Search results for: investments
398 The General Trend of FDI and the Effects of These Investments for Countries: 2000-2013
Authors: Esra Cebeci
Abstract:As a result of acceleration of globalization in the 21st century economic boundaries are removed. With liberalization of capital and foreign trade, not only developed countries but also developing countries get into rapid growth efforts. In developing countries, one of the most important problem is insufficient capital accumulation. For reduce this deficit, one of the general approaches that is offered increasing amount of foreign direct investments. Also, in developing countries saving rates are low. So, foreign direct investments make possible an increase for domestic savings. In this regard, the multinational corporations are capable of these investments have importance. By providing micro-macro effects for countries, demand for these firms are many. These effects in general positive, some negative effects may able to come into being especially for developing countries. Foreign direct investments are performed buying an existing corporation, merging or greenfield investments. In recent, foreign direct investments are performed as a green field investments for developing countries. The study aims to analysis foreign direct investment trends for 2000-2013 years. In the first part of this study, the importance of foreign direct investments and their determinants are explained. In the second part, the article also shows that comparative analysis of the inward and outward investments for developing and developed countries. In conclusion, while developed countries can stand competition against other countries with these investments, developing countries can provide a sustainable growth with capital inflows.
Keywords: foreign direct investments, multinational corporations, determinants of FDI, FDI trendProcedia PDF Downloads 320
397 Theme Park Investments: How to Beat the Average: A Case Study from the Netherlands
Authors: Pieter C. M. Cornelis
Abstract:European theme parks invest approximately 10 percent of their yearly turnover into new rides and park improvements. Without these investments these parks assume not to be a very competitive and appealing daytrip for their target audiences. However, the impact of investments in attracting new visitors is not well-known and seems to differ dramatically between parks. This paper presents a case study from the Netherlands in which a small amusement park applied a suggested, not yet proven, investment method. The results of the investment are discussed in (a) the form of return on investment and (b) the success of the predictions with regard to this investment. Suggestions for future research are presented.
Keywords: entertainment industry, innovation, investments, theme parksProcedia PDF Downloads 423
396 Modern Trends in Foreign Direct Investments in Georgia
Authors: Rusudan Kinkladze, Guguli Kurashvili, Ketevan Chitaladze
Abstract:Foreign direct investment is a driving force in the development of the interdependent national economies, and the study and analysis of investments is an urgent problem. It is particularly important for transitional economies, such as Georgia, and the study and analysis of investments is an urgent problem. Consequently, the goal of the research is the study and analysis of direct foreign investments in Georgia, and identification and forecasting of modern trends, and covers the period of 2006-2015. The study uses the methods of statistical observation, grouping and analysis, the methods of analytical indicators of time series, trend identification and the predicted values are calculated, as well as various literary and Internet sources relevant to the research. The findings showed that modern investment policy In Georgia is favorable for domestic as well as foreign investors. Georgia is still a net importer of investments. In 2015, the top 10 investing countries was led by Azerbaijan, United Kingdom and Netherlands, and the largest share of FDIs were allocated in the transport and communication sector; the financial sector was the second, followed by the health and social work sector, and the same trend will continue in the future.
Keywords: foreign direct investments, methods, statistics, analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 264
395 Effects of the Macro-Scale Investments/Projects to Planning System in Izmir
Authors: Neslihan Karatas, Sibel Ecemis Kilic
Abstract:This paper aims to examine macro-scale plans and projects/investments which have been prepared for İzmir since The Republican Period. Macro projects that were proposed by central government, local government, industry and urban actors such as the chamber of commerce will be discussed and these projects and its reflections to the city's macro scale planning decisions will be evaluated based on existing development. Effects of macro plans, the related private and public investments, the developments of unplanned/specific projects to the current city form will be discussed. The factors and plans which determine urban form and the problems caused by unanticipated/uncontrolled developments will be evaluated. The proposals will be developed about more efficient planning process.
Keywords: Izmir, macro projects, macro investments, planningProcedia PDF Downloads 534
394 The Role of Multinational Enterprises' Investments in Emerging Country's Economic Development, Case of Georgia
Authors: V. Charaia
Abstract:From the strategic point of view, not all Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) are always positively benefiting the host economy, i.e. not all Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are promoting local/host economies. FDI could have different impact on different sectors of the economy, based not only on annual investment amount, but MNE motivations and peculiarities of the host economy in particular. FDI analysis based only on its amount can lead to incorrect decisions, it is much more important to understand the essence of investment. Consequently, our research is oriented on MNE’s motivations, answering which sectors are most popular among international investors and why, what motivated them to invest into one or another business. Georgian economy for the last period of time is attracting more and more efficiency seeking investments, which could be translated as - concentrating production in a limited number of locations to supply various markets, while benefiting local economy with: new technologies, employment, exports diversification, increased income for the local economy and so on. Foreign investors and MNEs in particular are no longer and not so much interested in the resource seeking investments, which was the case for Georgia in the last decade of XX century. Despite the fact of huge progress for the Georgian economy, still there is a room for foreign investors to make a local market oriented investments. The local market is still rich in imported products, which should be replaced by local ones. And the last but not the least important issue is that approximately 30% of all FDIs in Georgia according to this research are “efficiency seeking” investments, which is an enormous progress and a hope for future Georgian success.
