Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: bronze age

23 Rituals in Rock Art: Case Study of Bronze Age Rock Art of Gobustan

Authors: Rahman Abdullayev

Abstract:

Rituals took place during the rock art production or in the rock art sites can be found reflection in contemporary culture. But the form of rituals was conducted in association with rock art production still uncertain. The main purpose of this research is to define the form of ritual activities that took place in the rock art sites, by the example of Bronze Age rock art of Gobustan. For ritual activity location of the rocks which were selected for making petroglyphs has important significance. Thus, not all the rocks which were suitable for rock art were used for this purpose. If in Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic periods Gobustan inhabitants executed petroglyphs on the wall of rock shelters, but in Bronze Age they made it on rocks which are in front of the large, open spaces. A recent study of the location of Bronze Age rock art of Gobustan and involving ethnographic information to the interpretation of drawings allows defining the form of rituals which took place in Gobustan at Bronze Age.

Keywords: Bronze Age, Gobustan, ritual, rock art

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22 Colonial Racism and the Benin Bronze Artefacts, 1862-1960

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo

Abstract:

This research is on colonial racism and the Benin bronze artefacts between 1862 and 1960. It analyses the British racial sentiments against the Benin people that heralded colonial rule and how they influenced the perceptions of the artworks during the period. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge of colonial rule in Benin by bringing to the fore its impacts on the perception and interpretation of the Benin bronze artefacts during the period. Primary and secondary sources were utilised and the historical method was adopted. The findings reveal that the first British racial propaganda against the Benin people started in 1862 and that it was consciously orchestrated to manoeuvre public opinion for the ill-conceived colonial project. The research also reveals that the Benin people were not alone in this, as other peoples of Africa that were targeted for British colonial domination suffered the same fate. Findings also show that racial propaganda was actually used to rationalised colonial rule in Benin and that it later influenced the interpretations and perception of the Benin bronze artefacts throughout the colonial period and beyond.

Keywords: Benin, Bronzes, colonial, racism

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21 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification, tafel polarisation, corrosion resistance

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20 A Note on Metallurgy at Khanak: An Indus Site in Tosham Mining Area, Haryana

Authors: Ravindra N. Singh, Dheerendra P. Singh

Abstract:

Recent discoveries of Bronze Age artefacts, tin slag, furnaces and crucibles, together with new geological evidence on tin deposits in Tosham area of Bhiwani district in Haryana (India) provide the opportunity to survey the evidence for possible sources of tin and the use of bronze in the Harappan sites of north western India. Earlier, Afghanistan emerged as the most promising eastern source of tin utilized by Indus Civilization copper-smiths. Our excavations conducted at Khanak near Tosham mining area during 2014 and 2016 revealed ample evidence of metallurgical activities as attested by the occurrence of slag, ores and evidences of ashes and fragments of furnaces in addition to the bronze objects. We have conducted petrological, XRD, EDAX, TEM, SEM and metallography on the slag, ores, crucible fragments and bronze objects samples recovered from Khanak excavations. This has given positive indication of mining and metallurgy of poly-mettalic Tin at the site; however, it can only be ascertained after the detailed scientific examination of the materials which is underway. In view of the importance of site, we intend to excavate the site horizontally in future so as to obtain more samples for scientific studies.

Keywords: archaeometallurgy, problem of tin, metallography, indus civilization

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19 Investigating Ancient Technology and Ceramic Composition at Al-Khidr Site (Failaka Island, Kuwait): Geochemical Analyses of Bronze Age Pottery by pXRF and Thin-section Petrographic Analyses

Authors: Hasan Ashkanani

Abstract:

Pottery assemblages from the site of Al-Khidr on Failaka Island, Kuwait, were analysed in order to reconstruct the chemical composition of Bronze Age wares and to build a mineralogical database of Bronze Age pottery dated from Failaka Periods 1–3B (2000–1650 BCE). A total of 145 ceramic sherds from Al-Khidr, as well as reference groups, were analysed by non-destructive portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry. Preliminarily petrographic thin-section analysis was applied to four samples to reconstruct possible clay paste recipes and to identify raw materials. The results indicate that geochemical analyses can successfully distinguish subgroups within a typological category of ceramic assemblages. The results identified two subgroups within the Al-Khidr typological category: the Dilmun Barbar tradition and the Mesopotamian tradition. Future comparative compositional studies can be conducted to explore other aspects of craft specialisation, such as ceramic technological choices and possibly the influence of sociopolitical units

