Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Doaa El-Shereef

20 The Canaanite Trade Network between the Shores of the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef

Abstract:

The Canaanite civilization was one of the early great civilizations of the Near East, they influenced and been influenced from the civilizations of the ancient world especially the Egyptian and Mesopotamia civilizations. The development of the Canaanite trade started from the Chalcolithic Age to the Iron Age through the oldest trade route in the Middle East. This paper will focus on defining the Canaanites and from where did they come from and the meaning of the term Canaan and how the Ancient Manuscripts define the borders of the land of Canaan and this essay will describe the Canaanite trade route and their exported goods such as cedar wood, and pottery.

Keywords: archaeology, bronze age, Canaanite, colonies, Massilia, pottery, shipwreck, vineyards

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19 Study of Rheological, Physic-Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Loaded with Organo-Bentonite

Authors: Doaa S. Mahmoud, Nivin M. Ahmed, Salwa H. El-Sabbagh

Abstract:

The rheometric characteristics and physicomechanical properties of bentonite / acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. The influences of adding bentonite (Bt) and / or modified bentonite (organo-Bt) to the rubber were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the rubber chains may be confined within the interparticle space and the Bt particles presented a physical dispersion in NBR matrix. Bentonite (Bt) was modified with tetra butyl phosphonium bromide (TBP) in order to produce organo-Bt. The modification was carried out at 0.5, 1 and 2 cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite. Results showed that the maximum torque of organo-Bt / NBR composite increases at high bentonite loading. The scorch time (tS2) and cure time (tC90) of the organo-Bt / NBR composites decreased simultaneously relative to those of the neat NBR. The prepared composite exhibited significant improvement in mechanical compared with that of neat NBR.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, bentonite, composites, physico-mechanical properties

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18 The Public Policy of Energy Subsidies Reform in Egypt

Authors: Doaa Nounou

Abstract:

This research examines the public policy energy subsidies reform efforts in Egypt since 2014. Egypt’s widely used energy subsidies have been controversial since they were first introduced, as they inadequately target the poorest part of the population. Also, their effect on economic development and democratic transition became very challenging in recent years. This research argues that although subsidy reform is a highly politicalized issue in democratizing countries, there are still a number of pragmatic public policies that can be applied to make the subsidy system function more efficiently and at the same time decrease inequality which could facilitate a more orderly and peaceful transition to democracy. Therefore, this research attempts to study the role of the executive branch in reforming the subsidy programmes to support the poor and bring about structural changes to achieve social justice and economic growth. This research also attempts to analyze the role of the military and civil society in reforming the subsidy system. Moreover, it attempts to discuss the role of the state media in social mobilization to rationalize consumption and its contribution to subsidies reform.

Keywords: subsidies, public policy, political economy, democratization, equality

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17 Knowledge Management Strategies as a Tool to Change the Organizational Culture

Authors: Doaa Abbas Zaher

Abstract:

For the past two decades demand for knowledge has been increasing. Management of society’s knowledge has far reaching effects to economic growth through increased capacity to complete viable activities. Organizations use information technology to effect organizational change. This is a challenge for the less developed nations whose capacity to integrate knowledge in core functions is limited. This creates organizational problems as there is global competition amongst organizations. Cross-cultural perceptions influence difference knowledge Management. This study provides a cross-cultural analysis on the influence in knowledge culture in Japan and Saudi Arabia to effect change in organizations. Since different countries adopt different knowledge management strategies, this dictates the state of organizational development through enriched organizational culture. The research uses a mixed approach design to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Primary source will use the questionnaires while secondary sources uses case analysis from books, articles, reports, and journals. The study will take a period of three years to come up with a complete paper.

