Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14483

Search results for: immune system

14483 Application of Artificial Immune Systems Combined with Collaborative Filtering in Movie Recommendation System

Authors: Pei-Chann Chang, Jhen-Fu Liao, Chin-Hung Teng, Meng-Hui Chen

Abstract:

This research combines artificial immune system with user and item based collaborative filtering to create an efficient and accurate recommendation system. By applying the characteristic of antibodies and antigens in the artificial immune system and using Pearson correlation coefficient as the affinity threshold to cluster the data, our collaborative filtering can effectively find useful users and items for rating prediction. This research uses MovieLens dataset as our testing target to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm developed in this study. The experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively and accurately predict the movie ratings. Compared to some state of the art collaborative filtering systems, our system outperforms them in terms of the mean absolute error on the MovieLens dataset.

Keywords: artificial immune system, collaborative filtering, recommendation system, similarity

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14482 Theory of Negative Trigger: The Contract between Oral Probiotics and Immune System

Authors: Cliff Shunsheng Han

Abstract:

Identifying the direct allergy cause that can be easily mitigated is the foundation to stop the allergy epidemic that has been started in the seventies. It has confirmed that the personal and social hygiene practices are associated with the allergy prevalence. But direct causes have been found, and proposed translational measures have not been effective. This study, assisted by a particular case of allergies, has seen the direct cause of allergies, developed a valid test resulted in lasting relief for allergies, and constructed theory describing general relationship between microbiota and host immune system. Saliva samples were collected from a subject for three years during which time the person experienced yearlong allergy, seasonal allergy, and remission of allergy symptoms. Bacterial DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were profiled with Illumina sequencing technology. The analyzing results indicate that the possible direct cause of allergy is the lacking probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity, such as genera Streptococcus and Veilonella, that can produce metabolites to pacify immune system. Targeted promotion of those bacteria with a compound designed for them, has led to lasting remissions of allergic rhinitis. During the development of the translational measure, the subject's oral biofilm was completely destructed by a moderate fever due to an unrelated respiratory infection. The incident not only facilitated the development of the heat based microbiota reseeding procedure but also indicated a possible natural switch that subsequently increases the efficacy of the immune system previously restrained by metabolites from microbiota. These results lead to the proposal of a Theory of Negative Trigger (TNT) to describe the relationship between oral probiotics and immune system, in which probiotics are the negative trigger that will release the power of immune system when removed by fever or modern lifestyles. This study could open doors leading to further understanding of how the immune system functions under the influence of microbiota as well as validate simple traditional practices for healthy living.

Keywords: oral microbiome, allergy, immune system, infection

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14481 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine

Abstract:

Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: cytokines, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases, vaccination

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14480 Optimal Tuning of a Fuzzy Immune PID Parameters to Control a Delayed System

Authors: S. Gherbi, F. Bouchareb

Abstract:

This paper deals with the novel intelligent bio-inspired control strategies, it presents a novel approach based on an optimal fuzzy immune PID parameters tuning, it is a combination of a PID controller, inspired by the human immune mechanism with fuzzy logic. Such controller offers more possibilities to deal with the delayed systems control difficulties due to the delay term. Indeed, we use an optimization approach to tune the four parameters of the controller in addition to the fuzzy function; the obtained controller is implemented in a modified Smith predictor structure, which is well known that it is the most efficient to the control of delayed systems. The application of the presented approach to control a three tank delay system shows good performances and proves the efficiency of the method.

Keywords: delayed systems, fuzzy immune PID, optimization, Smith predictor

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14479 Immunoglobulins and Importance in Ruminants

Authors: M. Akoz, O. B. Citil, I. Aydin

Abstract:

Colostrum secreted by the mammary glands after birth in the early days, a high proportion of fat, protein and ash containing a secretion containing low amounts of casein and lactose. Especially immunoglobulins contain high proportions. Maternal immunoglobulins own immune system to protect the newborn against neonatal disease until development are very important matter. However, colostrum is transferred to the offspring due to placental barrier in ruminants. Immunoglobulins are absorbed through the intestinal epithelium but absorption can vary under the influence of some factors. These factors are among the priority ones taking colostrum first time, amount, concentration, the metabolic status of the newborn. intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins occurs over the first 24 h high. Absorption from the gut after nine hours, 50% after 24 hours was only 11%. On the other hand pup's digestive system degrade the enzymes after 24 hours immunoglobulins. Bovine colostrum in the composition while basic immune IgG, IgA and IgM are also available. Total IgG in colostrum of ruminants, while in other species is a greater amount in blood serum.

