacy from members of the UN Security Council for an international collective support to staple the winds of the challenging sect. The study relies on the hypothesis that Boko Haram advanced terrorism on Cameroon was more challenging to the domestic military intelligence thus forcing the government to seek for bilateral and multilateral international collective support to secure its territory from the powerful sect. This premise is tested internationally via (multilateral cooperation, bilateral response, regional cooperation) and domestically through (solidarity parade, religious discourse, political manifestations, war efforts, the vigilantes and the way forward). To accomplish our study, we made used of the mixed research methodologies to interpret the primary, secondary and tertiary sources consulted. Our results reveal that the collective response was effectively positive justified by the drastic drop in the sect’s operations in Cameroon and the whole LCBCs. Although the sect was incapacitated, terrorism remains an international malaise and Cameroon hosts a fertile ground for terrorists’ activism. Boko Haram was just weakened and not completely defeated and could reappear someday even under a different appellation. Therefore, to absolutely eradicate terrorism in general and Boko Haram in particular, LCBCs must improve their military intelligence on terrorism and continue to collaborate with advanced experienced countries in fighting terrorism.

Keywords: Boko Haram, terrorism, domestic, international, response

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69 Attitudes towards Bilingualism: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Patricia W. Ngassa

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Language attitude is an area arousing the interest of linguists who are continuously discovering new methods of detecting attitudes. This paper problematizes Cameroonians’ alleged tendency of neglecting home languages and considering Bilingualism in borrowed languages as more important. 30 questionnaires were used to know attitudes of parents towards bilingualism and our home languages. Results revealed that our borrowed official languages are considered more important than home languages.

Keywords: bilingualism, mother tongue, Cameroon, official language

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68 Sexual Risk Behaviours of High School Students in an Urban Town of Cameroon

Authors: Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang

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Background: Since students in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these students might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. Sexual risk behaviours include engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners and coerced or forced sex, and these behaviours might predispose youth to HIV transmission. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school students in an urban town of Cameroon. Method: A quantitative cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from a disproportional stratified simple random sample of 480 (240 male and 240 female) grade 10 to grade 12 students from two participating secondary school in Limbe in the Southwest region of Cameroon August 2014. Descriptive and Chi square statistics were calculated using statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software program at the level 0.05. Results: Majority of the respondents, 63.4% reported being sexually active, of whom only 33.2% used condoms consistently. Up to 37% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 23% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.4 years. Among Christians, Pentecostals, 17 (58.6%) were more likely to have experienced sexual coercion than non-Pentecostals, 111 (42.2%) (p= 0.000). Christians, 41 (10.3%) were more likely to have been forced into first sex than Muslims, 0 (0.0%); while among the Christians, Pentecostals, 6 (15.0%) were more likely to have been forced into first sex than non-Pentecostals, 35 (10.9%) (p=0.004). Among the Christians, Pentecostals, 16 (66.7%) were more likely to have experienced sex by age 16 years than non-Pentecostals, 125 (64.1%) (p= 0.000). Students who lived in rented places, 32 (22.7%) were more likely to have had multiple sexual partners than those who lived in their parents’ houses, 35 (18.1%) (p= 0.000). Males, 36 (16.0%) were likely to have had multiple concurrent sexual partners than females, 14 (6.0%) (p=0.002). Students who used condoms consistently, 25 (33.3%) were more likely to have a higher perception of risk of contracting HIV than those who did not use condoms consistently, 38 (29.9%) (p=0.002). Students who lived in their parents’ houses, 35 (35.4%) were more likely to use condoms consistently during sex, than those who lived in rented places, 31 (29.8%) (p=0.021). Students who passed their examinations, 57 (30.9%) were more likely to have used condoms consistently than those with low academic profiles, 24 (27.9%) (p= 0.034). Conclusions and Recommendations: Gender, lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors associated with sexual risk behaviours among students in urban Cameroon. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school students in Limbe urban town of Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

Keywords: Cameroon, high school students, HIV/AIDS, Limbe urban town, sexual risk behaviours