Keywords: knowledge management, organizational culture, information, society knowledge

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16 Evaluation of the Role of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNA H19 as a Promising Biomarker in Plasma of Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Doaa Hashad, Amany Elbanna, Abeer Ibrahim, Gihan Khedr

Abstract:

Background: H19 is one of the long non coding RNAs (LncRNA) that is related to the progression of many diseases including cancers. This work was carried out to study the level of the long non-coding RNA; H119, in plasma of patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to assess its significance in their clinical management. Methods: A total of sixty-two participants were enrolled in the present study. The first group included thirty-two GC patients, while the second group was formed of thirty age and sex matched healthy volunteers serving as a control group. Plasma samples were used to assess H19 gene expression using real time quantitative PCR technique. Results: H19 expression was up-regulated in GC patients with positive correlation to TNM cancer stages. Conclusions: Up-regulation of H19 is closely associated with gastric cancer and correlates well with tumor staging. Convenient, efficient quantification of H19 in plasma using real time PCR technique implements its role as a potential noninvasive prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer, that predicts patient’s outcome and most importantly as a novel target in gastric cancer treatment with better performance achieved on using both CEA and H19 simultaneously.

Keywords: biomarker, gastric, cancer, LncRNA

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15 Theory about the Gebel El-Arak Knife: Egyptian Knife with Canaanite Relief

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef

Abstract:

This paper will focus on proving a theory that it is an Egyptian knife with Canaanite relief and will discuss the nature of the Gebel el-Arak Knife and the civilization to which it belongs and the relationship of the Canaanite deity with Mount Abydos in Egypt, and the influence between the ancient Egyptian religion and the Canaanite religion and their effect on each other. Finally, the paper will discuss in full detail the engraving of the two faces of the knife handle and analyze the register on the front face, which is the scene of the two lions engraved, and between them, an old man symbolized as the deity in the middle and compared it with other drawings similar in the Egyptian civilization. The paper will also discuss the registers on the back face, which are the engravings of a battle, soldiers, uniforms, and boats, and how the back face describes a water battle between three Egyptian boats and two foreign ships. In addition, it will prove that those foreign ships were not Mesopotamian ships because, in the period to which the knife of Gebel Al-Arak belongs, between 3300-3100 BC, there were no battles or trade exchanges between Egypt and Mesopotamia on sea routes. However, there was already a strong land and sea trade between Canaan and Egypt during Chalcolithic Age (4500-3500 BC), as described in many primary sources.

Keywords: Canaan, Egypt, Gebel el-Arak Knife, Louvre

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14 Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of a PV/Wind/ Battery Hybrid Energy Conversion

Authors: Doaa M. Atia, Faten H. Fahmy, Ninet M. A. El-Rahman, Hassan T. Dorra

Abstract:

In this paper, the optimum design for renewable energy system powered an aquaculture pond was determined. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software program, which is developed by U.S National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is used for analyzing the feasibility of the stand-alone and hybrid system in this study. HOMER program determines whether renewable energy resources satisfy hourly electric demand or not. The program calculates energy balance for every 8760 hours in a year to simulate operation of the system. This optimization compares the demand for the electrical energy for each hour of the year with the energy supplied by the system for that hour and calculates the relevant energy flow for each component in the model. The essential principle is to minimize the total system cost while HOMER ensures control of the system. Moreover the feasibility analysis of the energy system is also studied. Wind speed, solar irradiance, interest rate and capacity shortage are the parameters which are taken into consideration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best choice in this study, yielding lower net present cost. Thus, it provides higher system performance than PV or wind stand-alone systems.

Keywords: wind stand-alone system, photovoltaic stand-alone system, hybrid system, optimum system sizing, feasibility, cost analysis

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13 QTAIM View of Metal-Metal Bonding in Trinuclear Mixed-Metal Bridged Ligand Clusters Containing Ruthenium and Osmium

Authors: Nadia Ezzat Al-Kirbasee, Ahlam Hussein Hassan, Shatha Raheem Helal Alhimidi, Doaa Ezzat Al-Kirbasee, Muhsen Abood Muhsen Al-Ibadi

Abstract:

Through DFT/QTAIM calculations, we have provided new insights into the nature of the M-M, M-H, M-O, and M-C bonds of the (Cp*Ru)n(Cp*Os)3−n(μ3-O)2(μ-H)(Cp* = η5-C5Me5, n= 3,2,1,0). The topological analysis of the electron density reveals important details of the chemical bonding interactions in the clusters. Calculations confirm the absence of bond critical points (BCP) and the corresponding bond paths (BP) between Ru-Ru, Ru-Os, and Os-Os. The position of bridging hydrides and Oxo atoms coordinated to Ru-Ru, Ru-Os, and Os-Os determines the distribution of the electron densities and which strongly affects the formation of the bonds between these transition metal atoms. On the other hand, the results confirm that the four clusters contain a 6c–12e and 4c–2e bonding interaction delocalized over M3(μ-H)(μ-O)2 and M3(μ-H), respectively, as revealed by the non-negligible delocalization indexes calculations. The small values for electron density ρ(b) above zero, together with the small values, again above zero, for laplacian ∇2ρ(b) and the small negative values for total energy density H(b) are shown by the Ru-H, Os-H, Ru-O, and Os-O bonds in the four clusters are typical of open shell interactions. Also, the topological data for the bonds between Ru and Os atoms with the C atoms of the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) ring ligands are basically similar and show properties very consistent with open shell interactions in the QTAIM classification.

Keywords: metal-metal and metal-ligand interactions, organometallic complexes, topological analysis, DFT and QTAIM analyses

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12 Anxiety and Change in Eating Habits and Health Behaviors among Adult Women during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Heba Ahmed Abdelaziz, Doaa Tawfik Mohamed Ibrahim

Abstract:

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is the major health problem facing the world recently, causing variable effects on mental health and eating behavior. Aim of the study: Identifying changes in eating patterns and other health behaviors in relation to the anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in adult females in Alexandria, Egypt. Method: 344 adult females (20+ years old), were included in online self-administered questionnaire. Results: Severe anxiety symptoms was among 34.6% of the studied females especially; those aged 25-40 years, married, non-working or student females, females who had change in their work routine (half or full time from home). Homemade pastries and bakery product then beverages followed by fresh fruits and vegetables were frequently consumed by the studied females than before lockdown while fast foods were decreased during lockdown. Overweight and obesity were high among most of the participants with different grades of anxiety symptoms. Females with moderate and severe anxiety symptoms reported increase in appetite and body weight with irregular sleeping during lockdown. Conclusion: the current study concluded that stressful situations like lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic is associated with anxiety (severe, moderate, mild then minimal, respectively) along with changes in eating habits, physical activity, sleeping pattern and smoking.

Keywords: COVID-19, lockdown, females, anxiety, eating, stress, lifestyle

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11 Evaluation of Postural Stability in Patients with Flat Feet: A Controlled Trial

Authors: Ghada Mohamed Rashad, Doaa Ayoub Elimy, Mohamed Hussein Elgendy, Ahmed Mohamed Fathi Elshiwi, Mahmoud Ghazy

Abstract:

Background: Flat feet cause changes in foot mobility, foot posture, and load distribution under the foot which influences dynamic balance, that is essential in activities of daily living and for optimal performance in sports activity. Purpose: To investigate the effect of flat feet on dynamic balance including overall stability index (OAI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI) and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). Study Design: The design of the study was an experimental design. Subjects: Forty subjects from both sexes were selected from the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, their mean age (23.55 ± 1.74 ) years, divided into two groups, group A (8 males and 12 females) with flat feet, and group B (9 males and 11 females) with normal feet. Methods: The Navicular Drop Test was used to determine if the feet were pronated and Biodex Balance System was used to assess dynamic balance at level 8 and level 4 for both groups. Results: There was no significant difference in dynamic balance including (OSI, APSI and MLSI) of the Biodex at stability level (8) (most stable) (p = 0.56). While there was a significant difference between both groups in all dependent variables at stability level (4) (less stable level) (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: It may be concluded that flat feet have an effect on dynamic balance and there is balance affection in subjects with flat feet.