Keywords: immunoglobulin, ruminants, colostrum, immune system

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14478 The Characteristics of Porcine Immune Synapse via Flow Cytometry and Transmission Electron Microscope

Authors: Ann Ying-An Chen, Yi-Lun Tsai, Hso-Chi Chaung

Abstract:

An understanding of pathogens and the immune system has played an utmost important role in agricultural research for the development of vaccinations. The immunological synapse, cell to cell interaction play a crucial role in triggering the body's immune system, such as activation between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and different subsets of T-cell. If these interactions are regulated appropriately, the host has the ability to defend itself against a wide spectrum of infectious pathogens. The aim of this study is to establish and to characterize a porcine immune synapse system by co-culturing T cell/APC. In this study, blood samples were collected from specific-pathogen-free piglets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated by using Ficoll-Pague. The PBMC were then stained with CD4 (FITC) and CD25 (PE) antibodies. Different subsets of T cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting flow cytometer were co-cultured for 24 hrs with alveolar macrophages, and the profiles of cytokine secretion and mRNA transcription levels of Toll-like receptors were examined after. Results showed that the three stages of immune synapse were clearly visible and identified under both transmission and scanning electron microscope (TEM and SEM). The significant interaction differences in toll-like receptor expressions within the co-cultured cell system were observed. The TLR7 mRNA expressions in CD4+CD25- cells were lower than those in CD4+CD25+ and CD4 -CD25+. Interestingly, the IL-10 production levels in CD4+CD25- cells (7.732 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those of CD4+CD25+ (2.636 pg/mL) and CD4 -CD25+ (2.48 pg/mL). These findings demonstrated that a clear understanding of the porcine immune synapse system can contribute greatly for further investigations on the mechanism of T-cell activation, which can benefit in the discovery of potential adjuvant candidate or effective antigen epitopes in the development of vaccinations with high efficacy.

Keywords: antigen-presenting cells, immune synapse, pig, T subsets, toll-like receptor

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14477 Rapid Weight Loss in Athletes: A Look at Suppressive Effects on Immune System

Authors: Nazari Maryam, Gorji Saman

Abstract:

For most competitions, athletes usually engage in a process called rapid weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding the event. Besides the perfection of performance, weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete” which is mentally important as a part of the pre-competition preparation. This feeling enhances the focus and commitment of the athlete. There is a large body of evidence that weight loss, particularly in combat sports, results in several health benefits. However, intentional weight loss beyond normal levels might have unknown negative special effects on the immune system. As the results show, a high prevalence (50%) of RWL is happening among combat athletes. It seems that energy deprivation and intense exercise to reach RWL results in altered blood cell distribution through modification of body composition that, in turn, changes B and T-Lymphocyte and/or CD4 T-Helper response. Moreover, it may diminish IgG antibody levels and modulate IgG glycosylation after this course. On the other hand, some studies show suppression of signaling and regulation of IgE antibody and chemokine production are responsible for immunodeficiency following a period of low-energy availability. Some researchers hypothesize that severe glutamine depletion, which occurs during exercise and calorie restriction, is responsible for this immune system weakness. However, supplementation by this amino acid is not prescribed yet. Therefore, weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body fat losses) but also through acute manipulations prior to competition should be supervised by a sports nutritionist to minimize side effects on the immune system and other body systems.

Keywords: athletes, immune system, rapid weight loss, weight loss strategies

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14476 Innate Immunity of Insects in Brief

Authors: Ehsan Soleymaninejadian

Abstract:

As the field of immunology is growing day by day, and its chaotic system amazes more people, greed of research in this area is growing; however dealing with human or mammalian cells such as mice make the research expensive. Although there are some differences between higher animals with insects, importance of innate immunity during evolution made it untouched. So, for understanding the innate immunity insects can be good models. They are cheap; reproduction is fast and in the case genetics, less complicated. In this review, we tried to briefly tackle with important factors in insects’ innate immunity such as melanization, encapsulation, JAK-STAT, IMD, and Toll pathways. At the end, we explained how hormones and nerve system also can impact on immune system and make it more beautiful. In concluding remarks, the possibility of taking help from insect immune system to fight against diseases such as cancer has been considered.

Keywords: insects, innate immunity, melanization, intracellular pathways, hormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
14475 Optimal Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Using Artificial Immune System

Authors: I. A. Farhat

Abstract:

The dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem is one of the complex, constrained optimization problems that have nonlinear, con-convex and non-smooth objective functions. The purpose of the DED is to determine the optimal economic operation of the committed units while meeting the load demand. Associated to this constrained problem there exist highly nonlinear and non-convex practical constraints to be satisfied. Therefore, classical and derivative-based methods are likely not to converge to an optimal or near optimal solution to such a dynamic and large-scale problem. In this paper, an Artificial Immune System technique (AIS) is implemented and applied to solve the DED problem considering the transmission power losses and the valve-point effects in addition to the other operational constraints. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, two case studies are considered. The results obtained using the AIS are compared to those obtained by other methods reported in the literature and found better.