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67 The Human Rights Implications of Arbitrary Arrests and Political Imprisonment in Cameroon between 2016 and 2019

Authors: Ani Eda Njwe

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Cameroon is a bilingual and bijural country in West and Central Africa. The current president has been in power since 1982, which makes him the longest-serving president in the world. The length of his presidency is one of the major causes of the ongoing political instability in the country. The preamble of the Cameroonian constitution commits Cameroon to respect international law and human rights. It provides that these laws should be translated into national laws, and respected by all spheres of government and public service. Cameroon is a signatory of several international human rights laws and conventions. In theory, the citizens of Cameroon have adequate legal protection against the violation of their human rights for political reasons. The ongoing political crisis in Cameroon erupted after the Anglophone lawyers and teachers launched a protest against the hiring of Francophone judges in Anglophone courts; and the hiring of Francophone teachers in Anglophone schools. In retaliation, the government launched a military crackdown on protesters and civilians, conducted arbitrary arrests on Anglophones, raped and maimed civilians, and declared a state of emergency in the Anglophone provinces. This infuriated the Anglophone public, causing them to create a secessionist movement, requesting the Independence of Anglophone Cameroon and demanding a separate country called Ambazonia. The Ambazonian armed rebel forces have ever since launched guerrilla attacks on government troops. This fighting has deteriorated into a war between the Ambazonians and the Cameroon government. The arbitrary arrests and unlawful imprisonments have continued, causing the closure of Anglophone schools since November 2016. In October 2018, Cameroon held presidential elections. Before the electoral commission announced the results, the opposition leader, a Francophone, declared himself winner, following a leak of the polling information. This led to his imprisonment. This research has the objective of finding out whether the government’s reactions to protesters and opposition is lawful, under national and international laws. This research will also verify if the prison conditions of political prisoners meet human rights standards. Furthermore, this research seeks detailed information obtained from current political prisoners and detainees on their experiences. This research also aims to highlight the effort being made internationally, towards bringing awareness and finding a resolution to the war in Cameroon. Finally, this research seeks to elucidate on the efforts which human rights organisations have made, towards overseeing the respect of human rights in Cameroon. This research adopts qualitative methods, whereby data were collected using semi-structured interviews of political detainees, and questionnaires. Also, data was collected from secondary sources such as; scholarly articles, newspaper articles, web sources, and human rights reports. From the data collected, the findings were analysed using the content analysis research technique. From the deductions, recommendations have been made, which human rights organisations, activists, and international bodies can implement, to cause the Cameroonian government to stop unlawful arrests and reinstate the respect of human rights and the rule of law in Cameroon.

Keywords: arbitrary arrests, Cameroon, human rights, political

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66 Women as Victims of Land Grabbing: Implications for Household Food Security and Livelihoods in Cameroon

Authors: Valentine Ndi

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This multi-sited research will make use of primary and secondary data to understand the multiple implications of land grabbing for local food production and rural livelihoods in Cameroon. Amidst restricted access to land and forest resources, this study will demonstrate how land previously accessed by communities to grow crops and to harvest forest resources is being acquired and transformed into commercial oil palm plantations by Herakles Farms, a US-based company, with Sithe Global Sustainable Oils Cameroon as its local subsidiary. Focusing on selected land grabbing communities in Cameroon, the study uses a feminist political ecology lens to examine the gendered nature in resources access and its impacts for women’s food production in particular, and rural livelihoods in general. The paper will argue that the change in land use particularly erodes women’s rights to access land and forest resources, and in turn negatively affects local food production and rural livelihood in the region. It will show how women in the region play instrumental and dominant roles in ensuring local food production through subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture but are unfortunately the main losers of territory that the state considers as ‘empty’ or underutilized - and is subjected to appropriation. The paper will conclude that, rural women’s active participation in the decision-making processes concerning the use of and/or allotment of land to foreign investors is indispensable to guarantee local, national and global food security, but also to ensure that alternative livelihood options are provided, particularly to those rural women facing dispossession or at risk of being dispossessed.