Keywords: flat feet, dynamic balance, postural stability, types of flat feet, eversion strength

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10 Assessment of the Egyptian Agricultural Foreign Trade with Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Countries

Authors: Doaa H. I. Mahmoud, El-Said M. Elsharkawy, Saad Z. Soliman, Soher E. Mustfa

Abstract:

The opening of new promising foreign markets is one of the objectives of Egypt’s foreign trade policies, especially for agricultural exports. This study aims at the examination of the commodity structure of the Egyptian agricultural imports and exports with the COMESA countries. In addition, estimation of the surplus/deficit of the Egyptian commodities and agricultural balance with these countries is made. Time series data covering the period 2004-2016 is used. Estimation of the growth function along with the derivation of the annual growth rates of the study’s variables is made. Some of the results of the study period display the following: (1) The average total Egyptian exports to the COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa) countries is estimated at 1,491 million dollars, with an annual growth rate of 14.4% (214.7 million dollars). (2) The average annual Egyptian agricultural exports to these economies is estimated at 555 million dollars, with an annual growth rate of 19.4% (107.7 million dollars). (3) The average annual value of agricultural imports from the COMESA countries is set at 289 Million Dollars, with an annual growth rate of 14.4% (41.6 million dollars). (4) The study shows that there is a continuous surplus in the agricultural balance with these economies, whilst having a deficit in the raw-materials agricultural balance, as well as the balance of input requirements with these countries.

Keywords: COMESA, Egypt, growth rates, trade balance

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9 Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Authors: Doaa Hashad, Amany Elyamany, Perihan Salem

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Introduction: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) constitutes a serious dilemma that has an impact on the health of millions of Egyptians. Hepatitis C virus related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC) is a crucial consequence of HCV that represents the third cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Aim of the study: assess the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as a non-invasive molecular biomarker in hepatitis c virus related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC). Methods: A total of 135 participants were enrolled in the study. Volunteers were assigned to one of three groups equally; a group of HCV related cirrhosis (HCV-cirrhosis), a group of HCV-HCC and a control group of age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers with no evidence of liver disease. mtDNA was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR technique. Results: mtDNA content was lowest in HCV-HCC cases. No statistically significant difference was observed between the group of HCV-cirrhosis and the control group as regards mtDNA level. HCC patients with multi-centric hepatic lesions had significantly lower mtDNA content. On using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 34 was assigned for mtDNA content to distinguish between HCV-HCC and HCV-cirrhosis patients who are not yet complicated by malignancy. Lower mtDNA was associated with greater HCC risk on using healthy controls, HCV-cirrhosis, or combining both groups as a reference group. Conclusions: mtDNA content might constitute a non-invasive molecular biomarker that reflects tumor burden in HCV-HCC cases and could be used as a predictor of HCC risk in patients of HCV-cirrhosis. In addition, the non significant difference of mtDNA level between HCV-cirrhosis patients and healthy controls could eliminate the grey zone created by the use of AFP in some cirrhotic patients.

Keywords: DNA copy number, HCC, HCV, mitochondrial

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8 Anatomical, Light and Scanning Electron Microscopical Study of Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Integument

Authors: Samir El-Gendy, Doaa Zaghloul

Abstract:

The current study dealt with the gross and microscopic anatomy of the integument of male ostrich in addition to the histological features of different areas of skin by light and SEM. The ostrich skin is characterized by prominent feather follicles and bristles. The number of feather follicles was determined per cm2 in different regions. The integument of ostrich had many modifications which appeared as callosities and scales, nail and toe pads. They were sternal, pubic and Achilles tendon callosities. The vacuolated epidermal cells were seen mainly in the skin of legs and to a lesser extent in the skin of back and Achilles areas. Higher lipogenic potential was expressed by epidermis from glabrous areas of ostrich skin. The dermal papillae were found in the skin of feathered area of neck and back and this was not a common finding in bird's skin which may give resistance against shearing forces in these regions of ostrich skin. The thickness of the keratin layer of ostrich varied, being thick and characteristically loose in the skin at legs, very thin and wavy at neck, while at Achilles skin area, scale and toe pad were thick and more compact, with the thickest very dense and wavy keratin layer at the nail. The dermis consisted of superficial layer of dense irregular connective tissue characterized by presence of many vacuoles of different sizes just under the basal lamina of the epithelium of epidermis and deep layer of dense regular connective tissue. This result suggested presence of fat droplets in this layer which may be to overcome the lack of good barrier of cutaneous water loss in epidermis.