Keywords: artificial immune system, dynamic economic dispatch, optimal economic operation, large-scale problem

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14474 An Analysis of the Impact of Immunosuppression upon the Prevalence and Risk of Cancer

Authors: Aruha Khan, Brynn E. Kankel, Paraskevi Papadopoulou

Abstract:

In recent years, extensive research upon ‘stress’ has provided insight into its two distinct guises, namely the short–term (fight–or–flight) response versus the long–term (chronic) response. Specifically, the long–term or chronic response is associated with the suppression or dysregulation of immune function. It is also widely noted that the occurrence of cancer is greatly correlated to the suppression of the immune system. It is thus necessary to explore the impact of long–term or chronic stress upon the prevalence and risk of cancer. To what extent can the dysregulation of immune function caused by long–term exposure to stress be controlled or minimized? This study focuses explicitly upon immunosuppression due to its ability to increase disease susceptibility, including cancer itself. Based upon an analysis of the literature relating to the fundamental structure of the immune system alongside the prospective linkage of chronic stress and the development of cancer, immunosuppression may not necessarily correlate directly to the acquisition of cancer—although it remains a contributing factor. A cross-sectional analysis of the survey data from the University of Tennessee Medical Center (UTMC) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) will provide additional supporting evidence (or otherwise) for the hypothesis of the study about whether immunosuppression (caused by the chronic stress response) notably impacts the prevalence of cancer. Finally, a multidimensional framework related to education on chronic stress and its effects is proposed.

Keywords: immune system, immunosuppression, long–term (chronic) stress, risk of cancer

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14473 Do Immune Organ Weights Indicate Immunomodulation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Authors: H. Al-Khalifa, A. Al-Nasser

Abstract:

The main immune organs in poultry are the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. During an immune response, mature lymphocytes and other immune cells interact with antigens in these tissues. Consequently, the mass of these organs can in some cases indicate immune status. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed on immune tissue weights. Cobb 500 broiler chickens were fed flaxseed at 15%, the control diet did not contain any flaxseed. Results showed that dietary supplementation with flaxseed did not affect the weights of the spleens of broiler chickens. However, it significantly lowered bursa weights (p<0.01), compared to the control diet. In addition, the bursae were thinner in appearance compared with bursii from chickens fed the control diets.

Keywords: bursa of fabricius, flaxseed, spleen, thymus

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14472 Fabrication of Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array for Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen

Authors: Li Li, Li-Ru Xia, He-Ye Wang, Xiao-Dong Bi

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented a highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic array for detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Firstly, the epoxy functionalized monolith arrays were fabricated using UV initiated copolymerization method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the poly(BABEA-co-GMA) monolith exhibited a well-controlled skeletal and well-distributed porous structure. Then, AFP and CEA immune-affinity monolithic arrays were prepared by immobilization of AFP and CEA antibodies on epoxy functionalized monolith arrays. With a non-competitive immune response format, the presented AFP and CEA immune-affinity arrays were demonstrated as an inexpensive, flexible, homogeneous and stable array for detection of AFP and CEA.

Keywords: chemiluminescent detection, immune-affinity, monolithic copolymer array, UV-initiated copolymerization

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14471 Effect of Falcaria vulgaris in Wound Healing and Immune Response of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Authors: N. Choobkar, M. Rezaeimanesh, A. M. Emami Rad, M. Ghaeni, H. Norouzi, S. Pahlavani, M. S. Tamasoki, E. Nezafatian

Abstract:

Antibiotics are used to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals . But due to the residual effects of a drug , researchers sought to replace them with natural materials such as Plant extracts. Falcaria vulgaris is the most attractive sources of the new drugs. Falcaria vulgaris (locally named Ghazzyaghi/Poghazeh) is a member of Umbelliferae family which grows near farmlands and is consumed as a vegetable in some regions of Iran. In the West of the country, in the wound healing and irregularities in the digestive system is also used. There were no scientific reports available in literature in support of the traditional claims of F. vulgaris in fish. The present study is therefore an attempt to assess the efficacy of this indigenous herb for its healing effect in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10 % with Lophag foods used on wound healing of common carp and immune response, and weight grow and survival during periods of 21 days with feeding 2 times per day on the basis of body weight. The results showed that, compared with the control group, using of concentration 10 % F. vulgaris have significant effect on wound healing and stimulates the immune system by increasing white blood cells (WBC) and weight grow and survival of carp. The herb can used in wound healing, increased resistance to disease and weight grow in fish and the beneficial effects of this combination goes back to man.