Keywords: land grabbing, feminst political ecology, gender, access to resources, rural livelihoods, Cameroon

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65 Metabolic Syndrome among Some Originates of Mbo Ethnic Group Living in Yaounde-Cameroon

Authors: Mandob Enyegue Damaris, Oko Ndjollo Viviane

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The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome is increasing throughout the world. The etiology of the metabolic syndrome is dependent on different factors such as ethnic group. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic syndrome among Mbo ethnic group people leaving in Yaounde, Cameroon. The study conducted on the hundred and thirty two people 40 men and 92 women aged between 18-60 years who were referred to the Andre Fouda Medical Fundation in Yaounde. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (A.T.P-III) 2001 guidelines. The mean of age, high fasting blood glucose, triglycerides levels and total cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in women with metabolic syndrome. High blood pressure level (56.80%), high fasting glucose (20.45%) and high waist circumference (10.60%) were respectively the most frequent characteristics in comparison to others metabolic components. The overall prevalence of MetS was (4.55%) and higher in women (3.03%) than in men (1.52%). The prevalence of MetS is low in originates of Mbo ethnic group of Yaounde. High blood pressure is the most common abnormality.

Keywords: individual components, metabolic syndrome, Mbo ethnic group, Yaounde-Cameroon

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64 Cultural Stereotypes in EFL Classrooms and Their Implications on English Language Procedures in Cameroon

Authors: Eric Enongene Ekembe

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Recent calls on EFL teaching posit the centrality of context factors and argue for a correlation between effectiveness in teaching with the learners’ culture in the EFL classroom. Context is not everything; it is defined with indicators of learners’ cultural artifacts and stereotypes in meaningful interactions in the language classroom. In keeping with this, it is difficult to universalise pedagogic procedures given that appropriate procedures are context-sensitive- and contexts differ. It is necessary to investigate what counts as cultural specificities or stereotypes of specific learners to reflect on how different language learning contexts affect or are affected by English language teaching procedures, most especially in under-represented cultures, which have appropriated the English language. This paper investigates cultural stereotypes of EFL learners in the culturally diverse Cameroon to examine how they mediate teaching and learning. Data collected on mixed-method basis from 83 EFL teachers and 1321 learners in Cameroon reveal a strong presence of typical cultural artifacts and stereotypes. Statistical analysis and thematic coding demonstrate that teaching procedures in place were insensitive to the cultural artifacts and stereotypes, resulting in trending tension between teachers and learners. The data equally reveal a serious contradiction between the communicative goals of language teaching and learning: what teachers held as effective teaching was diametrically opposed to success in learning. In keeping with this, the paper argues for a ‘decentred’ teacher preparation in Cameroon that is informed by systemic learners’ feedback. On this basis, applied linguistics has the urgent task of exploring dimensions of what actually counts as contextualized practice in ELT.

Keywords: cultural stereotypes, EFL, implications, procedures

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63 Zoonotic Risk Practices in Rural Households in the Penka-Michel Health District (West Cameroon)

Authors: Namekong Fokeng Armand

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Background: Zoonoses are nowadays a serious public health problem in both developing and developed countries. They contribute to increase the economic burden. In case of emergence, rural populations are the most affected, hence the need to investigate risk practices in rural households of Penka-Michel (West Cameroon). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November 2021 among 200 heads of households living in the Penka-Michel health district (West Cameroon). It was done using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire, allowing to obtain socio-demographic, economic data, and data on zoonotic risk practices. Results: The participants [women (56%), men (44%)] worked mainly in the informal private sector (53%) and practiced agriculture secondarily (90%). Their highest level of education, for the most part, was a secondary school (50%); the average household size was 06 persons with a monthly income > 36270 FCFA (72%). 74% of household heads thought that animals can transmit diseases, and 17% had heard about zoonotic diseases through the media (65%). Rats caught in households (60%) were consumed there (74%), as was bush meat (61%) or dog meat (18%). For family food (90%), animals were slaughtered within the household (97%), rarely preceded by a veterinary inspection (6%). 87% of households practiced traditional rites with animal blood, 65% shared the same habitat as their animals, 41% did not systematically wash their hands after handling animals. More than 50% of households owned one or more dogs, usually strays (41%) and 48% of which were vaccinated (rabies). Many households had at least one: poultry (98%); pig (50%); dog (57%), cat (52%). 25% of households slaughtered sick animals for consumption, and 27% ate dead animals. Conclusion: This study identified numerous zoonotic risk practices in households in the Penka-Michel health district (West Cameroon). Concerted, multisectoral communication / awareness-raising actions are needed to break with these practices.

