Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 444

Search results for: flank wear

444 Predictive Modeling of Flank Wear in Hard Turning Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Suha K. Shihab, Zahid A. Khan, Aas Mohammad, Arshad Noor Siddiquee

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on flank wear (VB) in turning of 52100 hard alloy steel using multilayer coated carbide insert under dry condition. Nine experiments were performed based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on flank wear. The results of the study revealed that the cutting speed (A) and feed rate (B) are the dominant factors affecting flank wear, while the depth of cut (C) has not a significant effect. The optimal combination of the cutting parameters for flank wear is found to be A1B1C1. The mathematical model for flank wear is found to be statistically significant. The predicted and measured values of flank wear are found to be very close to each other.

Keywords: flank wear, hard turning, Taguchi approach, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
443 Modeling of Tool Flank Wear in Finish Hard Turning of AISI D2 Using Genetic Programming

Authors: V. Pourmostaghimi, M. Zadshakoyan

Abstract:

Efficiency and productivity of the finish hard turning can be enhanced impressively by utilizing accurate predictive models for cutting tool wear. However, the ability of genetic programming in presenting an accurate analytical model is a notable characteristic which makes it more applicable than other predictive modeling methods. In this paper, the genetic equation for modeling of tool flank wear is developed with the use of the experimentally measured flank wear values and genetic programming during finish turning of hardened AISI D2. Series of tests were conducted over a range of cutting parameters and the values of tool flank wear were measured. On the basis of obtained results, genetic model presenting connection between cutting parameters and tool flank wear were extracted. The accuracy of the genetically obtained model was assessed by using two statistical measures, which were root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R²). Evaluation results revealed that presented genetic model predicted flank wear over the study area accurately (R² = 0.9902 and RMSE = 0.0102). These results allow concluding that the proposed genetic equation corresponds well with experimental data and can be implemented in real industrial applications.

Keywords: cutting parameters, flank wear, genetic programming, hard turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
442 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa

Abstract:

The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The online monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear online. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.

Keywords: flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling, signal processing, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
441 Optimization of Machining Parameters by Using Cryogenic Media

Authors: Shafqat Wahab, Waseem Tahir, Manzoor Ahmad, Sarfraz Khan, M. Azam

Abstract:

Optimization and analysis of tool flank wear width and surface finish of alloy steel rods are studied in the presence of cryogenic media (LN2) by using Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404- WF 4215). Robust design concept of Taguchi L9(34) method and ANOVA is applied to determine the contribution of key cutting parameters and their optimum conditions. Through analysis, it revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear width while surface finish is mostly dependent on feed rate.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic fluid, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface roughness, taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 529
440 Improvement in Tool Life Through Optimizing Cutting Parameters Using Cryogenic Media in Machining of Aerospace Alloy Steel

Authors: Waseem Tahir, Syed Hussain Imran Jaffery, Mohammad Azam

Abstract:

In this research work, liquid nitrogen gas (LN2) is used as a cryogenic media to optimize the cutting parameters for evaluation of tool flank wear width of Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404-WF 4215) while turning a high strength alloy steel. Robust design concept of Taguchi L9 (34) method is applied to determine the optimum conditions. The analysis is revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear. However, High Speed Machining is shown most significant as compare to cooling media on work piece surface roughness.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
439 The Relationship between Spindle Sound and Tool Performance in Turning

Authors: N. Seemuang, T. McLeay, T. Slatter

Abstract:

Worn tools have a direct effect on the surface finish and part accuracy. Tool condition monitoring systems have been developed over a long period and used to avoid a loss of productivity resulting from using a worn tool. However, the majority of tool monitoring research has applied expensive sensing systems not suitable for production. In this work, the cutting sound in turning machine was studied using microphone. Machining trials using seven cutting conditions were conducted until the observable flank wear width (FWW) on the main cutting edge exceeded 0.4 mm. The cutting inserts were removed from the tool holder and the flank wear width was measured optically. A microphone with built-in preamplifier was used to record the machining sound of EN24 steel being face turned by a CNC lathe in a wet cutting condition using constant surface speed control. The sound was sampled at 50 kS/s and all sound signals recorded from microphone were transformed into the frequency domain by FFT in order to establish the frequency content in the audio signature that could be then used for tool condition monitoring. The extracted feature from audio signal was compared to the flank wear progression on the cutting inserts. The spectrogram reveals a promising feature, named as ‘spindle noise’, which emits from the main spindle motor of turning machine. The spindle noise frequency was detected at 5.86 kHz of regardless of cutting conditions used on this particular CNC lathe. Varying cutting speed and feed rate have an influence on the magnitude of power spectrum of spindle noise. The magnitude of spindle noise frequency alters in conjunction with the tool wear progression. The magnitude increases significantly in the transition state between steady-state wear and severe wear. This could be used as a warning signal to prepare for tool replacement or adapt cutting parameters to extend tool life.