Keywords: investments, MNE, FDI motivations, Georgian economyProcedia PDF Downloads 272
393 The Impact of the Interest Rates on Investments in the Context of Financial Crisis
Authors: Joanna Stawska
Abstract:The main objective of this article is to examine the impact of interest rates on investments in Poland in the context of financial crisis. The paper also investigates the dependence of bank loans to enterprises on interbank market rates. The article studies the impact of interbank market rate on the level of investments in Poland. Besides, this article focuses on the research of the correlation between the level of corporate loans and the amount of investments in Poland in order to determine the indirect impact of central bank interest rates through the transmission mechanism of monetary policy on the real economy. To achieve the objective we have used econometric and statistical research methods like: econometric model and Pearson correlation coefficient. This analysis suggests that the central bank reference rate inversely proportionally affects the level of investments in Poland and this dependence is moderate. This is also important issue because it is related to preparing of Poland to accession to euro area. The research is important from both theoretical and empirical points of view. The formulated conclusions and recommendations determine the practical significance of the paper which may be used in the decision making process of monetary and economic authorities of the country.
Keywords: central bank, financial crisis, interest rate, investmentsProcedia PDF Downloads 378
392 Impact Assessment of Plum Research Investments in South Africa
Authors: Precious M. Tshabalala, Thula S. Dlamini, Frikkie Liebenberg, Johann Kirsten
Abstract:Numerous studies have been conducted, and the evidence has been unambiguous showing that investing in agricultural research and development increases productivity. Continued investments in agricultural research have led to the development of over 26 successful plum cultivars since 1980 at the Agricultural Research Council’s (ARC) Infruitec/Nietvoorbij in South Africa, and more continue to be developed to meet the specific needs of both producers and consumers. Yet very little is known about the returns on any of these research initiatives. The objective of the study was determine the economic impact of plum research investments at the ARC-the main plum breeding research organization in the country. The rate of return to plum research is estimated by estimating parameters in plum production and expressing research investment as an explanatory variable. The marginal rate of return is then determined to be 14.23 per cent. The rate of return to investment being this high is indicative of an under investment in plum research.
Keywords: Agricultural research investments, productivity and rate of return, plumProcedia PDF Downloads 412
391 Efficiency of Investments, Financed from EU Funds in Small and Medium Enterprises in Poland
Authors: Jolanta Brodowska-Szewczuk
Abstract:The article includes the results and conclusions from empirical researches that had been done. The research focuses on the impact of investments made in small and medium-sized enterprises financed from EU funds on the competitiveness of these companies. The researches includes financial results in sales revenue and net income, expenses, and many other new products/services on offer, higher quality products and services, more modern methods of production, innovation in management processes, increase in the number of customers, increase in market share, increase in profitability of production and provision of services. The main conclusions are that, companies with direct investments under this measure shall apply the modern methods of production. The consequence of this is to increase the quality of our products and services. Furthermore, both small and medium-sized enterprises have introduced new products and services. Investments were carried out, thus enabling better work organization in enterprises. Entrepreneurs would guarantee higher quality of service, which would result in better relationships with their customers, what is more, noting the rise in number of clients. More than half of the companies indicated that the investments contributed to the increase in market share. Same thing as for market reach and brand recognition of particular company. An interesting finding is that, investments in small enterprises were more effective than medium-sized enterprises.
Keywords: competitiveness, efficiency, EU funds, small and medium-sized enterprisesProcedia PDF Downloads 327
390 Relations between Human Capital Investments and Business Excellence in Croatian Companies
Authors: Ivana Tadić, Željana Aljinović Barać, Nikolina Plazonić
Abstract:Living today in turbulent business environment forces companies to distinguish from each other, securing sustainable competitive growth and competitive advantage. The best possible solution is to invest (effort and financial resources) within companies’ different practices of human resource management (HRM), more specifically in employees’ knowledge, skills and abilities. Applying this approach companies will create enviable level of human capital securing its economic growth. Employees become human capital for their employers at the moment when they contribute with their own knowledge and abilities in creating material and non-material value of the company. The main aim of this research is to explore the relations between human capital investments and business excellence of Croatian companies. Furthermore, the differences in the level of human capital investments with regard to several companies’ characteristics (e.g. size of the company, ownership and type of the industry) are investigated.