Keywords: zoonoses, risky practices, rural households, penka-michel, cameroon

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62 A Case Study on the Census of Technological Capacities in Health Care in Rural Sanitary Institutions in South Cameroon

Authors: Doriane Micaela Andeme Bikoro, Samuel Fosso Wamba, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug

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Currently one of the leading fields in the market of technological innovation is digital health. In developed countries, this booming innovation is experiencing an exponential speed. We understand that in developed countries, e-health could also revolutionize the practice of medicine and therefore fill the many failures observed in medical care. Everything leads to believe that future technology is oriented towards the medical sector. The aim of this work is to explore at the same time the technological resources and the potential of health care based on new technologies; it is a case study in a rural area of Southern Cameroon. Among other things, we will make a census of the shortcomings and problems encountered, and we will propose various appropriate solutions. The work methodology used here is essentially qualitative. We used two qualitative data collection techniques, direct observation, and interviews. In fact, we spent two weeks in the field observing and conducting some semi-directive interviews with some of those responsible for these health structures. This study was conducted in three health facilities in the south of the country; including two health centers and a rural hospital. Many technological failures have been identified in the day-to-day management of these health facilities and especially in the administration of health care to patients. We note major problems such as the digital divide, the lack of qualified personnel, the state of isolation of this area. This is why various proposals are made to improve the health sector in Cameroon both technologically and medically.

Keywords: Cameroon, capacities, census, digital health, qualitative method, rural area

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61 Enabling Exporting in Cameroon Using Export Promotion Programs

Authors: Morfaw Bernice Njinju

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The contribution of exporting and small businesses to an economy cannot be overemphasized. However, small firms in developing economies are characterized by resource deficiencies, which hinders their exporting abilities. As a result, export promotion programs are designed by the government as external resources that small firms can access to overcome export barriers and improve their exporting. Nevertheless, doubts still exist as to whether firms are aware of these programs and the extent to which they are utilizing it. To analyse the level of awareness and usage of these programs, the questionnaire was developed from the review of the literature. A pilot study was conducted to determine the ease of completing the questionnaire by respondent before incorporating feedback to produce the final questionnaire. Data were collected from 200 small businesses in Cameroon in the manufacturing and agricultural sector through random sampling and analysed using regression analysis. The results indicated that different programs had different levels of awareness than others. Programs to provide training to improve product quality was found to have the highest level of awareness while those providing findings had low levels of awareness. Despite these different levels of awareness, usage was very low, as firms do not want to open up to government scrutiny of their business. Implications to policy, practice, and direction for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: export promotion programs, exporting, small businesses, Cameroon

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60 Disinformation’s Threats to Democracy in Central Africa: Case Studies from Cameroon and Central African Republic