Keywords: tool wear, flank wear, condition monitoring, spindle noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
438 FEM Simulation of Tool Wear and Edge Radius Effects on Residual Stress in High Speed Machining of Inconel718

Authors: Yang Liu, Mathias Agmell, Aylin Ahadi, Jan-Eric Stahl, Jinming Zhou

Abstract:

Tool wear and tool geometry have significant effects on the residual stresses in the component produced by high-speed machining. In this paper, Coupled Eulerian and Lagrangian (CEL) model is adopted to investigate the residual stress in high-speed machining of Inconel718 with a CBN170 cutting tool. The result shows that the mesh with the smallest size of 5 um yields cutting forces and chip morphology in close agreement with the experimental data. The analysis of thermal loading and mechanical loading are performed to study the effect of segmented chip morphology on the machined surface topography and residual stress distribution. The effects of cutting edge radius and flank wear on residual stresses formation and distribution on the workpiece were also investigated. It is found that the temperature within 100um depth of the machined surface increases drastically due to the more friction heat generation with the contact area of tool and workpiece increasing when a larger edge radius and flank wear are used. With the depth further increasing, the temperature drops rapidly for all cases due to the low conductivity of Inconel718. Consequently, higher and deeper tensile residual stress is generated on the superficial. Furthermore, an increased depth of plastic deformation and compressive residual stress is noticed in the subsurface, which is attributed to the reduction of the yield strength under the thermal effect. Besides, the ploughing effect produced by a larger tool edge radius contributes more than flank wear. The magnitude variation of the compressive residual stress caused by various edge radius and flank wear have a totally opposite trend, which depends on the magnitude of the ploughing and friction pressure acting on the machined surface.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian, segmented chip, residual stress, tool wear, edge radius, Inconel718

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
437 Investigation of Stellram Indexable Milling Cutter XDLT09-D41 Tool Wear for Machining of Ti6Al4V

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Miao Haibin

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are attractive materials for aerospace industry due to their exceptional strength to weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their good corrosion resistance. Major applications of titanium alloys were military aerospace industry, but since last decade the trend has now shifted towards commercial industry. On the other hand, titanium alloys are notorious for being poor thermal conductor that leads to them being difficult materials for machining. In this experimental study, Stellram Indexable milling cutter XDLT09-D41 is used for rough down milling of Ti6Al4V for small depth of cut under different combinations of parameters and application of high-pressure coolant. The machining performance was evaluated in terms of tool wear, tool life, and thermal crack. The tool wear was mostly observed at the tool tip and at bottom part of tool thermal deformations were observed which propagated with respect to time. Flank wear due to scratching of the cutting chips and diffusion wear because of high thermal stresses were observed specially at the bottom of the cutting tool. It was found that maximum tool life was obtained at the speed of 40m/min, feed rate of 358mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8mm. In the end, it was concluded that machining of Ti6Al4V is a thermally dominant process which leads to high thermal stresses in machining zone that results in increasing tool wear rate and deformation propagation.

Keywords: tool wear, cutting speed, flank wear , tool life

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
436 Effect of Post Hardening on PVD Coated Tools

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Ashish Tulli

Abstract:

In the research, the effect of varying cutting parameters, design parameters and heat treatment processes were studied on the cutting performance (Tool life) of a PVD coated tool. Thus, in a quest for these phenomenon comparison, a single coated tool and a multicoated tool were analyzed after suitable heat treatment process. TNMG shaped insert with single coating of TiCN and multi-coating of TiAlN/TiN were developed on tungsten carbide substrate. These coated inserts were then successfully annealed and normalized for a temperature of 350°C for 30 minutes and their cutting performance was evaluated as per the flank wear obtained after turning of mild steel. The results showed that heat treatment had a suitable impact on the tool life of the coated insert and also led to increase in the micro-hardness of the tool coatings and decrease in the wear rate.