Keywords: Kuwait archaeology, pottery, pXRF, Dilmun

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18 Tribological Behavior of PTFE Composites Used for Guide Rings of Hydraulic Actuating Cylinders under Oil-Lubricated Condition

Authors: Trabelsi Mohamed, Kharrat Mohamed, Dammak Maher

Abstract:

Guide rings play an important role in the performance and durability of hydraulic actuating cylinders. In service, guide rings surfaces are subjected to friction and wear against steel counterface. A good mastery of these phenomena is required for the improvement of the energy safeguard and the durability of the actuating cylinder. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer is extensively used in guide rings thanks to its low coefficient of friction, its good resistance to solvents as well as its high temperature stability. In this study, friction and wear behavior of two PTFE composites filled with bronze and bronze plus MoS2 were evaluated under oil-lubricated condition, aiming as guide rings for hydraulic actuating cylinder. Wear tests of the PTFE composite specimen sliding against steel ball were conducted using reciprocating linear tribometer. The wear mechanisms of the composites under the same sliding condition were discussed, based on Scanning Electron Microscopy examination of the worn composite surface and the optical micrographs of the steel counter surface. As for the results, comparative friction behaviors of the PTFE composites and lower friction coefficients were recorded under oil lubricated condition. The wear behavior was considerably improved to compare with this in dry sliding, while the oil adsorbed layer limited the transfer of the PTFE to the steel counter face during the sliding test.

Keywords: PTFE, composite, bronze, MoS2, friction, wear, oil-lubrication

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17 Laser Micro-Welding of an Isomorphous System with Different Geometries: An Investigation on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the Joint

Authors: Mahdi Amne Elahi, Marcus Koch, Peter Plapper

Abstract:

Due to the demand of miniaturizing in automotive industry, the application of laser welding is quite promising. The current study focused on laser micro-welding of CuSn6 bronze and nickel wire for a miniature electromechanical hybrid component. Due to the advantages of laser welding, the welding can be tailored specifically for the requirements of the part. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were implemented to study the microstructure and tensile-shear test was selected to represent the mechanical properties. Different welding sides, beam oscillations, and speeds have been investigated to optimize the tensile-shear load and microstructure. The results show that the mechanical properties and microstructure of the joint is highly under the influence of the mentioned parameters. Due to the lack of intermetallic compounds, the soundness of the joint is achievable by manipulating the geometry of the weld seam and minimize weld defects.

Keywords: bronze, laser micro-welding, microstructure, nickel, tensile shear test

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16 The Late Bronze Age Archeometallurgy of Copper in Mountainous Colchis (Lechkhumi), Georgia

Authors: Nino Sulava, Brian Gilmour, Nana Rezesidze, Tamar Beridze, Rusudan Chagelishvili

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Studies of ancient metallurgy are a subject of worldwide current interest. Georgia with its famous early metalworking traditions is one of the central parts of in the Caucasus region. The aim of the present study is to introduce the results of archaeometallurgical investigations being undertaken in the mountain region of Colchis, Lechkhumi (the Tsageri Municipality of western Georgia) and establish their place in the existing archaeological context. Lechkhumi (one of the historic provinces of Georgia known from Georgian, Greek, Byzantine and Armenian written sources as Lechkhumi/Skvimnia/Takveri) is the part of the Colchian mountain area. It is one of the important but little known centres of prehistoric metallurgy in the Caucasian region and of Colchian Bronze Age culture. Reconnaissance archaeological expeditions (2011-2015) revealed significant prehistoric metallurgical sites in Lechkhumi. Sites located in the vicinity of Dogurashi Village (Tsageri Municipality) have become the target area for archaeological excavations. During archaeological excavations conducted in 2016-2018 two archaeometallurgical sites – Dogurashi I and Dogurashi II were investigated. As a result of an interdisciplinary (archaeological, geological and geophysical) survey, it has been established that at both prehistoric Dogurashi mountain sites, it was copper that was being smelted and the ore sources are likely to be of local origin. Radiocarbon dating results confirm they were operating between about the 13th and 9th century BC. More recently another similar site has been identified in this area (Dogurashi III), and this is about to undergo detailed investigation. Other prehistoric metallurgical sites are being located and investigated in the Lechkhumi region as well as chance archaeological finds (often in hoards) – copper ingots, metallurgical production debris, slag, fragments of crucibles, tuyeres (air delivery pipes), furnace wall fragments and other related waste debris. Other chance finds being investigated are the many copper, bronze and (some) iron artefacts that have been found over many years. These include copper ingots, copper, bronze and iron artefacts such as tools, jewelry, and decorative items. These show the important but little known or understood the role of Lechkhumi in the late Bronze Age culture of Colchis. It would seem that mining and metallurgical manufacture form part of the local agricultural yearly lifecycle. Colchian ceramics have been found and also evidence for artefact production, small stone mould fragments and encrusted material from the casting of a fylfot (swastika) form of Colchian bronze buckle found in the vicinities of the early settlements of Tskheta and Dekhviri. Excavation and investigation of previously unknown archaeometallurgical sites in Lechkhumi will contribute significantly to the knowledge and understanding of prehistoric Colchian metallurgy in western Georgia (Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo, and Svaneti) and will reveal the importance of this region in the study of ancient metallurgy in Georgia and the Caucasus. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (grant FR # 217128).