Keywords: business excellence, Croatian industries, human capital investments, human resource managementProcedia PDF Downloads 297
389 The Study of the Perspectives on Economic Development in Bilateral Investment Treaties
Authors: Anuj Kumar Vaksha
Abstract:In the post cold war era the foreign direct investments have come to be considered as one of the most critical factors for economic development of a country particularly for the capital scarce countries like the developing and the under developed countries. The rush for foreign direct investments have led to intense competition between the countries treaties to attract foreign investments by entering into alluring Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). The Bilateral Investment Treaties are the intergovernmental legal framework for the promotion of private investments from one country to other. With more than 3000 BITs, the web of such BITs are the most dominant development of International Law in the post cold war era. The essence of all these BITs are bilateral cooperation for economic development and thus it is actually the theme of economic development around which the International Law had developed most dominantly in the post cold war era. Within the framework of two generally accepted premises that foreign direct investments are critical for economic development and the bilateral investment treaties are critical for promotion of foreign direct investments, the research paper seeks to explore the perspectives and paradigms on economic development as embodied in various Bilateral Investment Treaties. It seeks to address how and in what manners the perspectives on economic development as embodied in bilateral investment varies between the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. It goes without saying that economic development is a very broad, complex and operationally intricate concept. In the paradigm of International Law it becomes much more complex and intricate. Understanding the concept of economic development from the perspectives of Bilateral Investment Treaties is a novel idea with far reaching significance. Such a perspective on economic development would help in enriching the contemporary International Law perspectives and paradigms on economic development.
Keywords: bilateral investment treaties, economic development, international Law, perspectivesProcedia PDF Downloads 248
388 The Positive Impact of COVID-19 on the Level of Investments of U.S. Retail Investors: Evidence from a Quantitative Online Survey and Ordered Probit Analysis
Authors: Corina E. Niculaescu, Ivan Sangiorgi, Adrian R. Bell
Abstract:The COVID-19 pandemic has been life-changing in many aspects of people’s daily and social lives, but has it also changed attitudes towards investments? This paper explores the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on retail investors’ levels of investments in the U.S. during the first COVID-19 wave in summer 2020. This is an unprecedented health crisis, which could lead to changes in investment behavior, including irrational behavior in retail investors. As such, this study aims to inform policymakers of what happened to investment decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic so that they can protect retail investors during extreme events like a global health crisis. The study aims to answer two research questions. First, was the level of investments affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and if so, why? Second, how were investments affected by retail investors’ personal experience with COVID-19? The research analysis is based on primary survey data collected on the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform from a representative sample of U.S. respondents. Responses were collected between the 15th of July and 28th of August 2020 from 1,148 U.S. retail investors who hold mutual fund investments and a savings account. The research explores whether being affected by COVID-19, change in the level of savings, and risk capacity can explain the change in the level of investments by using regression analysis. The dependent variable is changed in investments measured as decrease, no change, and increase. For this reason, the methodology used is ordered probit regression models. The results show that retail investors in the U.S. increased their investments during the first wave of COVID-19, which is unexpected as investors are usually more cautious in crisis times. Moreover, the study finds that those who were affected personally by COVID-19 (e.g., tested positive) were more likely to increase their investments, which is irrational behavior and contradicts expectations. An increase in the level of savings and risk capacity was also associated with increased investments. Overall, the findings show that having personal experience with a health crisis can have an impact on one’s investment decisions as well. Those findings are important for both retail investors and policymakers, especially now that online trading platforms have made trading easily accessible to everyone. There are risks and potential irrational behaviors associated with investment decisions during times of crisis, and it is important that retail investors are aware of them before making financial decisions.
Keywords: COVID-19, financial decision-making, health crisis retail investors, surveyProcedia PDF Downloads 123
387 Economic Stability and Legitimate Expectations in Foreign Investment Rights
Authors: Mehdi Ghaemi
Abstract:Within the current paper, there is an attempt to examine the legal system that overrules economic stability and legitimate expectations of foreign investment rights. Studies show that Meeting the legitimate expectations of foreign investment is one of the rights and privileges which obviously are to be benefited from by all types of foreign investments. The legitimate expectations of foreign investors are protected and structured strongly with the help of international investment laws. The body of international investment laws is faced with multiple challenges with respect to the legitimate expectations of foreign investments, including the Economic stability and the public interest of the host country, the attitude of the host country towards the legitimate rights and privileges of the foreign investment, the ways to meet and to control those expectations, and also the assessment of the regulations of the host country which would affect the investing bodies within different circumstances.