Keywords: common carp, falcaria vulgaris, immune response, wound healing

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14470 Effects of Gamma-Tocotrienol Supplementation on T-Regulatory Cells in Syngeneic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

Authors: S. Subramaniam, J. S. A. Rao, P. Ramdas, K. R. Selvaduray, N. M. Han, M. K. Kutty, A. K. Radhakrishnan

Abstract:

Immune system is a complex system where the immune cells have the capability to respond against a wide range of immune challenges including cancer progression. However, in the event of cancer development, tumour cells trigger immunosuppressive environment via activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells. The Treg cells are subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, known to have crucial roles in regulating immune homeostasis and promoting the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Dysregulation of these mechanisms could lead to cancer progression and immune suppression. Recently, there are many studies reporting on the effects of natural bioactive compounds on immune responses against cancer. It was known that tocotrienol-rich-fraction consisting 70% tocotrienols and 30% α-tocopherol is able to exhibit immunomodulatory as well as anti-cancer properties. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) supplementation on T-reg cells in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. In this study, female BALB/c mice were divided into two groups and fed with either soy oil (vehicle) or gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) for two weeks followed by inoculation with tumour cells. All the mice continued to receive the same supplementation until day 49. The results showed a significant reduction in tumour volume and weight in G-T3 fed mice compared to vehicle-fed mice. Lung and liver histology showed reduced evidence of metastasis in tumour-bearing G-T3 fed mice. Besides that, flow cytometry analysis revealed T-helper cell population was increased, and T-regulatory cell population was suppressed following G-T3 supplementation. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that there was a marked decrease in the expression of FOXP3 in the G-T3 fed tumour bearing mice. In conclusion, the G-T3 supplementation showed good prognosis towards breast cancer by enhancing the immune response in tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, gamma-T3 can be used as immunotherapy agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, gamma tocotrienol, immune suppression, supplement

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14469 Autoantibodies against Central Nervous System Antigens and the Serum Levels of IL-32 in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Fatemeh Keshavarz

Abstract:

Background: Schizophrenia is a disease of the nervous system, and immune system disorders can affect its pathogenesis. Activation of microglia, proinflammatory cytokines, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to inflammation, activation of autoreactive B cells, and consequently the production of autoantibodies against system antigens are among the immune processes involved in neurological diseases. interleukin 32 (IL-32) a proinflammatory cytokine that important player in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This study aimed to measure the serum level of IL-32 as well as the frequency of autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens in patients with schizophrenia. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy individuals in the control group. Serum IL-32 levels were measured by ELISA. The frequency of autoantibodies against Hu, Ri, Yo, Tr, CV2, Amphiphysin, SOX1, Zic4, ITPR1, CARP, GAD, Recoverin, Titin, and Ganglioside antigens were measured by indirect immunofluorescence method. Results: Serum IL-32 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were positive in 8 patients for GAD antigen and 5 patients for Ri antigen, which showed a significant relationship compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were also positive in 2 patients for CV2, in 1 patient for Hu, and in 1 patient for CARP. Negative results were reported for other antigens. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated the serum IL-32 level and autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Keywords: schizophrenia, microglia, autoantibodies, IL-32

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14468 The in vitro Effects of Various Immunomodulatory Nutritional Compounds on Antigen-Stimulated Whole-Blood Culture Cytokine Production

Authors: Ayu S. Muhamad, Michael Gleeson

Abstract:

Immunomodulators are substances that alter immune system via dynamic regulation of messenger molecules. It can be divided into immunostimulant and immunosuppressant. It can help to increase immunity of people with a low immune system, and also can help to normalize an overactive immune system. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in vitro exposure to low and high doses of several immunomodulators which include caffeine, kaloba and quercetin on antigen-stimulated whole blood culture cytokine production. Whole blood samples were taken from 5 healthy males (age: 32 ± 12 years; weight: 75.7 ± 6.1 kg; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.5 kg/m2) following an overnight fast with no vigorous activity during the preceding 24 h. The whole blood was then stimulated with 50 µl of 100 x diluted Pediacel vaccine and low or high dose of immunomodulators in the culture plate. After 20 h incubation (5% CO2, 37°C), it was analysed using the Evidence Investigator to determine the production of cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-1α. Caffeine and quercetin showed a tendency towards decrease cytokine production as the doses were increased. On the other hand, an upward trend was evident with kaloba, where a high dose of kaloba seemed to increase the cytokine production. In conclusion, we found that caffeine and quercetin have potential as immunosuppressant and kaloba as immunostimulant.