Authors: Simont Toussi

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Cameroon and the Central African Republic arebound by the provisions of many regional and international charters, which condemn the manipulation of information, obstacles to access reliable information, or the limitation of freedoms of expression and opinion. These two countries also have constitutional guarantees for free speech and access to true and liable information. However, they are yet to define specific policies and regulations for access to information, disinformation, or misinformation. Yet, certain countries’ laws and regulations related to information and communication technologies, to criminal procedures, to terrorism, or intelligence services contain provisions that rather hider human rights by condemning false information. Like many other African countries, Cameroon and the Central African Republic face a profound democratic regression, and governments use multiple methods to stifle online discourse and digital rights. Despite the increased uptake of digital tools for political participation, there is a lack of interactivity and adoption of these tools. This enables a scarcity of information and creates room for the spreading of disinformation in the public space, hamperingdemocracy and the respect for human rights. This research aims to analyse the adequacy of stakeholders’ responses to disinformation in Cameroon and the Central African Republic in periods of political contestation, such as elections and anti-government protests, to highlight the nature, perpetrators, strategies, and channels of disinformation, as well as its effects on democratic actors, including civil society, bloggers, government critics, activists, and other human rights defenders. The study follows a qualitative method with literature review, content analysis, andkey informant’sinterviews with stakeholders’ representatives, emphasized crowdsourcing as a data and information collecting method in the two countries.

Keywords: disinformation, democracy, political manipulation, social media, media, fake news, central Africa, cameroon, misinformation, free speech

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59 Farmers’ Perception and Response to Climate Change Across Agro-ecological Zones in Conflict-Ridden Communities in Cameroon

Authors: Lotsmart Fonjong

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The livelihood of rural communities in the West African state of Cameroon, which is largely dictated by natural forces (rainfall, temperatures, and soil), is today threatened by climate change and armed conflict. This paper investigates the extent to which rural communities are aware of climate change, how their perceptions of changes across different agro-ecological zones have impacted farming practices, output, and lifestyles, on the one hand, and the extent to which local armed conflicts are confounding their efforts and adaptation abilities. The paper is based on a survey conducted among small farmers in selected localities within the forest and savanna ecological zones of the conflict-ridden Northwest and Southwest Cameroon. Attention is paid to farmers’ gender, scale, and type of farming. Farmers’ perception of/and response to climate change are analysed alongside local rainfall and temperature data and mobilization for climate justice. Findings highlight the fact that farmers’ perception generally corroborates local climatic data. Climatic instability has negatively affected farmers’ output, food prices, standards of living, and food security. However, the vulnerability of the population varies across ecological zones, gender, and crop types. While these factors also account for differences in local response and adaptation to climate change, ongoing armed conflicts in these regions have further complicated opportunities for climate-driven agricultural innovations, inputs, and exchange of information among farmers. This situation underlines how poor communities, as victims, are forced into many complex problems outsider their making. It is therefore important to mainstream farmers’ perceptions and differences into policy strategies that consider both climate change and Anglophone conflict as national security concerns foe sustainable development in Cameroon.

Keywords: adaptation policies, climate change, conflict, small farmers, cameroon

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58 The Mediatization of Political Communication in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Cases of Cameroon and Ghana in a Comparative Perspective

Authors: Christian Nounkeu Tatchou

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The concept of mediatization of politics describes changes with regards to media and politics, as the political sphere is increasingly shaped by the media and conforms to its logic. The mediatization of politics in established democracies of the West has been the object of several researches. However, there is an overwhelming paucity of literature on this reconfiguration of the political life around the media in the emerging democracies of the Sub-Saharan Africa. A majority of Sub-Saharan countries have been progressively experiencing the modernization of their societies and significant developments with respect to political communication since the early 1990s. This has been facilitated by factors such as the adoption of democratic reforms, the development of mass media, the advent of social media and the rapid spread of new information and communication technologies. Thus, this paper investigates the extent to which political communication in Sub-Saharan Africa is mediatized, especially with regards to the social media. Through in-depths interviews with twenty political leaders and political observers in Cameroon and Ghana, this article argues that the social media has become the main arena of voters’ mobilization and political participation in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, a greater extent of freedom for political activism on social media is observed in the new democracy of Ghana, unlike in the enduring authoritarian political system of Cameroon where the government attempts to control the use and content of political discourse on social media.

Keywords: mediatization, political communication, social media, sub-saharan africa

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57 The Environmental and Socio Economic Impacts of Mining on Local Livelihood in Cameroon: A Case Study in Bertoua

Authors: Fongang Robert Tichuck

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This paper reports the findings of a study undertaken to assess the socio-economic and environmental impacts of mining in Bertoua Eastern Region of Cameroon. In addition to sampling community perceptions of mining activities, the study prescribes interventions that can assist in mitigating the negative impacts of mining. Marked environmental and interrelated socio-economic improvements can be achieved within regional artisanal gold mines if the government provides technical support to local operators, regulations are improved, and illegal mining activity is reduced.