Keywords: PVD coatings, flank wear, micro-hardness, annealing, normalizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
435 Intelligent Tooling Embedded Sensors for Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Turning Applications

Authors: Hatim Laalej, Jon Stammers

Abstract:

In machining, monitoring of tool wear is essential for achieving the desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish of a machined workpiece. Currently, the task of monitoring the wear on the cutting tool is carried out by the operator who performs manual inspections of the cutting tool, causing undesirable stoppages of machine tools and consequently resulting in costs incurred from loss of productivity. The cutting tool consumable costs may also be higher than necessary when tools are changed before the end of their useful life. Furthermore, damage can be caused to the workpiece when tools are not changed soon enough leading to a significant increase in the costs of manufacturing. The present study is concerned with the development of break sensor printed on the flank surface of poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) cutting to perform on-line condition monitoring of the cutting tool used to machine Titanium Ti-6al-4v bar. The results clearly show that there is a strong correlation between the break sensor measurements and the amount of wear in the cutting tool. These findings are significant in that they help the user/operator of the machine tool to determine the condition of the cutting tool without the need of performing manual inspection, thereby reducing the manufacturing costs such as the machine down time.

Keywords: machining, manufacturing, tool wear, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
434 Optimization of Surface Roughness by Taguchi’s Method for Turning Process

Authors: Ashish Ankus Yerunkar, Ravi Terkar

Abstract:

Study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy requirements of both quality as well as productivity with special emphasis on reduction of cutting tool flank wear, because reduction in flank wear ensures increase in tool life. The predicted optimal setting ensured minimization of surface roughness. Purpose of this paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get lowest surface roughness in turning SCM 440 alloy steel by Taguchi method. Design for the experiment was done using Taguchi method and 18 experiments were designed by this process and experiments conducted. The results are analyzed using ANOVA method. Taguchi method has depicted that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing lower surface roughness followed by feed. The Cutting speed has lesser role on surface roughness from the tests. The vibrations of the machine tool, tool chattering are the other factors which may contribute poor surface roughness to the results and such factors ignored for analyses. The inferences by this method will be useful to other researches for similar type of study and may be vital for further research on tool vibrations, cutting forces etc.

Keywords: surface roughness (ra), machining, dry turning, taguchi method, turning process, anova method, mahr perthometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
433 Tool Wear Monitoring of High Speed Milling Based on Vibratory Signal Processing

Authors: Hadjadj Abdechafik, Kious Mecheri, Ameur Aissa

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to develop a process of treatment of the vibratory signals generated during a horizontal high speed milling process without applying any coolant in order to establish a monitoring system able to improve the machining performance. Thus, many tests were carried out on the horizontal high speed centre (PCI Météor 10), in given cutting conditions, by using a milling cutter with only one insert and measured its frontal wear from its new state that is considered as a reference state until a worn state that is considered as unsuitable for the tool to be used. The results obtained show that the first harmonic follow well the evolution of frontal wear, on another hand a wavelet transform is used for signal processing and is found to be useful for observing the evolution of the wavelet approximations through the cutting tool life. The power and the Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the wavelet transformed signal gave the best results and can be used for tool wear estimation. All this features can constitute the suitable indicators for an effective detection of tool wear and then used for the input parameters of an online monitoring system. Although we noted the remarkable influence of the machining cycle on the quality of measurements by the introduction of a bias on the signal, this phenomenon appears in particular in horizontal milling and in the majority of studies is ignored.

Keywords: flank wear, vibration, milling, signal processing, monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
432 Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Ti3SiC2 and the Effect of TiC on Its

Authors: Bendaoudi Seif-Eddine, Bounazef Mokhtar

Abstract:

Wear behaviour of Ti3SiC2 coating in contact sliding under dry condition have been investigated on different pressures (0.1-0.8 MPa) at various speeds from 5 to 60 m/s. The ball-on-disc sliding-wear test was performed in ambient air with a relative humidity of 20%. An equation has been proposed to predict wear rates and describe sliding wear caused by Corundum ball on the studied material. The results show how the wear rate, measured by mass loss, varies in the range of (0.6 – 3.8 x E-6 mm3/Nm) with normal sliding distance under various test conditions; it increases with increasing load and rapidly with speed. The influence of TiC impurities on the wear behaviours was also investigated.