Keywords: archaeometallurgy, Colchis, copper, Lechkhumi

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15 A Study and Design Scarf Collection Applied Vietnamese Traditional Patterns by Using Printing Method on Fabric

Authors: Mai Anh Pham Ho

Abstract:

Scarf products today is a symbol of fashion to decorate, to make our life more beautiful and bring new features to our living space. It also shows the cultural identity by using the traditional patterns that make easily to introduce the image of Vietnam to other nations all over the world. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to classify Vietnamese traditional patterns according to the era and dynasties. Vietnamese traditional patterns through the dynasties of Vietnamese history are done and classified by five groups of patterns including the geometric patterns, the natural patterns, the animal patterns, the floral patterns, and the character patterns in the Prehistoric times, the Bronze and Iron age, the Chinese domination, the Ngo-Dinh-TienLe-Ly-Tran-Ho dynasty, and the LeSo-Mac-LeTrinh-TaySon-Nguyen dynasty. Besides, there are some special kinds of Vietnamese traditional patterns like buffalo, lotus, bronze-drum, Phuc Loc Tho character, and so on. Extensive research was conducted for modernizing scarf collection applied Vietnamese traditional patterns which the fashion trend is used on creating works. The concept, target, image map, lifestyle map, motif, colours, arrangement and completion of patterns on scarf were set up. The scarf collection is designed and developed by the Adobe Illustrator program with three colour ways for each scarf. Upon completion of the research, digital printing technology is chosen for using on scarf collection which Vietnamese traditional patterns were researched deeply and widely with the purpose of establishment the basic background for Vietnamese culture in order to identify Vietnamese national personality as well as establish and preserve the cultural heritage.

Keywords: scarf collection, Vietnamese traditional patterns, printing methods, fabric design

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14 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Pin on Disc Type of Contact

Authors: S. Djebali, S. Larbi, A. Bilek

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The present work aims at contributing to the study of the complex phenomenon of wear of pin on disc contact in dry sliding friction between two material couples (bronze/steel and unsaturated polyester virgin and charged with graphite powder/steel). The work consists of the determination of the coefficient of friction, the study of the influence of the tribological parameters on this coefficient and the determination of the mass loss and the wear rate of the pin. This study is also widened to the highlighting of the influence of the addition of graphite powder on the tribological properties of the polymer constituting the pin. The experiments are carried out on a pin-disc type tribometer that we have designed and manufactured. Tests are conducted according to the standards DIN 50321 and DIN EN 50324. The discs are made of annealed XC48 steel and quenched and tempered XC48 steel. The main results are described here after. The increase of the normal load and the sliding speed causes the increase of the friction coefficient, whereas the increase of the percentage of graphite and the hardness of the disc surface contributes to its reduction. The mass loss also increases with the normal load. The influence of the normal load on the friction coefficient is more significant than that of the sliding speed. The effect of the sliding speed decreases for large speed values. The increase of the amount of graphite powder leads to a decrease of the coefficient of friction, the mass loss and the wear rate. The addition of graphite to the UP resin is beneficial; it plays the role of solid lubricant.