Keywords: ostrich, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, integument, skin modifications

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7 Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Moderate to Severe Asthma in Pediatric Patients

Authors: Lubna M. Zakaryia Mahmoud, Mohammed A. Dawood, Doaa A. Heiba

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A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial carried out on 60 children known to be asthmatic who presented to the emergency department at Alexandria University of Children’s Hospital at El-Shatby with acute asthma exacerbations to assess the efficacy of adding inhaled magnesium sulfate to β-agonist, compared with β-agonist in saline, in the management of acute asthma exacerbations in children. The participants in the study were divided in two groups; Group A (study group) received inhaled salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) plus isotonic magnesium sulfate 2 ml in a nebulizer chamber. Group B (control group): received nebulized salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) diluted with placebo (2 ml normal saline). Both groups received inhaled solution every 20 minutes that was repeated for three doses. They were evaluated using the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), oxygen saturation using portable pulse oximetry and peak expiratory flow rate using a portable peak expiratory flow meter at initially recorded as zero-minute assessment and every 20 minutes from the end of each nebulization (nebulization lasts 5-10 minutes) recorded as 20, 40 and 60-minute assessments. Regarding PASS, comparison showed non-significant difference with p-value 0.463, 0.472, 0.0766 at 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Regarding oxygen saturation, improvement was more significant towards group A starting from 40 min with significant p-value=0.000. At 60 min p-value=0.000. Although mean PEFR significantly improved from zero-min in both groups; however, improvement was more significant in group A with significant p-value = 0.015, 0.001, 0.001 at 20 min, 40 min and 60 min, respectively. The conclusion this study suggests is that inhaled magnesium sulfate is an efficient add on drug to standard β- agonist inhalation used in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations.

Keywords: nebulized, magnesium sulfate, acute asthma , pediatric

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6 Functional Significance of Qatari Camels Milk: Antioxidant Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Protein Fractions

Authors: Tahra ElObeid, Omnya Ahmed, Reem Al-Sharshani, Doaa Dalloul, Jannat Alnattei

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Background: Camelus dormedarius camels are also called ‘the Arabian camels’ and are present in the desert area of North Africa and the Middle East. Recently, camel’s milk has a great attention globally because of their proteins and peptides that have been reported to be beneficial for the health and in the management of many diseases. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and to evaluate the total phenolic content of camel’s milk proteins in Qatar. Methods: Fresh two camel’s milk samples from Omani breed and called Muhajer (camel’s milk A and B) were collected on the 1st of the December. Both samples were from the same location Al- Shahaniyah, Doha, Qatar, but from different local private farms and feeding system. Camel’s milk A and B were defatted by centrifugation and their proteins were extracted by acid and thermal precipitation. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic compound (TPC) was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR). On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity against eight different type of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by disc diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Results: The of the total phenolic content of whole milk in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. The % of the DPPH radical inhibition of casein protein in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. In this study, there were marked changes in the antibacterial activity in the different camel milk protein extracts. All extracts showed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the camel milk protein extracts correlated to their unique phenolic compounds and bioactive protein peptides. The antimicrobial activity was not detected perhaps due to the technique, the quality, or the extraction method. Overall, camel's milk exhibits a high antioxidant activity, which is responsible for many health benefits besides the nutritional values.

Keywords: camels milk, antioxidant content, antimicrobial activity, proteins, Qatar

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5 Geological Mapping of Gabel Humr Akarim Area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: Constrain from Remote Sensing Data, Petrographic Description and Field Investigation