Keywords: gold mining, socio-economic, mining activities, local people

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56 Low Enrollment in Antiretroviral Treatment among Pregnant Women Screened HIV Infected in Informal Health Centers in Cameroon

Authors: Lydie Audrey Amboua Schouame, Sylvie Kwedi Nolna, Antoine Socpa, Alexandre Benjamin Nkoum

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Background: Despite the struggle of the Cameroonian Ministry of Public Health against informal health centers (IHCs) because of their illegality, IHCs are booming in Cameroon and a large part of the population uses them. In 2017, more than 3.000 IHCs were counted across the country. Most of these IHCs have antenatal clinics and they screen pregnant women for HIV. However, there is no data on the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in this informal health sector in Cameroon. This study aimed to investigate the initiation of Antiretroviral treatment (ART) in pregnant women screened HIV positive in IHCs and associated factors. Methods: From January 01, 2018, to June 30, 2020, we carried out a cohort study of pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit and screened HIV positive in informal health centers in the cities of Douala and Ebolowa in Cameroon. Consenting participants were interviewed at two points: at least one week after delivery of the HIV result and three months later. The collected data were entered into Kobo collected and analyzed in SPSS V23.0 software. Results: A total of 182 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The median age at enrollment was 30 years (IQR, 24-34) and the median gestational age at first ANC was 25 weeks (IQR, 19-31). Overall 61% (111/182) had a secondary level of education, 65% (118/182) were married/in a common-law relationship and 69% (126/182) had no income activity. At their first ANC, 91% (166/182) were naïve to ARV treatment. Among them, only 45% (74/166) initiated ART. The median delay in initiating ARV treatment was 5 days (IQR, 0-25). Of those who have started ART, only 64% (48/74) remained on treatment 3 months later. Conclusion: In order to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, attention should be paid to IHCs.

Keywords: informal health centers, human immunodeficiency, antiretroviral treatment, pregnant women

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55 Student's Perception of Home Background and the Acquisition of English Language in Mbonge Municipality, Cameroon

Authors: Japhet Asanji

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The bases of this research were to explore student’s perception of home background and the acquisition of English Language in Mbonge Municipality by examining how financial status, level of education, marital status and parenting styles of their parents influence English Language Acquisition. Using random sampling techniques, closed-ended questionnaires were administered to 60 students, and the data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. The results reaffirm the positive relationship between student’s perception of home background and the acquisition of English language. Contributions, limitations, and direction for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: student, home background, English language acquisition, Cameroon

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54 Determining the Presence of Brucella abortus Antibodies by the Indirect Elisa Method in Bovine Bulk Milk and Risk Factors in the Peri-Urban Zones of Bamenda Cameroon

Authors: Cha-ah C. N., Awah N. J., Mouiche M. M. M.

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Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of animals and man caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. Though eradicated in some parts of the world, it remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. The aim of this study was to contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis in the North-West region of Cameroon by detecting the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in bovine bulk milk as this serves as a route of transmission from animals to man. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk in the peri-urban zones of Bamenda. One hundred bulk milk samples were collected from 100 herds and tested by milk I-ELISA test. The conducted study revealed the presence of anti-Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk. The study revealed that bovine brucellosis is widespread in animal production systems in this area. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to movement of livestock in search of pasture, co-existence of animal husbandry, communal sharing of grazing land, concentration of animals around water points, abortions in production systems, locality of production systems and failure to quarantine upon introduction of new animals. The circulation of Brucella abortus antibodies in cattle farms recorded in the study revealed potential public health implication and suggest economic importance of brucellosis to the cattle industry in the Northwest region of Cameroon. The risk for re-emergence and transmission of brucellosis is evident as a result of the co-existence of animal husbandry activities and social-cultural activities that promote brucellosis transmission. Well-designed countrywide, evidence-based studies of brucellosis are needed. These could help to generate reliable frequency and potential impact estimates, to identify Brucella reservoirs, and to propose control strategies of proven efficacy.