Keywords: foreign investment, legitimate expectations, regulating investments, international investmentProcedia PDF Downloads 9
386 Behavior Loss Aversion Experimental Laboratory of Financial Investments
Authors: Jihene Jebeniani
Abstract:We proposed an approach combining both the techniques of experimental economy and the flexibility of discrete choice models in order to test the loss aversion. Our main objective was to test the loss aversion of the Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT). We developed an experimental laboratory in the context of the financial investments that aimed to analyze the attitude towards the risk of the investors. The study uses the lotteries and is basing on econometric modeling. The estimated model was the ordered probit.
Keywords: risk aversion, behavioral finance, experimental economic, lotteries, cumulative prospect theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 399
385 Stimulating Policy for Attracting Foreign Direct Investment in Georgia
Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, M. Kobalava, T. Lazariashvili, N. Damenia
Abstract:Current state of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Georgia is analyzed and evaluated in the paper, the existing legislative background for regulating investments and stimulating policies to attract investments are shown. It is noted that in developing countries encouragement of investment activity, support and implementation are of the most important tasks, implying a consistent investment policy, investor-friendly tax regime and the legal system, reducing administrative barriers and restrictions, fare competitive conditions and business development infrastructure. The work deals with the determining factor of FDIs and the main directions of stimulation, as well as prospective industries where new investments are needed. Contributing and hindering factors and stimulating measures are analyzed. As a result of the research, the direct and indirect factors attracting FDI have been identified. Facilitating factors to FDI inflow are as follows: simplicity of starting business, geopolitical location, low taxes, access to credit, ease of ownership registration, natural resources, low burden of regulations, low level of corruption and low crime rates. Hindering factors to FDI inflow are as follows: small market, lack of policy for attracting investments, low qualification of the workforce (despite the large number of unemployed people it is difficult to find workers with necessary special skills and qualifications), high interest rates, instability of national currency exchange rate, presence of conflict zones within the country and so forth.
Keywords: foreign direct investment, investor, investment attracting marketing policies, reinvestmentProcedia PDF Downloads 201
384 Region Coastal Land Management and Tracking Changes in Ownership Status
Authors: Tayfun Cay, Fazil Nacar
Abstract:Energy investments have increased in North Mediterranean Ceyhan and Yumurtalık districts of Turkey in the last years because of the treaties which are signed between Turkey and other countries for petroleum and natural gas transmission. Authority of land use has passed to district and metropolitan municipalities from town municipalities because of changes in coast legislation and local management legislation. Also Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning and Ministry of Industry and Commerce have had a right to comment on planning unofficially. Public investments increase in area and related planning and expropriation services continue. On the other hand, a lot of private sectors invest in organised industrial sites and industrial areas and it causes a rapid change in ownership status. Also Ceyhan-yumurtalık region is the tourism centre of North Mediterranean. Tourism investments continue in this district. Especially construction sector gain speed and a lot of country sites and apartments are built. In these studies, changes in planning activities in management of different administrative organisations and changes in ownership status and changes in private properties will be presented.
Keywords: coast management, land management, land use, property, public interestProcedia PDF Downloads 452
383 Corporate Social Media: Understanding the Impact of Service Quality and Social Value on Customer Behavior
Authors: Regina Connolly, Murray Scott, William DeLone
Abstract:Social media are revolutionary technologies that are transforming the way we communicate, the way we collaborate and the way we influence. Companies are making major investments in platforms such as Facebook and Twitter because they realize that social media are an influential force on customer perceptions and behavior. However, to date there is little guidance on what constitutes an effective deployment of social media and there is no empirical evidence that social medial investments are yielding positive returns. This research develops and validates the components of an effective corporate social media platform in order to examine the impact of effective social media on customer intentions and behavior.
Keywords: service quality, social value, social media, IS success, Web 2.0, customer behaviourProcedia PDF Downloads 462
382 Examining E-Government Impact Using Public Value Approach: A Case Study in Pakistan
Authors: Shahid Nishat, Keith Thomas
Abstract:E-government initiatives attract substantial public investments around the world. These investments are based on the premise of digital transformation of the public services, improved efficiency and transparency, and citizen participation in the social democratic processes. However, many e-Government projects, especially in developing countries, fail to achieve their intended outcomes, and a strong disparity exists between the investments made and outcomes achieved, often referred to as e-Government paradox. Further, there is lack of research on evaluating the impacts of e-Government in terms of public value it creates, which ultimately drives usage. This study aims to address these gaps by identifying key enablers of e-Government success and by proposing a public value based framework to examine impact of e-Government services. The study will extend Delone and McLean Information System (IS) Success model by integrating Technology Readiness (TR) characteristics to develop an integrated success model. Level of analysis will be mobile government applications, and the framework will be empirically tested using quantitative methods. The research will add to the literature on e-Government success and will be beneficial for governments, especially in developing countries aspiring to improve public services through the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT).