Keywords: caffeine, cytokine, immunomodulators, kaloba, quercetin

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14467 The Effect of Heat Stress on the Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota of Pigs

Authors: Yadnyavalkya Patil, Ravi Gooneratne, Xiang-Hong Ju

Abstract:

Heat stress (HS) negatively affects the physiology of pigs. In this study, 6 pigs will be subjected to temperatures of 35 ± 2℃ for 12 hrs/day for a duration of 21 days. The changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota will be observed by analyzing the freshly collected faeces on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The changes will be compared to faeces from a set of 6 control pigs kept simultaneously at temperatures of 26 ± 2℃ for the same duration of 21 days. Different types of stresses such a weaning have a detrimental effect on GIT microflora. Similarly, HS is expected to have a harmful effect on the microbial diversity of the GIT. How these changes affect the immune system of the pigs will be studied and therapeutics to reduce the negative effects of HS will be developed.

Keywords: GIT microbiota, heat stress, immune system, therapeutics

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14466 Introduce a New Model of Anomaly Detection in Computer Networks Using Artificial Immune Systems

Authors: Mehrshad Khosraviani, Faramarz Abbaspour Leyl Abadi

Abstract:

The fundamental component of the computer network of modern information society will be considered. These networks are connected to the network of the internet generally. Due to the fact that the primary purpose of the Internet is not designed for, in recent decades, none of these networks in many of the attacks has been very important. Today, for the provision of security, different security tools and systems, including intrusion detection systems are used in the network. A common diagnosis system based on artificial immunity, the designer, the Adhasaz Foundation has been evaluated. The idea of using artificial safety methods in the diagnosis of abnormalities in computer networks it has been stimulated in the direction of their specificity, there are safety systems are similar to the common needs of m, that is non-diagnostic. For example, such methods can be used to detect any abnormalities, a variety of attacks, being memory, learning ability, and Khodtnzimi method of artificial immune algorithm pointed out. Diagnosis of the common system of education offered in this paper using only the normal samples is required for network and any additional data about the type of attacks is not. In the proposed system of positive selection and negative selection processes, selection of samples to create a distinction between the colony of normal attack is used. Copa real data collection on the evaluation of ij indicates the proposed system in the false alarm rate is often low compared to other ir methods and the detection rate is in the variations.

Keywords: artificial immune system, abnormality detection, intrusion detection, computer networks

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14465 Evaluation of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

Authors: Mir Mohammad Reza Hosseini

Abstract:

In new years immune checkpoint inhibitors have gathered care as being one of the greatest talented kinds of immunotherapy on the prospect. There has been a specific emphasis on the immune checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). In 2011, ipilimumab, the primary antibody obstructive an immune checkpoint (CTLA4) was authorized. It is now documented that recognized tumors have many devices of overpowering the antitumor immune response, counting manufacture of repressive cytokines, staffing of immunosuppressive immune cells, and upregulation of coinhibitory receptors recognized as immune checkpoints. This was fast followed by the growth of monoclonal antibodies directing PD1 (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and PDL1 (atezolizumab and durvalumab). Anti-PD1/PDL1 antibodies have developed some of the greatest extensively set anticancer therapies. We also compare and difference their present place in cancer therapy and designs of immune-related toxicities and deliberate the role of dual immune checkpoint inhibition and plans for the organization of immune-related opposing proceedings. In this review, the employed code and present growth of numerous immune checkpoint inhibitors are abridged, while the communicating device and new development of Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy-based synergistic therapies with additional immunotherapy, chemotherapy, phototherapy, and radiotherapy in important and clinical educations in the historical 5 years are portrayed and tinted. Lastly, we disapprovingly measure these methods and effort to find their fortes and faintness based on pre-clinical and clinical information.

Keywords: checkpoint, cancer therapy, PD-1, PDL-1, CTLA4, immunosuppressive

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14464 Soil and the Gut Microbiome: Supporting the 'Hygiene Hypothesis'

Authors: Chris George, Adam Hamlin, Lily Pereg, Richard Charlesworth, Gal Winter

Abstract:

Background: According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ the current rise in allergies and autoimmune diseases stems mainly from reduced microbial exposure due, amongst other factors, to urbanisation and distance from soil. However, this hypothesis is based on epidemiological and not biological data. Useful insights into the underlying mechanisms of this hypothesis can be gained by studying our interaction with soil. Soil microbiota may be directly ingested or inhaled by humans, enter the body through skin-soil contact or using plants as vectors. This study aims to examine the ability of soil microbiota to colonise the gut, study the interaction of soil microbes with the immune system and their potential protective activity. Method: The nutrition of the rats was supplemented daily with fresh or autoclaved soil for 21 days followed by 14 days of no supplementations. Faecal samples were collected throughout and analysed using 16S sequencing. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed and tissues and digesta were collected. Results/Conclusion: Results showed significantly higher richness and diversity following soil supplementation even after recovery. Specific soil microbial groups identified as able to colonise the gut. Of particular interest was the mucosal layer which emerged as a receptive host for soil microorganisms. Histological examination revealed innate and adaptive immune activation. Findings of this study reinforce the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ by demonstrating the ability of soil microbes to colonise the gut and activate the immune system. This paves the way for further studies aimed to examine the interaction of soil microorganisms with the immune system.

Keywords: gut microbiota, hygiene hypothesis, microbiome, soil

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14463 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex with Cell Mediated Immunity

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni

Abstract:

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the best characterized genetic regions associated with immune responses and controlling disease resistance in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. In this study, the association of MHC with cell-mediated immune responses was analyzed in commercial broiler chicken. The tandem repeat LEI0258 was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay using MTT method. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on cellular immune responses in this population. Alleles 385 and 448 bp were associated with elevated cell-mediated immunity. Haplotypes associated with improved immune responses could be considered as candidate markers for disease resistance and applied to breeding strategies.

Keywords: MHC, cell-mediated immunity, broiler, chicken

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14462 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: biomaterials, coatings, immune system, implants

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14461 Glutamine Supplementation and Resistance Traning on Anthropometric Indices, Immunoglobulins, and Cortisol Levels

Authors: Alireza Barari, Saeed Shirali, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Exercise has contradictory effects on the immune system. Glutamine supplementation may increase the resistance of the immune system in athletes. The Glutamine is one of the most recognized immune nutrients that as a fuel source, substrate in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids and is also known to be part of the antioxidant defense. Several studies have shown that improving glutamine levels in plasma and tissues can have beneficial effects on the function of immune cells such as lymphocytes and neutrophils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance training and training combined with glutamine supplementation to improve the levels of cortisol and immunoglobulin in untrained young men. The research shows that physical training can increase the cytokines in the athlete’s body of course; glutamine can counteract the negative effects of resistance training on immune function and stability of the mast cell membrane. Materials and methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted on 30 male non-athletes. They were randomly divided into three groups: control (no exercise), resistance training, resistance training and glutamine supplementation, respectively. Resistance training for 4 weeks and glutamine supplementation in 0.3 gr/kg/day after practice was applied. The resistance-training program consisted of eight exercises (leg press, lat pull, chest press, squat, seatedrow, abdominal crunch, shoulder press, biceps curl and triceps press down) four times per week. Participants performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60–75% 1-RM. Anthropometry indexes (weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage), oxygen uptake (VO2max) Maximal, cortisol levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) were evaluated Pre- and post-test. Results: Results showed four week resistance training with and without glutamine cause significant increase in body weight, BMI and significantly decreased (P < 0/001) in BF. Vo2max also increased in both groups of exercise (P < 0/05) and exercise with glutamine (P < 0/001), such as in both groups significant reduction in IgG (P < 0/05) was observed. But no significant difference observed in levels of cortisol, IgA, IgM in any of the groups. No significant change observed in either parameter in the control group. No significant difference observed between the groups. Discussion: The alterations in the hormonal and immunological parameters can be used in order to assess the effect overload on the body, whether acute or chronically. The plasmatic concentration of glutamine has been associated to the functionality of the immunological system in individuals sub-mitted to intense physical training. resistance training has destructive effects on the immune system and glutamine supplementation cannot neutralize the damaging effects of power exercise on the immune system.

Keywords: glutamine, resistance traning, immuglobulins, cortisol

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14460 NK Cells Expansion Model from PBMC Led to a Decrease of CD4+ and an Increase of CD8+ and CD25+CD127- T-Reg Lymphocytes in Patients with Ovarian Neoplasia

Authors: Rodrigo Fernandes da Silva, Daniela Maira Cardozo, Paulo Cesar Martins Alves, Sophie Françoise Derchain, Fernando Guimarães

Abstract:

T-reg lymphocytes are important for the control of peripheral tolerance. They control the adaptive immune system and prevent autoimmunity through its suppressive action on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The suppressive action also includes B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and recently, studies have shown that T-reg are also able to inhibit NK cells, therefore they exert their control of the immune response from innate to adaptive response. Most tumors express self-ligands, therefore it is believed that T-reg cells induce tolerance of the immune system, hindering the development of successful immunotherapies. T-reg cells have been linked to the suppression mechanisms of the immune response against tumors, including ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to disclose the sub-population of the expanded CD3+ lymphocytes reported by previous studies, using the long-term culture model designed by Carlens et al 2001, to generate effector cell suspensions enriched with cytotoxic CD3-CD56+ NK cells, from PBMC of ovarian neoplasia patients. Methods and Results: Blood was collected from 12 patients with ovarian neoplasia after signed consent: 7 benign (Bng) and 5 malignant (Mlg). Mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Paque gradient. Long-term culture was conducted by a 21 day culturing process with SCGM CellGro medium supplemented with anti-CD3 (10ng/ml, first 5 days), IL-2 (1000UI/ml) and FBS (10%). After 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD3+ lymphocytes in the benign and malignant group. Within CD3+ population, there was a significant decrease in the population of CD4+ lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=73.68%, D-21=21.05%) (p<0.05) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=64.00%, D-21=11.97%) (p < 0.01) group. Inversely, after 21 days of expansion, there was an increase in the population of CD8+ lymphocytes within the CD3+ population in the benign (median Bgn D-0=16.80%, D-21=38.56%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=27.12%, D-21=72.58%) group. However, this increase was only significant on the malignant group (p<0.01). Within the CD3+CD4+ population, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the population of T-reg lymphocytes in the benign (median Bgn D-0=9.84%, D-21=39.47%) and malignant (median Mlg D-0=3.56%, D-21=16.18%) group. Statistical analysis inter groups was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and intra groups by Mann Whitney test. Conclusion: The CD4+ and CD8+ sub-population of CD3+ lymphocytes shifts with the culturing process. This might be due to the process of the immune system to produce a cytotoxic response. At the same time, T-reg lymphocytes increased within the CD4+ population, suggesting a modulation of the immune response towards cells of the immune system. The expansion of the T-reg population can hinder an immune response against cancer. Therefore, an immunotherapy using this expansion procedure should aim to halt the expansion of T-reg or its immunosuppresion capability.

Keywords: regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, NK cell expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
14459 An Unbiased Profiling of Immune Repertoire via Sequencing and Analyzing T-Cell Receptor Genes

Authors: Yi-Lin Chen, Sheng-Jou Hung, Tsunglin Liu

Abstract:

Adaptive immune system recognizes a wide range of antigens via expressing a large number of structurally distinct T cell and B cell receptor genes. The distinct receptor genes arise from complex rearrangements called V(D)J recombination, and constitute the immune repertoire. A common method of profiling immune repertoire is via amplifying recombined receptor genes using multiple primers and high-throughput sequencing. This multiplex-PCR approach is efficient; however, the resulting repertoire can be distorted because of primer bias. To eliminate primer bias, 5’ RACE is an alternative amplification approach. However, the application of RACE approach is limited by its low efficiency (i.e., the majority of data are non-regular receptor sequences, e.g., containing intronic segments) and lack of the convenient tool for analysis. We propose a computational tool that can correctly identify non-regular receptor sequences in RACE data via aligning receptor sequences against the whole gene instead of only the exon regions as done in all other tools. Using our tool, the remaining regular data allow for an accurate profiling of immune repertoire. In addition, a RACE approach is improved to yield a higher fraction of regular T-cell receptor sequences. Finally, we quantify the degree of primer bias of a multiplex-PCR approach via comparing it to the RACE approach. The results reveal significant differences in frequency of VJ combination by the two approaches. Together, we provide a new experimental and computation pipeline for an unbiased profiling of immune repertoire. As immune repertoire profiling has many applications, e.g., tracing bacterial and viral infection, detection of T cell lymphoma and minimal residual disease, monitoring cancer immunotherapy, etc., our work should benefit scientists who are interested in the applications.

Keywords: immune repertoire, T-cell receptor, 5' RACE, high-throughput sequencing, sequence alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
14458 Use of Gaussian-Euclidean Hybrid Function Based Artificial Immune System for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

Authors: Cuneyt Yucelbas, Seral Ozsen, Sule Yucelbas, Gulay Tezel

Abstract:

Due to the fact that there exist only a small number of complex systems in artificial immune system (AIS) that work out nonlinear problems, nonlinear AIS approaches, among the well-known solution techniques, need to be developed. Gaussian function is usually used as similarity estimation in classification problems and pattern recognition. In this study, diagnosis of breast cancer, the second type of the most widespread cancer in women, was performed with different distance calculation functions that euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean hybrid function in the clonal selection model of classical AIS on Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD), which was taken from the University of California, Irvine Machine-Learning Repository. We used 3-fold cross validation method to train and test the dataset. According to the results, the maximum test classification accuracy was reported as 97.35% by using of gaussian-euclidean hybrid function for fold-3. Also, mean of test classification accuracies for all of functions were obtained as 94.78%, 94.45% and 95.31% with use of euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean, respectively. With these results, gaussian-euclidean hybrid function seems to be a potential distance calculation method, and it may be considered as an alternative distance calculation method for hard nonlinear classification problems.