Keywords: bronze, friction coefficient, graphite, mass loss, polyester, steel, wear rate

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13 Recent Findings of Late Bronze Age Mining and Archaeometallurgy Activities in the Mountain Region of Colchis (Southern Lechkhumi, Georgia)

Authors: Rusudan Chagelishvili, Nino Sulava, Tamar Beridze, Nana Rezesidze, Nikoloz Tatuashvili

Abstract:

The South Caucasus is one of the most important centers of prehistoric metallurgy, known for its Colchian bronze culture. Modern Lechkhumi – historical Mountainous Colchis where the existence of prehistoric metallurgy is confirmed by the discovery of many artifacts is a part of this area. Studies focused on prehistoric smelting sites, related artifacts and ore deposits have been conducted during the last ten years in Lechkhumi. More than 20 prehistoric smelting sites and artifacts associated with metallurgical activities (ore roasting furnaces, slags, crucible, and tuyères fragments) have been identified so far. Within the framework of integrated studies was established that these sites were operating in 13-9 centuries B.C. and used for copper smelting. Palynological studies of slags revealed that chestnut (Castanea sativa) and hornbeam (Carpinus sp.) wood was used as smelting fuel. Geological exploration-analytical studies revealed that copper ore mining, processing and smelting sites were distributed close to each other. Despite recent complex data, the signs of prehistoric mines (trenches) haven’t been found in this part of the study area so far. Since 2018 the archaeological-geological exploration has been focused on the southern part of Lechkhumi and covered the areas of villages Okureshi and Opitara. Several copper smelting sites (Okureshi 1 and 2, Opitara 1), as well as a Colchian Bronze culture settlement, have been identified here. Three mine workings have been found in the narrow gorge of the river Rtkhmelebisgele in the vicinities of the village Opitara. In order to establish a link between the Opitara-Okureshi archaeometallurgical sites, Late Bronze Age settlement and mines, various scientific analytical methods - mineralized rock and slags petrography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) analysis have been applied. The careful examination of Opitara mine workings revealed that there is a striking difference between mine #1 on the right bank of the river and mine #2 and #3 on the left bank. The first one has all characteristic features of the Soviet period mine working (e. g. high portal with angular ribs and roof showing signs of blasting). In contrast, mines #2 and #3, which are located very close to each other, have round-shaped portals/entrances, low roofs and fairly smooth ribs and are filled with thick layers of river sediments and collapsed weathered rock mass. A thorough review of the publications related to prehistoric mine workings and revealed some striking similarities between mines #2 and #3 with their worldwide analogs. Apparently, the ore extraction from these mines was conducted by fire-setting applying primitive tools. It was also established that mines are cut in Jurassic mineralized volcanic rocks. Ore minerals (chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena) are related to calcite and quartz veins. The results obtained through the petrochemical and petrography studies of mineralized rock samples from Opitara mines and prehistoric slags are in complete correlation with each other, establishing the direct link between copper mining, and smelting within the study area. This work was supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (grant # FR-19-13022).

Keywords: archaeometallurgy, mountainous Colchis, mining, ore minerals

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12 The Canaanite Trade Network between the Shores of the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef

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The Canaanite civilization was one of the early great civilizations of the Near East, they influenced and been influenced from the civilizations of the ancient world especially the Egyptian and Mesopotamia civilizations. The development of the Canaanite trade started from the Chalcolithic Age to the Iron Age through the oldest trade route in the Middle East. This paper will focus on defining the Canaanites and from where did they come from and the meaning of the term Canaan and how the Ancient Manuscripts define the borders of the land of Canaan and this essay will describe the Canaanite trade route and their exported goods such as cedar wood, and pottery.

Keywords: archaeology, bronze age, Canaanite, colonies, Massilia, pottery, shipwreck, vineyards

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11 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan

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This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

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10 The Need for the Inclusion of Museum Studies at All Levels of Education in Nigeria

Authors: Stephany Inalegwu

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Museums play a very critical role in understanding the cultural values and the history of any given society in Nigeria and the world at large. The role of Museums as an avenue through which artefacts are collected, preserved and exhibited cannot be over emphasized as they are now seen as not only with the above stated aims but also as a creator of employment and revenue generation if properly harnessed. Interestingly, despite its importance, museum studies have been limited to University curriculum alone causing a dearth of information for the younger generation up until they attain the University age. It is against this background that this paper carefully analyses the definitions of museums, the state of museums and museum studies in Nigeria today and the need to include its studies at all the levels of Education in Nigeria from the primary, to secondary and tertiary levels. It should reflect a study of all ages, as this is vital in the development of individuals. It concludes by harping on the need for a better appreciation of the Nigerian culture ranging from the famous Nok Terracotta, Benin Bronze works etc and its importance of museums as an avenue to display the rich Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: culture, curriculum, education, museum

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9 Deposition and Properties of PEO Coatings on Zinc-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Linlin Wang, Guangdong Bian, Jifeng Shen, Jingzhu Zeng

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Zinc-aluminum alloys have been applied as alternatives to bronze, aluminum alloys, and cast iron due to their distinguishing features such as high as-cast strength, excellent bearing properties, as well as low energy requirements for melting. In this study, oxide coatings were produced on ZA27 zinc-aluminum alloy by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Three coatings were deposited by using three various electrolytes, i.e. silicate, aluminate and aluminate/borate composite solutions. The current density is set at 0.1A/cm2, deposition time is 40 mins for all the deposition processes. The surface morphology and phase structure of the three coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pin-on-disc sliding wear tests were conducted to test the tribological properties of coatings. The results indicated that the coating produced using the aluminate/borate composite electrolyte had the highest deposition rate and best wear resistance among the three coatings.