Keywords: e-Government, IS success model, public value, technology adoption, technology readinessProcedia PDF Downloads 61
381 Cost Benefit Analysis and Adjustments of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Airline Industry
Authors: Roman Asatryan
Abstract:The decision-making processes in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among firms in general and airlines in particular have to do with the benefits that accrue through those investments. The crux of the matter is not whether to invest in CSR or not, but rather, how firms can quantify the benefits derived from such investments. This paper analyzes the cost benefit adjustment strategies for firms in the airline industry in their CSR strategy adoption and implementation. The adjustment strategies identified will enable firms in the airline industry to have a basis for determining the worth of such CSR investments. This paper discusses the cost and benefit analysis model in order to understand the ways airlines can reduce costs and increase returns on CSR, or balance the cost and benefits. The analysis from this study points to the fact that economic concepts especially the CBA are useful, though they are not without challenges. The challenge arises when it is problematic to express the real impact of the externality in monetary terms. The use of rational maximization of the gains may seem to be a rather optimistic goal mainly because of environmental variability, perceptual uncertainty, and imperfect knowledge about the potential externality. This paper concludes that the CBA model gives a basic understanding of the motivations for investing in intangible assets like CSR. Consequently, it sets the tone for formulating relevant hypothesis in empirical studies in investment in CSR in particular and other intangible assets in business operations.
Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, corporate social responsibility, airline industryProcedia PDF Downloads 321
380 Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Comapnies in Kenya
Authors: George Nyori Makari, J. M. Ogola
Abstract:Over the past few decades, manufacturing has evolved from a more labor-intensive set of mechanical processes to a sophisticated set of information based technology processes. With the existence of various advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs), more and more functions or jobs are performed by these machines instead of human labour. This study was undertaken in order to research the extent of AMTs adoption in manufacturing companies in Kenya. In order to investigate a survey was conducted via questionnaires that were sent to 183 selected AMT manufacturing companies in Kenya. 92 companies responded positively. All the surveyed companies were found to have a measure of investment in at least two of the 14 types of AMTs investigated. In general the company surveyed showed that the level of AMT adoption in Kenya is very low with investments levels at a mean of 2.057 and integration levels at a mean of 1.639 in a scale of 1-5.
Keywords: AMT adoption, AMT investments, AMT integration, companies in KenyaProcedia PDF Downloads 373
379 Grandiose Narcissists’ Adaptive Trade-Offs: Mating, Parental, and Somatic Investment
Authors: Jasmine H. Gagnon
Abstract:The present study examined how grandiose narcissists make adaptive trade-offs between mating investment, parenting investment, and somatic investment relative to individuals without narcissistic personalities. A sample of 509 males and females between the ages of 24 and 35 years old (49.31% female) completed a personality inventory assessing Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience. In a Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), personality inventory scores were used to classify participants into latent groups. The model of best fit identified one grandiose narcissist group and three groups with non-narcissistic personalities. Covariate analyses revealed that individuals with narcissistic traits made significantly more significant somatic investments in comparison to two of the three non-narcissistic latent groups. No other significant differences between the narcissistic and non-pathological groups were found. Thus, grandiose narcissists trade off parenting and mating investments to make more significant somatic investments. That is, they expend a larger portion of their energetic resources on maintaining their physical health and careers and similar quantities of energetic resources on maintaining relationships with their offspring and potential romantic partners as individuals without narcissistic personalities.
Keywords: narcissism, grandiose narcissism, HEXACO, trade-offs, mating, parenting, somatic, dark triadProcedia PDF Downloads 27
378 Materialisation of Good Governance Concept by Effective Investment Dispute Resolution in the European Union
Authors: Jagna Mucha, Anna Kańciak
Abstract:The concept of good governance constitutes a wide perspective for academic discussion, because it provides a substantial theoretical background for settling many practical problems faced contemporarily by the EU. The basic assumptions of good governance have basically remained unchanged since the 90’s, when the concept was introduced by the World Bank, although the scholarly discussions reveal new facets of the said concept, when related to specific domains. The paper discusses the application of the specific elements of the concept of good governance in the field of the international investment law. Specifically, it seeks to demonstrate that the concept of good governance regulates the issue of international investments in that, among others, it requires the application of the alternative dispute resolution in order to make the investment law enforceable in the best possible way.