Keywords: ball-on-disc, dry-sliding, Ti3SiC2, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
431 Wear Measurement of Thermomechanical Parameters of the Metal Carbide

Authors: Riad Harouz, Brahim Mahfoud

Abstract:

The threads and the circles on reinforced concrete are obtained by process of hot rolling with pebbles finishers in metal carbide which present a way of rolling around the outside diameter. Our observation is that this throat presents geometrical wear after the end of its cycle determined in tonnage. In our study, we have determined, in a first step, experimentally measurements of the wear in terms of thermo-mechanical parameters (Speed, Load, and Temperature) and the influence of these parameters on the wear. In the second stage, we have developed a mathematical model of lifetime useful for the prognostic of the wear and their changes.

Keywords: lifetime, metal carbides, modeling, thermo-mechanical, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
430 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

Abstract:

This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
429 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers

Abstract:

Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
428 Wet Sliding Wear and Frictional Behavior of Commercially Available Perspex

Authors: S. Reaz Ahmed, M. S. Kaiser

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The tribological behavior of commercially used Perspex was evaluated under dry and wet sliding condition using a pin-on-disc wear tester with different applied loads ranging from 2.5 to 20 N. Experiments were conducted with varying sliding distance from 0.2 km to 4.6 km, wherein the sliding velocity was kept constant, 0.64 ms-1. The results reveal that the weight loss increases with applied load and the sliding distance. The nature of the wear rate was very similar in both the sliding environments in which initially the wear rate increased very rapidly with increasing sliding distance and then progressed to a slower rate. Moreover, the wear rate in wet sliding environment was significantly lower than that under dry sliding condition. The worn surfaces were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. It is found that surface modification has significant effect on sliding wear performance of Perspex.

Keywords: Perspex, wear, friction, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
427 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
426 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
425 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan

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The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
424 Synergetic Effects of Water and Sulfur Dioxide Treatments on Wear of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

Authors: Qian Qiao, Tongjin Xiao, Hongtu He, Jiaxin Yu

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This study is focused on the synergetic effects of water and sulfur dioxide treatments (SO₂ treatments) on the mechanochemical wear of SLS glass. It is found that the wear behavior of SLS glass in humid air is very sensitive to the water and SO₂ treatment environments based on the wear test using a ball-on-flat reciprocation tribometer. When SLS glass is treated with SO₂-without, the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass in humid air becomes significantly higher compared to the pristine glass. However, when SLS glass is treated with SO₂ with the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass decreases remarkably with increasing in the relative humidity (RH) from 0% to 90%. Further analyses indicate that when sodium ions are leached out of SLS glass surface via the water and SO₂ treatments, the mechanochemical properties of SLS glass surface become different depending on the RH. At lower humidity, the nano hardness of the Na⁺-leached surface is higher, and it can contribute to the enhanced wear resistance of SLS glass. In contrast, at higher humidity conditions, the SLS glass surface is more hydrophilic, and substantial wear debris can be found inside the wear track of SLS glass. Those phenomena suggest that adhesive wear and abrasive wear dominate the wear mechanism of SLS glass in humid air, causing the decreased wear resistance of SLS glass with increasing the RH. These results may not only provide a deep understanding of the wear mechanism of SLS glass but also helpful for operation process of functional and engineering glasses.

Keywords: soda lime silicate glass, wear, water, SO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
423 Wear Measuring and Wear Modelling Based On Archard, ASTM, and Neural Network Models

Authors: A. Shebani, C. Pislaru

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Wear of materials is an everyday experience and has been observed and studied for long time. The prediction of wear is a fundamental problem in the industrial field, mainly correlated to the planning of maintenance interventions and economy. Pin-on-disc test is the most common test which is used to study the wear behaviour. In this paper, the pin-on-disc (AEROTECH UNIDEX 11) is used for the investigation of the effects of normal load and hardness of material on the wear under dry and sliding conditions. In the pin-on-disc rig, two specimens were used; one, a pin which is made of steel with a tip, is positioned perpendicular to the disc, where the disc is made of aluminium. The pin wear and disc wear were measured by using the following instruments: The Talysurf instrument, a digital microscope, and the alicona instrument; where the Talysurf profilometer was used to measure the pin/disc wear scar depth, and the alicona was used to measure the volume loss for pin and disc. After that, the Archard model, American Society for Testing and Materials model (ASTM), and neural network model were used for pin/disc wear modelling and the simulation results are implemented by using the Matlab program. This paper focuses on how the alicona can be considered as a powerful tool for wear measurements and how the neural network is an effective algorithm for wear estimation.