Keywords: brucellosis, bulk milk, northwest region Cameroon, prevalence

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53 Analysis of Incidences of Collapsed Buildings in the City of Douala, Cameroon from 2011-2020

Authors: Theodore Gautier Le Jeune Bikoko, Jean Claude Tchamba, Sofiane Amziane

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This study focuses on the problem of collapsed buildings within the city of Douala over the past ten years, and more precisely, within the period from 2011 to 2020. It was carried out in a bid to ascertain the real causes of this phenomenon, which has become recurrent in the leading economic city of Cameroon. To achieve this, it was first necessary to review some works dealing with construction materials and technology as well as some case histories of structural collapse within the city. Thereafter, a statistical study was carried out on the results obtained. It was found that the causes of building collapses in the city of Douala are: Neglect of administrative procedures, use of poor quality materials, poor composition and confectioning of concrete, lack of Geotechnical study, lack of structural analysis and design, corrosion of the reinforcement bars, poor maintenance in buildings, and other causes. Out of the 46 cases of structural failure of buildings within the city of Douala, 7 of these were identified to have had no geotechnical study carried out, giving a percentage of 15.22%. It was also observed that out of the 46 cases of structural failure, 6 were as a result of lack of proper structural analysis and design, giving a percentage of 13.04%. Subsequently, recommendations and suggestions are made in a bid to placing particular emphasis on the choice of materials, the manufacture and casting of concrete, as well as the placement of the required reinforcements. All this guarantees the stability of a building.

Keywords: collapse buildings, Douala, structural collapse, Cameroon

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52 Social Inclusion Challenges in Indigenous Communities: Case of the Baka Pygmies Community of Cameroon

Authors: Igor Michel Gachig, Samanta Tiague

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Baka ‘Pygmies’ is an indigenous community living in the rainforest region of Cameroon. This community is known to be poor and marginalized from the political, economic and social life, regardless of sedentarization and development efforts. In fact, the social exclusion of ‘Pygmy’ people prevents them from gaining basic citizen’s rights, among which access to education, land, healthcare, employment and justice. In this study, social interactions, behaviors, and perceptions were considered. An interview guide and focus group discussions were used to collect data. A sample size of 97 was used, with 60 Baka Pygmies and 37 Bantus from two Baka-Bantu settlements/villages of the south region of Cameroon. The data were classified in terms of homogenous, exhaustive and exclusive categories. This classification has enabled factors explaining social exclusion in the Baka community to be highlighted using content analysis. The study shows that (i) limited access to education, natural resources and care in modern healthcare organizations, and (ii) different views on the development expectations and integration approaches both highlight the social exclusion in the Baka ‘Pygmies’ community. Therefore, an effective and adequate social integration of ‘Pygmies’ based on cultural peculiarities and identity, as well as reduction of disparities and improvement of their access to education should be of major concern to the government and policy makers.

Keywords: development, indigenous people, integration, social exclusion

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51 New Innovation and Sustainability in a Developing Country: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Lema Catherine Forje

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Innovation activates the system of an economy to a new level. Innovation follows a process. The first step in innovation is the idea-generation process. There is widespread appreciation that people go to great lengths, incur expenses: energy and materials to generate innovative ideas. People get inspired, create, and connect. The inspiration also enables the building of a culture of innovation. Data collection was done through a face-to-face interview with the producer of the first Cameroon beer that came out in the early 1960s, a rice producing company, a cement producing company, and 100 women following a type of dressing commonly worn by Cameroonian women (wrappa). There were a total number of one hundred and three interviewees. The implication of this study is for everybody. It sheds light on the factors that are likely to sustain an innovation. Conclusion emphasises continuous research to keep giving the innovation a face lift.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, ideas, innovation, sustainability

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