Keywords: artificial immune system, breast cancer diagnosis, Euclidean function, Gaussian function

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
14457 Change in Value System: The Way Forward for Africa

Authors: Awe Ayodeji Samson, Adeuja Yetunde Omowunmi

Abstract:

Corruption is a ‘monster’ that can consume a whole nation, continent and even the world if it is not destroyed while it is still immature; It grows in the mind of the people, takes over their thinking and guides their decision-making process. Corruption snowballs into socio-economic catastrophe that might be difficult to deal with. Corruption which is a disease of the mind can be alleviated in Africa and the world at large by transforming a Corruption-Prone Mind to a Corruption-Immune Mind and to achieve this, we have to change our value system because the use of anti-graft agencies alone is not enough. Therefore, we have to fight corruption from the inside and the outside. Value System is the principle of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group; the reviewing and reordering of our value system is the solution to the problem of corruption as proposed by this research because the African society has become a ‘Money and Power Driven Society’ where the ‘I am worth concept’ which is a problematic concept has created an ‘Aggressive Society’ with grasping and money-grabbing individuals. We place more priority on money and the display of opulence. Hence, this has led to a ‘Triangular Society’ where minority is lavishing in plenty and majority is gasping for little. The get rich quick syndrome, the ethnicity syndrome, weakened educational system are signs of the prevalence of corruption in Africa This research has analyzed role and impact of the change in our value system in the fight against corruption in Africa and has therefore proposed the change in our value system as the way forward in the fight against corruption in Africa.

Keywords: corruption-prone mind, corruption-immune mind, triangular society, aggressive society, money and power-driven society

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14456 Garlic Extracts Stimulating Innate Immune System in Marble Goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Prachaub Chaibu

Abstract:

Marble goby is one of high demand consuming in Southeast Asia. However, the product was from riparian fisheries because of low yield in aquaculture, especially in nursery stage. Therefore, we studied for herb supplement in pellet feed of marble goby fingering. Garlic, a common herb and illustrated novel pharmaceutical and medical effectiveness, was considered. Garlic extracts with water (DW), 50% EtOH (50E), 95% EtOH (95E) and diethyl ether (DE) were subjected for feed additive to induce immune response in marble goby fingering for 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 % (w/w). After seven days of feeding, blood was collected for analysis of blood composition; i.e. haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and humoral immune responses; i.e. lysozyme activity (Lys). It was resulted that values of HCT, WBC and Lys in all garlic fed group were significantly different from control (p < 0.05). For HCT, the highest values belonged to 5% DW and 0.5% 95E. For WBC and Lys, the highest values were 5% DW. For RBC, there was not obviously significant (p < 0.05). There were only 3 groups; 0.5% 95E, 1% and 5% DW, showed distinct statistical significance from the other groups. It was concluded that garlic extracts showed satisfy bioactivity to enhancing innate immune response in marble goby fingering. This result will be valuable for specific feed formula of marble goby nursery.

Keywords: garlic extract, innate immune, marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
14455 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen

Abstract:

Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

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14454 Cloning and Expression of Human Interleukin 15: A Promising Candidate for Cytokine Immunotherapy

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas

Abstract:

Recombinant cytokines have been employed successfully as potential therapeutic agent. Some cytokine therapies are already used as a part of clinical practice, ranging from early exploratory trials to well established therapies that have already received approval. Interleukin 15 is a pleiotropic cytokine having multiple roles in peripheral innate and adaptive immune cell function. It regulates the activation, proliferation and maturation of NK cells, T-cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, and the interactions between them thus acting as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Unraveling the biology of IL-15 has revealed some interesting surprises that may point toward some of the first therapeutic applications for this cytokine. In this study, the human interleukin 15 gene was isolated, amplified and ligated to a TA vector which was then transfected to a bacterial host, E. coli Top10F’. The sequence of cloned gene was confirmed and it showed 100% homology with the reported sequence. The confirmed gene was then subcloned in pET Expression system to study the IPTG induced expression of IL-15 gene. Positive expression was obtained for number of clones that showed 15 kd band of IL-15 in SDS-PAGE analysis, indicating the successful strain development that can be studied further to assess the potential therapeutic intervention of this cytokine in relevance to human diseases.

Keywords: Interleukin 15, pET expression system, immune therapy, protein purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 317