Keywords: dispute resolution, european union, investments, good governanceProcedia PDF Downloads 290
377 Forms of Social Provision for Housing Investments in Local Planning Acts for European Capitals: Comparative Study and Spatial References
Authors: Agata Twardoch
Abstract:The processes of commodification of real estate and changes in housing markets have led to a situation where the prices of free market housing in European capitals are significantly higher than the purchasing value of average wages. This phenomenon has many negative social and spatial consequences. At the same time, the attractiveness of real estate as an asset makes these processes progress. Out of concern for sustainable social development, city authorities apply solutions to balance the burdensome effects of codification of housing. One of them is a social provision for housing investments. The article presents a comparative study of solutions applied in selected European capitals, on the example of Warsaw, Paris, London, Berlin, Copenhagen, and Vienna. The study was conducted along with works on expert report for the master plan for Warsaw. The forms of commissions applied in Local Planning Acts were compared, with particular reference to spatial solutions. The results of the analysis made it possible to determine common features of the solutions applied and to establish recommendations for further practice. Major findings of the study indicate that requirement of social provision is achievable in spatial planning documents. Study shows that application of social provision in private housing investments is a useful tool in housing policy against commodification.
Keywords: affordable housing, housing provision, spatial planning, sustainable social developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 85
376 The Effects of Cultural Distance and Institutions on Foreign Direct Investment Choices: Evidence from Turkey and China
Authors: Nihal Kartaltepe Behram, Göksel Ataman, Dila Okçu
Abstract:With the development of foreign direct investments, the social, cultural, political and economic interactions between countries and institutions have become visible and they have become determining factors for the strategic structuring and market goals. In this context the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultural distance and institutions on foreign direct investment choices in terms of location and investment model. For international establishments, the concept of culture, as well as the concept of cultural distance, is taken specifically into consideration, especially in the selection of methods for entering the market. In the researches and empirical studies conducted, a direct relationship between cultural distance and foreign direct investments is set and institutions and effective variable factors are examined at the level of defining the investment types. When the detailed calculation strategies and empirical researches and studies are taken into consideration, the most common methods for determining the direct investment model, considering the cultural distances, are full-ownership enterprises and joint ventures. Also, when all of the factors affecting the investments are taken into consideration, it was seen that the effect of institutions such as Government Intervention, Intellectual Property Rights, Corruption and Contract Enforcements is very important. Furthermore agglomeration is more intense and effective on the investment, compared to other factors. China has been selected as the target country, due to its effectiveness in world economy and its contributions to developing countries, which has commercial relationships with. Qualitative research methods are used for this study conducted, to measure the effects of determinative variable factors in the hypotheses of study, on the direct foreign investors and to evaluate the findings. In this study in-depth interview is used as a data collection method and the data analysis is made through descriptive analysis. Foreign Direct Investments are so reactive to institutions and cultural distance is identified by all interviews and analysis. On the other hand, agglomeration is the most strong determiner factor on foreign direct investors in Chinese Market. The reason of this factors, which comprise the sectorial aggregate, are not the strongest factors as agglomeration that the most important finding. We expect that this study became a beneficial guideline for developed and developing countries and local and national institutions’ strategic plans.
Keywords: China, cultural distance, Foreign Direct Investments, institutionsProcedia PDF Downloads 354
375 Rational Allocation of Resources in Water Infrastructure Development Projects
Authors: M. Macchiaroli, V. Pellecchia, L. Dolores
Abstract:Within any European and world model of management of the integrated water service (in Italy only since 2012 is regulated by a national Authority, that is ARERA), a significant part is covered by the development of assets in terms of hydraulic networks and wastewater collection networks, including all their relative building works. The process of selecting the investments to be made starts from the preventive analysis of critical issues (water losses, unserved areas, low service standards, etc.) who occur in the managed territory of the Operator. Through the Program of Interventions (Provision by ARERA n. 580/2019/R/idr), the Operator provides to program the projects that can meet the emerged needs to determine the improvement of the water service levels. This phase (analyzed and solved by the author with a work published in 2019) involves the use of evaluation techniques (cost-benefit analysis, multi-criteria, and multi-objective techniques, neural networks, etc.) useful in selecting the most appropriate design answers to the different criticalities. However, at this point, the problem of establishing the time priorities between the various works deemed necessary remains open. That is, it is necessary to hierarchize the investments. In this decision-making moment, the interests of the private Operator are often opposed, which favors investments capable of generating high profitability, compared to those of the public controller (ARERA), which favors investments in greater social impact. In support of the concertation between these two actors, the protocol set out in the research has been developed, based on the AHP and capable of borrowing from the programmatic documents an orientation path for the settlement of the conflict. The protocol is applied to a case study of the Campania Region in Italy and has been professionally applied in the shared decision process between the manager and the local Authority.