Authors: Doaa Hamdi, Ahmed Hashem

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The present study aims at integrating the ASTER data and Landsat 8 data to discriminate and map alteration and/or mineralization zones in addition to delineating different lithological units of Humr Akarim Granites area. The study area is located at 24º9' to 24º13' N and 34º1' to 34º2'45"E., covering a total exposed surface area of about 17 km². The area is characterized by rugged topography with low to moderate relief. Geologic fieldwork and petrographic investigations revealed that the basement complex of the study area is composed of metasediments, mafic dikes, older granitoids, and alkali-feldspar granites. Petrographic investigations revealed that the secondary minerals in the study area are mainly represented by chlorite, epidote, clay minerals and iron oxides. These minerals have specific spectral signatures in the region of visible near-infrared and short-wave infrared (0.4 to 2.5 µm). So that the ASTER imagery processing was concentrated on VNIR-SWIR spectrometric data in order to achieve the purposes of this study (geologic mapping of hydrothermal alteration zones and delineate possible radioactive potentialities). Mapping of hydrothermal alterations zones in addition to discriminating the lithological units in the study area are achieved through the utilization of some different image processing, including color band composites (CBC) and data transformation techniques such as band ratios (BR), band ratio codes (BRCs), principal component analysis(PCA), Crosta Technique and minimum noise fraction (MNF). The field verification and petrographic investigation confirm the results of ASTER imagery and Landsat 8 data, proposing a geological map (scale 1:50000).

Keywords: remote sensing, petrography, mineralization, alteration detection

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4 Drug Design Modelling and Molecular Virtual Simulation of an Optimized BSA-Based Nanoparticle Formulation Loaded with Di-Berberine Sulfate Acid Salt

Authors: Eman M. Sarhan, Doaa A. Ghareeb, Gabriella Ortore, Amr A. Amara, Mohamed M. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Drug salting and nanoparticle-based drug delivery formulations are considered to be an effective means for rendering the hydrophobic drugs’ nano-scale dispersion in aqueous media, and thus circumventing the pitfalls of their poor solubility as well as enhancing their membrane permeability. The current study aims to increase the bioavailability of quaternary ammonium berberine through acid salting and biodegradable bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanoparticulate drug formulation. Berberine hydroxide (BBR-OH) that was chemically synthesized by alkalization of the commercially available berberine hydrochloride (BBR-HCl) was then acidified to get Di-berberine sulfate (BBR)₂SO₄. The purified crystals were spectrally characterized. The desolvation technique was optimized for the preparation of size-controlled BSA-BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-OH, and BSA-(BBR)₂SO₄ nanoparticles. Particle size, zeta potential, drug release, encapsulation efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tandem MS-MS spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning and transmitting electron microscopic examination (SEM, TEM), in vitro bioactivity, and in silico drug-polymer interaction were determined. BSA (PDB ID; 4OR0) protonation state at different pH values was predicted using Amber12 molecular dynamic simulation. Then blind docking was performed using Lamarkian genetic algorithm (LGA) through AutoDock4.2 software. Results proved the purity and the size-controlled synthesis of berberine-BSA-nanoparticles. The possible binding poses, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of berberine on BSA at different pH values were predicted. Antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, and cell differentiated ability of tested drugs and their nano-formulations were evaluated. Thus, drug salting and the potentially effective albumin berberine nanoparticle formulations can be successfully developed using a well-optimized desolvation technique and exhibiting better in vitro cellular bioavailability.

Keywords: berberine, BSA, BBR-OH, BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-OH, (BBR)₂SO₄, BSA-(BBR)₂SO₄, FTIR, AutoDock4.2 Software, Lamarkian genetic algorithm, SEM, TEM, EDX

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3 Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle

Authors: Amira E. Derbalah, Doaa M. Zaghloul

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10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.

Keywords: cattle, electron microscopy, hemal node, histology, immune system

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2 Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Chronic Aluminium Exposure in Rats: Impact of Nutrients Combination versus Social Isolation and Protein Malnutrition

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Doaa M. Abd El-Latif, Amany M. Gad, Yasser M. A. Elnahas, Karema Abu-Elfotuh