Keywords: wear modelling, Archard Model, ASTM Model, Neural Networks Model, Pin-on-disc Test, Talysurf, digital microscope, Alicona

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
422 The Effect of Surface Conditions on Wear of a Railway Wheel and Rail

Authors: A. Shebani, S. Iwnicki

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Understanding the nature of wheel and rail wear in the railway field is of fundamental importance to the safe and cost effective operation of the railways. Twin disc wear testing is used extensively for studying wear of wheel and rail materials. The University of Huddersfield twin disc rig was used in this paper to examine the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear measurement under a range of wheel/rail contact conditions, with and without contaminants. This work focuses on an investigation of the effect of dry, wet, and lubricated conditions and the effect of contaminants such as sand on wheel and rail wear. The wheel and rail wear measurements were carried out by using a replica material and an optical profilometer that allows measurement of wear in difficult location with high accuracy. The results have demonstrated the rate at which both water and oil reduce wheel and rail wear. Scratches and other damage were seen on the wheel and rail surfaces after the addition of sand and consequently both wheel and rail wear damage rates increased under these conditions. This work introduced the replica material and an optical instrument as effective tools to study the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear.

Keywords: railway wheel/rail wear, surface conditions, twin disc test rig, replica material, Alicona profilometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
421 Wear Resistance of 20MnCr5 Steel Nitrided by Plasma

Authors: Okba Belahssen, Said Benramache

Abstract:

This paper presents wear behavior of the plasma-nitrided 20MnCr5 steel. Untreated and plasma nitrided samples were tested. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plasma nitriding behaviors of 20MnCr5 steel have been assessed by evaluating tribological properties and surface hardness by using a pin-on-disk wear machine and microhardness tester. Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer improve the wear resistance.

Keywords: plasma-nitriding, alloy 20mncr5, steel, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
420 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
419 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland

Abstract:

This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.

Keywords: physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
418 Tribological Study of TiC Powder Cladding on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Sin-Yu Chen, Pei-Yu Wu

Abstract:

This study reports the improvement in the wear performance of A6061 aluminum alloy clad with mixed powders of titanium carbide (TiC), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. The wear performance of the A6061 clad layers was evaluated by performing pin-on-disc mode wear test. Experimental results clearly indicate an enhancement in the hardness of the clad layer by about two times that of the A6061 substrate without cladding. Wear test demonstrated a significant improvement in the wear performance of the clad layer when compared with the A6061 substrate without cladding. Moreover, the interface between the clad layer and the A6061 substrate exhibited superior metallurgical bonding. Due to this bonding, the clad layer did not spall during the wear test; as such, massive wear loss was prevented. Additionally, massive oxidized particulate debris was generated on the worn surface during the wear test; this resulted in three-body abrasive wear and reduced the wear behavior of the clad surface.

Keywords: GTAW、A6061 aluminum alloy, 、surface modification, tribological study, TiC powder cladding

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
417 Solution for Rider Ring Wear Problem in Boil off Gas Reciprocating Compressor: A Case Study

Authors: Hessam Mortezaei, Saeid Joudakian

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In this paper, the wear problem on rider rings of boil off gas compressor has been studied. This kind of oil free double acting compressor has free floating piston (FFP) technology and as a result of that it should have the lowest possible wear on its rider rings. But a design problem had caused a complete wear of rider rings after one month of continuous operation. In this case study, the source of this problem was recognized and solved.

Keywords: piston rider, rings, gas distribution, pressure wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
416 Optimization of Wear during Dry Sliding Wear of AISI 1042 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Sukant Mehra, Parth Gupta, Varun Arora, Sarvoday Singh, Amit Kohli

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The study was emphasised on dry sliding wear behavior of AISI 1042 steel. Dry sliding wear tests were performed using pin-on-disk apparatus under normal loads of 5, 7.5 and 10 kgf and at speeds 600, 750 and 900 rpm. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for finding optimal values of process parameter and experiment was based on rotatable, central composite design (CCD). It was found that the wear followed linear pattern with the load and rpm. The obtained optimal process parameters have been predicted and verified by confirmation experiments.

Keywords: central composite design (CCD), optimization, response surface methodology (RSM), wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
415 Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement

Authors: Haibin Zhou, Pingping Yao, Kunyang Fan

Abstract:

Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: Cu-based friction materials, Fe reinforcement, wear map, wear mechanism

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