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision making, economic evaluation of projects, integrated water serviceProcedia PDF Downloads 59
374 Deterministic Modelling to Estimate Economic Impact from Implementation and Management of Large Infrastructure
Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou
Abstract:It is widely recognised that the assets portfolio development is helping to enhance economic growth, productivity and competitiveness. While numerous studies and reports certify the positive effect of investments in large infrastructure investments on the local economy, still, the methodology to estimate the contribution in economic development is a challenging issue for researchers and economists. The key question is how to estimate those economic impacts in each economic system. This paper provides a compact and applicable methodological framework providing quantitative results in terms of the overall jobs and income generated into the project life cycle. According to a deterministic mathematical approach, the key variables and the modelling framework are presented. The numerical case study highlights key results for a new motorway project in Greece, which is experienced economic stress for many years, providing the opportunity for comparisons with similar cases.
Keywords: quantitative modelling, economic impact, large transport infrastructure, economic assessmentProcedia PDF Downloads 142
373 Protection of Chinese Enterprises’ Overseas Investments Under Bilateral Investment Treaties Under the Belt and Road Initiative
Abstract:Bilateral investment treaties have played a role in the construction of the Belt and Road, providing institutional protection for Chinese companies' overseas investments. However, such treaties between China and countries along the Belt and Road were signed in the 1980s and 1990s, and their provisions are outdated and insufficiently detailed to provide adequate legal protection for Chinese investors when they initiate investment arbitration against host countries. By studying cases involving China in international investment arbitration, this paper suggests that China should pay attention to further clarifying the identity of "investors", the scope of disputes that can be submitted to arbitration, and the concept of "indirect expropriation" when updating bilateral investment treaties in the future, in order to reduce the risk of losing cases for Chinese investors.
Keywords: belt and road, bilateral investment agreement, investment arbitration, indirect expropriationProcedia PDF Downloads 29
372 Flood Risk Management in Low Income Countries: Balancing Risk and Development
Authors: Gavin Quibell, Martin Kleynhans, Margot Soler
Abstract:The Sendai Framework notes that disaster risk reduction is essential for sustainable development, and Disaster Risk Reduction is included in 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and 4 of the SDG targets. However, apart from promoting better governance and resourcing of disaster management agencies, little guidance is given how low-income nations can balance investments across the SDGs to achieve sustainable development in an increasingly climate vulnerable world with increasing prevalence of flood and drought disasters. As one of the world’s poorest nations, Malawi must balance investments across all the SDGs. This paper explores how Malawi’s National Guidelines for Community-based Flood Risk Management integrate sustainable development and flood management objectives at different administrative levels. While Malawi periodically suffers from large, widespread flooding, the greatest impacts are felt through the smaller annual floods and flash floods. The Guidelines address this through principles that recognize that while the protection of human life is the most important priority for flood risk management, addressing the impacts of floods on the rural poor and the economy requires different approaches. The National Guidelines are therefore underpinned by the following; 1. In the short-term investments in flood risk management must focus on breaking the poverty – vulnerability cycle; 2. In the long-term investments in the other SDGs will have the greatest flood risk management benefits; 3. If measures are in place to prevent loss of life and protect strategic infrastructure, it is better to protect more people against small and medium size floods than fewer people against larger floods; 4. Flood prevention measures should focus on small (1:5 return period) floods; 5. Flood protection measures should focus on small and medium floods (1:20 return period) while minimizing the risk of failure in larger floods; 6. The impacts of larger floods ( > 1:50) must be addressed through improved preparedness; 7. The impacts of climate change on flood frequencies are best addressed by focusing on growth not overdesign; and 8. Manage floods and droughts conjunctively. The National Guidelines weave these principles into Malawi’s approach to flood risk management through recommendations for planning and implementing flood prevention, protection and preparedness measures at district, traditional authority and village levels.