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to Aluminium (Al) has been increased recently. It is found in food products, food additives, drinking water, cosmetics and medicines. Chronic consumption of Al causes oxidative stress and has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Liver is considered as the major site for detoxification while kidney is involved in the elimination of toxic substances and is a target organ of metal toxicity. Social isolation (SI) or protein malnutrition (PM) also causes oxidative stress and has negative impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity as well as hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a powerful intracellular antioxidant with mitochondrial membrane stabilizing ability while wheat grass is a natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and different protective activities, cocoa is also potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. They provide different degrees of protection from the impact of oxidative stress. Objective: To study the impact of social isolation together with Protein malnutrition on nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure in rats as well as to investigate the postulated protection using a combination of Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa. Methods: Eight groups of rats were used; four served as protected groups and four as un-protected. Each of them received daily for five weeks AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups except one group served as control. Al-toxicity model groups were divided to Al-toxicity alone, SI- associated PM (10% casein diet) and Al- associated SI&PM groups. Protection was induced by oral co-administration of CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg) and cocoa powder (24mg/kg) combination together with Al. Biochemical changes in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) were measured in serum of all groups. Specimens of kidney and liver were used for assessment of oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation in addition to evaluation of histopathological changes. Results: SI together with PM severely enhanced nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure. Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa combination showed clear protection against hazards of Al exposure either alone or when associated with SI&PM. Their protection were indicated by the significant decrease in Al-induced elevations in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels as well as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH. Liver and kidney of the treated groups also showed significant decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC. Biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathological examinations. Conclusion: SI together with PM represents a risk factor in enhancing nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. CoQ10, wheat grass and cocoa combination provide clear protection against nephro- and hepatotoxicity as well as the consequent degenerations induced by chronic Al-exposure even when associated with the risk of SI together with PM.

Keywords: aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, isolation and protein malnutrition, coenzyme Q10, wheatgrass, cocoa, nutrients combinations

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1 Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Predictors of Mortality in Home Health Care Service: Data From Saudi Arabia

Authors: Walid A. Alkeridy, Arwa Aljasser, Khalid Mohammed Alayed, Saad Alsaad, Amani S. Alqahtani, Claire Ann Lim, Sultan H. Alamri, Doaa Zainhom Mekkawy, Mohammed Al-Sofiani

Abstract:

Introduction: The history of publicly funded Home Health Care (HHC) service in Saudi Arabia dates back to 1991. The first HC program was launched to provide palliative home care services for patients with terminal cancer. Thereafter, more programs launched across Saudi Arabia most remarkably was launching the national program for HHC by the Ministry Of Health (MOH) in 2008. The national HHC MOH program is mainly providing long-term care home care services for over 40,000 Saudi citizens. The scope of the HHC service program provided by the Saudi MOH is quite diverse, ranging from basic nursing care to specialized care programs, e.g., home peritoneal dialysis, home ventilation, home infusion therapy, etc. Objectives: The primary aim of our study is to report the prevalence of chronic conditions among Saudi people receiving long-term HHC services. Secondary aims include identifying the predictors of mortality among individuals receiving long-term HHC services and studying the association between frailty and poor health outcomes among HHC users. Methods: We conducted a retrospective and cross-sectional data collection from participants receiving HHC services at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from electronic health records (EHR), patient charts, and interviewing caregivers from the year 2019 to 2022. We assessed functional performance by Katz's activity of daily living and the Bristol Activity of Daily Living Scale (BADLS). A trained health care provider assessed frailty using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Mortality was assessed by reviewing the death certificates if patients were hospitalized through discharge status ascertainment from EHR. Results: The mean age for deceased individuals in HHC was 78.3 years. Over twenty percent of individuals receiving HHC services were readmitted to the hospital. The following variables were statistically significant between deceased and alive individuals receiving HHC services; clinical frailty scale, the total number of comorbid conditions, and functional performance based on the KATZ activity of daily living scale and the BADLS. We found that the strongest predictors for mortality were pressure ulcers which had an odds ratio of 3.75 and p-value of < 0.0001, and the clinical frailty scale, which had an odds ratio of 1.69 and p-value of 0.002, using multivariate regression analysis. In conclusion, our study found that pressure ulcers and frailty are the strongest predictors of mortality for individuals receiving home health care services. Moreover, we found a high rate of annual readmission for individuals enrolled in HHC, which requires further analysis to understand the possible contributing factors for the increased rate of hospital readmission and develop strategies to address them. Future studies should focus on designing quality improvement projects aimed at improving the quality of life for individuals receiving HHC services, especially those who have pressure ulcers at the end of life.

Keywords: homecare, Saudi, prevalence, chronic

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