Keywords: oxide coating, PEO, tribological properties, ZA27

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8 RE:SOUNDING a 2000-Year-Old Vietnamese Dong Son Bronze Drum; Artist-Led Collaborations outside the Museum to Challenge the Impasse of Repatriating and Rematriating Cultural Instruments

Authors: H. A. J. Nguyen, V. A. Pham

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RE:SOUNDING is an ongoing research project and artwork seeking to return the sound and knowledge of Dong Son bronze drums back to contemporary musicians. Colonial collections of ethnographic instruments are problematic in how they commit acts of conceptual, cultural, and acoustic silencing. The collection (or more honestly), the plagiarism, and pillaging of these instruments have systemically separated them from living and breathing cultures. This includes diasporic communities, who have come to resettle in close proximity - but still have little access - to the museums and galleries that display their cultural objects. Despite recent attempts to 'open up' and 'recognise' the tensions and violence of these ethnographic collections, many museums continue to structurally organize and reproduce knowledge with the same procedural distance and limitations of imperial condescension. Impatient with the slowness of these museums, our diaspora led collaborations participated in the opaque economy of the auction market to gain access and begin the process of digitally recording and archiving the actual sounds of the ancient Dong Son drum. This self-directed, self-initiated artwork not only acoustically reinvigorated an ancient instrument but redistributed these sonic materials back to contemporary musicians, composers, and their diasporic communities throughout Vietnam, South East Asia, and Australia. Our methodologies not only highlight the persistent inflexibility of museum infrastructures but demand that museums refrain from their paternalistic practice of risk-averse ownership, to seriously engage with new technologies and political formations that require all public institutions to be held accountable for the ethical and intellectual viability of their colonial collections. The integrated and practical resolve of diasporic artists and their communities are more than capable of working with new technologies to reclaim and reinvigorate what is culturally and spiritually theirs. The motivation to rematriate – as opposed to merely repatriate – the acoustic legacies of these instruments to contemporary musicians and artists is a new model for decolonial and restorative practices. Exposing the inadequacies of western scholarship that continues to treat these instruments as discreet, disembodied, and detached artifacts, these collaborative strategies have thus far produced a wealth of new knowledge – new to the west perhaps – but not that new to these, our own communities. This includes the little-acknowledged fact that the Dong Son drum were political instruments of war and technology, rather than their simplistic description in the museum and western academia as agrarian instruments of fertility and harvest. Through the collective and continued sharing of knowledge and sound materials produced from this research, these drums are gaining a contemporary relevance beyond the cultural silencing of the museum display cabinet. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the Wurundjeri and Boon Wurrung of the Kulin Nation and the Gadigal of the Eora Nation where we began this project. We pay our respects to the Peoples, Lands, Traditional Custodians, Practices, and Creator Ancestors of these Great Nations, as well as those First Nations peoples throughout Australia, Vietnam, and Indonesia, where this research continues, and upon whose stolen lands and waterways were never ceded.

Keywords: acoustic archaeology, decolonisation, museum collections, rematriation, repatriation, Dong Son, experimental music, digital recording

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7 Developing Open-Air Museum: The Heritage Conservation Effort, Oriented to Geotourism Concept and Education