Keywords: flood risk management in low-income countries, sustainable development, investments in prevention, protection and preparedness, community-based flood risk management, MalawiProcedia PDF Downloads 183
371 The Link between Money Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Vector Error Correction Model Approach
Authors: Uyi Kizito Ehigiamusoe
Abstract:The paper examines the impact of money market on economic growth in Nigeria using data for the period 1980-2012. Econometrics techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares Method, Johanson’s Co-integration Test and Vector Error Correction Model were used to examine both the long-run and short-run relationship. Evidence from the study suggest that though a long-run relationship exists between money market and economic growth, but the present state of the Nigerian money market is significantly and negatively related to economic growth. The link between the money market and the real sector of the economy remains very weak. This implies that the market is not yet developed enough to produce the needed growth that will propel the Nigerian economy because of several challenges. It was therefore recommended that government should create the appropriate macroeconomic policies, legal framework and sustain the present reforms with a view to developing the market so as to promote productive activities, investments, and ultimately economic growth.
Keywords: economic growth, investments, money market, money market challenges, money market instrumentsProcedia PDF Downloads 274
370 Foreign Artificial Intelligence Investments and National Security Exceptions in International Investment Law
Authors: Ying Zhu
Abstract:Recent years have witnessed a boom of foreign investments in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). Foreign investments provide critical capital for AI development but also trigger national security concerns of host states. A notable example is an increasing number of cases in which the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) has denied Chinese acquisitions of US technology companies on national security grounds. On July 19, 2018, the Congress has reached a deal on the final draft of a new provision to strengthen CFIUS’s authority to review overseas transactions involving sensitive US technology. The question is: how to reconcile the emerging tension between, on the one hand, foreign AI investors’ expectations of a predictable investment environment, and on the other hand, host states’ regulatory power on national security? This paper provides a methodology to reconcile this tension under international investment law. Based on an examination, the national security exception clauses in international investment treaties and the application of national security justification in investor-state arbitration jurisprudence, the paper argues that a traditional interpretation of the national security exception, based on the necessity concept in customary international law, fails to take into account new risks faced by countries, including security concerns over strategic industries such as AI. To overcome this shortage, the paper proposes to incorporate an integrated national security clause in international investment treaties, which includes a two-tier test: a ‘self-judging’ test in the pre-establishment period and a ‘proportionality’ test in the post-establishment period. At the end, the paper drafts a model national security clause for future treaty-drafting practice.
Keywords: foreign investment, artificial intelligence, international investment law, national security exceptionProcedia PDF Downloads 87
369 Analysis of Minimizing Investment Risks in Power and Energy Business Development by Combining Total Quality Management and International Financing Institutions Project Management Tools
Authors: M. Radunovic
Abstract:Region of Southeastern Europe has a substantial energy resource potential and is witnessing an increasing rate of power and energy project investments. This comes as a result of countries harmonizing their legal framework and market regulations to conform the ones of European Union, enabling direct private investments. Funding in the power and energy market in this region originates from various resources and investment entities, including commercial and institutional ones. Risk anticipation and assessment is crucial to project success, especially given the long exploitation period of project in power and energy domain, as well as the wide range of stakeholders involved. This paper analyzes the possibility of combined application of tools used in total quality management and international financing institutions for project planning, execution and evaluation, with the goal of anticipating, assessing and minimizing the risks that might occur in the development and execution phase of a power and energy project in the market of southeastern Europe. History of successful project management and investments both in the industry and institutional sector provides sufficient experience, guidance and internationally adopted tools to provide proper project assessment for investments in power and energy. Business environment of southeastern Europe provides immense potential for developing power and engineering projects of various magnitudes, depending on stakeholders’ interest. Diversification on investment sources provides assurance that there is interest and commitment to invest in this market. Global economic and political developments will be intensifying the pace of investments in the upcoming period. The proposed approach accounts for key parameters that contribute to the sustainability and profitability of a project which include technological, educational, social and economic gaps between the southeastern European region and western Europe, market trends in equipment design and production on a global level, environment friendly approach to renewable energy sources as well as conventional power generation systems, and finally the effect of the One Belt One Road Initiative led by People’s Republic of China to the power and energy market of this region in the upcoming period on a long term scale. Analysis will outline the key benefits of the approach as well as the accompanying constraints. Parallel to this it will provide an overview of dominant threats and opportunities in present and future business environment and their influence to the proposed application. Through concrete examples, full potential of this approach will be presented along with necessary improvements that need to be implemented. Number of power and engineering projects being developed in southeastern Europe will be increasing in the upcoming period. Proper risk analysis will lead to minimizing project failures. The proposed successful combination of reliable project planning tools from different investment areas can prove to be beneficial in the future power and engineering investments, and guarantee their sustainability and profitability.
Keywords: capital investments, lean six sigma, logical framework approach, logical framework matrix, one belt one road initiative, project management tools, quality function deployment, Southeastern Europe, total quality managementProcedia PDF Downloads 63