Authors: Rinaldi Ikhram, R. A. Julia Satriani

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The discovery of historical objects in Indonesia, especially in the area around Bandung and Priangan zone in general, have been inventorized and recorded by Dutch geologists during the colonial time. Among artefacts such as axes made of chalcedony and quartzite; arrowheads, knives, shrivel, and drill bit all made from obsidian; grindstones, even bracelet from stones. Ceramic mold for smelting bronze or iron were also found. The abundance of artefacts inspired DR. W. Docters van Leeuwen and his colleagues to initiate the establishment of Sunda Open-air Museum "Soenda Openlucht Museum" in 1917, located in the hills of North Bandung area, the site of pre-historic settlements that needs conservation. Unfortunately, this plan was not implemented because shortly after, World War II occurred. The efforts of heritage conservation is one of our responsibilities as a geologist today. Open-air Museum may be one of the solutions of heritage conservation for historic sites around the world. In this paper, the study of the development of Open-air Museum will be focused on the area of Dago, North Bandung. Method used is data analysis of field surveys, and data analysis of the remaining artefacts stored at both the National Museum in Jakarta, and the Bandung Museum of Geology. The museum is based on Geotourism and further research on pre-historic culture, while its purpose is to give people a common interest and to motivate them to participate in the research and conservation of pre-historic relics. This paper will describe more details about the concept, form, and management of the geopark and the Open-air Museum within.

Keywords: geoparks, heritage conservation, open-air museum, sustainable tourism

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6 4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Authors: Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz, Jonathan Adams, Felix Pedrotti

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This paper introduces the applicability of underwater photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological excavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was being attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early as the 1970s’ and today the production of traditional 3D models is becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.  Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and when underwater visibility is > 1m, reducing its implementation on most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions. Recent years have seen significant development of better digital photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology, ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5, GoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age (3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions (< 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.

Keywords: 4D modelling, Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project, multi-source photogrammetry, low visibility underwater survey

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5 Education for Sustainable Development and the Eco School Initiative in Two Primary Schools in The North East of England

Authors: Athanasia Chatzifotiou, Karen Tait

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Eco-school is an international initiative that offers schools the opportunity to develop practices on education for sustainable development (EfSD). Such practices need to focus on nine areas, namely: energy, water, biodiversity, school grounds, healthy living, transport, litter, waste and global citizenship. Acquiring the green flag status is the ultimate stage (silver and bronze are the other two) that is awarded by a committee external to the school and it lasts for two years. Our project focused on two such primary schools that had acquired the green flag status. The aim of our project is to describe the schools’ approach of becoming an eco-school, the practitioners’ role in promoting the values and principles of such endeavors, thus identifying the impact of EfSD. We chose the eco-schools initiative as it gives a clear and straightforward way to identify a school with an interest in EfSD. The project is important because even though EfSD attracts high attention in rhetoric, there is evidence indicating that EfSD may be neglected in practice. This paper presents part of a bigger project that aims to compare how primary schools and early years settings have approached EfSD via the eco-school initiative in the North East of England. This is a qualitative project that used a case study design to focus on the practices of two particular primary schools to gain a green flag status. A semi-structured interview was used with the lead teachers/practitioners of the schools; an audit was also conducted as part of a tour of the schools’ premises highlighting the initiatives, curriculum work, projects undertaken as well as resources available to school. A content analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted with the creation of response categories and response narratives by the two researchers first working individually and then collaboratively; the findings of the project reflected issues that concerned: a) pupils’ cognitive, physical and socio-emotional development, b) the wider community and c) the lead practitioners’ role and status in school. In relation to EfSD, our findings indicated that its impact upon these two eco-schools was rather minimal; a mismatch was identified between the eco-school practices and a holistic understanding of issues that EfSD aims to achieve. This mismatch between eco-school practices and EfSD is discussed with regard to: a) pupils’ understanding of the sustainability dimension in the topics they addressed; and b) teachers’ knowledge of sustainability and willingness to keep on such work in schools.

Keywords: eco-schools, environment, primary schools, sustainability education

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4 Dynamics of Bacterial Contamination and Oral Health Risks Associated with Currency Notes and Coins Circulating in Kampala City

Authors: Abdul Walusansa

Abstract:

In this paper, paper notes and coins were collected from general public in Kampala City where ready-to-eat food can be served, in order to survey for bacterial contamination. The total bacterial number and potentially pathogenic organisms loading on currency were tested. All isolated potential pathogens were also tested for antibiotic resistance against four most commonly prescribed antibiotics. 1. The bacterial counts on one hundred paper notes sample were ranging between 6~10918/cm cm-2,the median was 141/ cm-2, according to the data it was much higher than credit cards and Australian notes which were made of polymer. The bacterial counts on sixty coin samples were ranging between 2~380/cm-2, much less than paper notes. 2. Coliform (65.6%), E. coli (45.9%), S. aureus (41.7%), B. cereus (67.7%), Salmonella (19.8%) were isolated on one hundred paper notes. Coliform (22.4%), E. coli (5.2%), S. aureus (24.1%), B. cereus (34.5%), Salmonella (10.3%) were isolated from sixty coin samples. These results suggested a high rate of potential pathogens contamination of paper notes than coins. 3. Antibiotic resistances are commonly in most of the pathogens isolated on currency. Ampicillin resistance was found in 60%of Staphylococcus aureus isolated on currency, as well as 76.6% of E. coil and 40% of Salmonella. Erythromycin resistance was detected in 56.6% of S. aureus and in 80.0% of E. coli. All the pathogens isolated were sensitive to Norfloxacin, Salmonella and S. aureus also sensitive to Cefaclor. In this paper, we also studied the antimicrobial capability of metal coins, coins collected from different countries were tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of E. sakazakii, S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. 1) E. sakazakii appeared very sensitive to metal coins, the second is S. aureus, but E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium are more resistant to these metal coin samples. 2) Coins made of Nickel-brass alloy and Copper-nickel alloy showed a better effect in anti-microbe than other metal coins, especially the ability to inhibited the growth of E. sakazakii and S. aureus, all the inhibition zones produced on nutrient agar are more than 20.6 mm. Aluminium-bronze alloy revealed weak anti-microbe activity to S. aureus and no effect to kill other pathogens. Coins made of stainless steel also can’t resist bacteria growth. 3) Surprisingly, one cent coins of USA which were made of 97.5% Zinc and 2.5% Cu showed a significant antimicrobial capability, the average inhibition zone of these five pathogens is 45.5 mm.

Keywords: antibiotic sensitivity, bacteria, currency, coins, parasites

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3 Exploring Communities of Practice through Public Health Walks for Nurse Education

Authors: Jacqueline P. Davies

Abstract:

Introduction: Student nurses must develop skills in observation, communication and reflection as well as public health knowledge from their first year of training. This paper will explain a method developed for students to collect their own findings about public health in urban areas. These areas are both rich in the history of old public health that informs the content of many traditional public health walks, but are also locations where new public health concerns about chronic disease are concentrated. The learning method explained in this paper enables students to collect their own data and write original work as first year students. Examples of their findings will be given. Methodology: In small groups, health care students are instructed to walk in neighbourhoods near to the hospitals they will soon attend as apprentice nurses. On their walks, they wander slowly, engage in conversations, and enter places open to the public. As they drift, they observe with all five senses in the real three dimensional world to collect data for their reflective accounts of old and new public health. They are encouraged to stop for refreshments and taste, as well as look, hear, smell, and touch while on their walk. They reflect as a group and later develop an individual reflective account in which they write up their deep reflections about what they observed on their walk. In preparation for their walk, they are encouraged to look at studies of quality of Life and other neighbourhood statistics as well as undertaking a risk assessment for their walk. Findings: Reflecting on their walks, students apply theoretical concepts around social determinants of health and health inequalities to develop their understanding of communities in the neighbourhoods visited. They write about the treasured historical architecture made of stone, bronze and marble which have outlived those who built them; but also how the streets are used now. The students develop their observations into thematic analyses such as: what we drink as illustrated by the empty coke can tossed into a now disused drinking fountain; the shift in home-life balance illustrated by streets where families once lived over the shop which are now walked by commuters weaving around each other as they talk on their mobile phones; and security on the street, with CCTV cameras placed at regular intervals, signs warning trespasses and barbed wire; but little evidence of local people watching the street. Conclusion: In evaluations of their first year, students have reported the health walk as one of their best experiences. The innovative approach was commended by the UK governing body of nurse education and it received a quality award from the nurse education funding body. This approach to education allows students to develop skills in the real world and write original work.

Keywords: education, innovation, nursing, urban

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2 Study Protocol: Impact of a Sustained Health Promoting Workplace on Stock Price Performance and Beta - A Singapore Case

Authors: Wee Tong Liaw, Elaine Wong Yee Sing

Abstract:

Since 2001, many companies in Singapore have voluntarily participated in the bi-annual Singapore HEALTH Award initiated by the Health Promotion Board of Singapore (HPB). The Singapore HEALTH Award (SHA), is an industry wide award and assessment process. SHA assesses and recognizes employers in Singapore for implementing a comprehensive and sustainable health promotion programme at their workplaces. The rationale for implementing a sustained health promoting workplace and participating in SHA is obvious when company management is convinced that healthier employees, business productivity, and profitability are positively correlated. However, performing research or empirical studies on the impact of a sustained health promoting workplace on stock returns are not likely to yield any interests in the absence of a systematic and independent assessment on the comprehensiveness and sustainability of a health promoting workplace in most developed economies. The principles of diversification and mean-variance efficient portfolio in Modern Portfolio Theory developed by Markowitz (1952) laid the foundation for the works of many financial economists and researchers, and among others, the development of the Capital Asset Pricing Model from the work of Sharpe (1964), Lintner (1965) and Mossin (1966), and the Fama-French Three-Factor Model of Fama and French (1992). This research seeks to support the rationale by studying whether there is a significant relationship or impact of a sustained health promoting workplace on the performance of companies listed on the SGX. The research shall form and test hypotheses pertaining to the impact of a sustained health promoting workplace on company’s performances, including stock returns, of companies that participated in the SHA and companies that did not participate in the SHA. In doing so, the research would be able to determine whether corporate and fund manager should consider the significance of a sustained health promoting workplace as a risk factor to explain the stock returns of companies listed on the SGX. With respect to Singapore’s stock market, this research will test the significance and relevance of a health promoting workplace using the Singapore Health Award as a proxy for non-diversifiable risk factor to explain stock returns. This study will examine the significance of a health promoting workplace on a company’s performance and study its impact on stock price performance and beta and examine if it has higher explanatory power than the traditional single factor asset pricing model CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model). To study the significance there are three key questions pertinent to the research study. I) Given a choice, would an investor be better off investing in a listed company with a sustained health promoting workplace i.e. a Singapore Health Award’s recipient? II) The Singapore Health Award has four levels of award starting from Bronze, Silver, Gold to Platinum. Would an investor be indifferent to the level of award when investing in a listed company who is a Singapore Health Award’s recipient? III) Would an asset pricing model combining FAMA-French Three Factor Model and ‘Singapore Health Award’ factor be more accurate than single factor Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Three Factor Model itself?

Keywords: asset pricing model, company's performance, stock prices, sustained health promoting workplace

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1 Burial Findings in Prehistory Qatar: Archaeological Perspective

Authors: Sherine El-Menshawy

Abstract:

Death, funerary beliefs and customs form an essential feature of belief systems and practices in many cultures. It is evident that during the pre-historical periods, various techniques of corpses burial and funerary rituals were conducted. Occasionally, corpses were merely buried in the sand, or in a grave where the body is placed in a contracted position- with knees drawn up under the chin and hands normally lying before the face- with mounds of sand, marking the grave or the bodies were burnt. However, common practice, that was demonstrable in the archaeological record, was burial. The earliest graves were very simple consisting of a shallow circular or oval pits in the ground. The current study focuses on the material culture at Qatar during the pre-historical period, specifically their funerary architecture and burial practices. Since information about burial customs and funerary practices in Qatar prehistory is both scarce and fragmentary, the importance of such study is to answer research questions related to funerary believes and burial habits during the early stages of civilization transformations at prehistory Qatar compared with Mesopotamia, since chronologically, the earliest pottery discovered in Qatar belongs to prehistoric Ubaid culture of Mesopotamia, that was collected from the excavations. This will lead to deep understanding of life and social status in pre-historical period at Qatar. The research also explores the relationship between pre-history Qatar funerary traditions and those of neighboring cultures in the Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, with the aim of ascertaining the distinctive aspects of pre-history Qatar culture, the reception of classical culture and the role it played in the creation of local cultural identities in the Near East. Methodologies of this study based on published books and articles in addition to unpublished reports of the Danish excavation team that excavated in and around Doha, Qatar archaeological sites from the 50th. The study is also constructed on compared material related to burial customs found in Mesopotamia. Therefore this current research: (i) Advances knowledge of the burial customs of the ancient people who inhabited Qatar, a study which is unknown recently to scholars, the study though will apply deep understanding of the history of ancient Qatar and its culture and values with an aim to share this invaluable human heritage. (ii) The study is of special significance for the field of studies, since evidence derived from the current study has great value for the study of living conditions, social structure, religious beliefs and ritual practices. (iii) Excavations brought to light burials of different categories. The graves date to the bronze and Iron ages. Their structure varies between mounds above the ground or burials below the ground level. Evidence comes from sites such as Al-Da’asa, Ras Abruk, and Al-Khor. Painted Ubaid sherds of Mesopotamian culture have been discovered in Qatar from sites such as Al-Da’asa, Ras Abruk, and Bir Zekrit. In conclusion, there is no comprehensive study which has been done and lack of general synthesis of information about funerary practices is problematic. Therefore, the study will fill in the gaps in the area.

Keywords: archaeological, burial, findings, prehistory, Qatar

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