Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 409

Search results for: robustness

409 Secure Watermarking not at the Cost of Low Robustness

Authors: Jian Cao


This paper describes a novel watermarking technique which we call the random direction embedding (RDE) watermarking. Unlike traditional watermarking techniques, the watermark energy after the RDE embedding does not focus on a fixed direction, leading to the security against the traditional unauthorized watermark removal attack. In addition, the experimental results show that when compared with the existing secure watermarking, namely natural watermarking (NW), the RDE watermarking gains significant improvement in terms of robustness. In fact, the security of the RDE watermarking is not at the cost of low robustness, and it can even achieve more robust than the traditional spread spectrum watermarking, which has been shown to be very insecure.

Keywords: robustness, spread spectrum watermarking, watermarking security, random direction embedding (RDE)

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408 Air Cargo Network Structure Characteristics and Robustness Analysis under the Belt and Road Area

Authors: Feng-jie Xie, Jian-hong Yan


Based on the complex network theory, we construct the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, analyze its regional distribution and structural characteristics, measure the robustness of the network. The regional distribution results show that Southeast Asia and China have the most prominent development in the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, Central Asia is the least developed. The structure characteristics found that the air cargo network has obvious small-world characteristics; the degree distribution has single-scale property; it shows a significant rich-club phenomenon simultaneously. The network robustness is measured by two attack strategies of degree and betweenness, but the betweenness of network nodes has a greater impact on network connectivity. And identified 24 key cities that have a large impact on the robustness of the network under the two attack strategies. Based on these results, recommendations are given to maintain the air cargo network connectivity in the Belt and Road area.

Keywords: air cargo, complex network, robustness, structure properties, The Belt and Road

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407 Support Vector Regression with Weighted Least Absolute Deviations

Authors: Kang-Mo Jung


Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is a penalized regression which considers both fitting and generalization ability of a model. However, the squared loss function is very sensitive to even single outlier. We proposed a weighted absolute deviation loss function for the robustness of the estimates in least absolute deviation support vector machine. The proposed estimates can be obtained by a quadratic programming algorithm. Numerical experiments on simulated datasets show that the proposed algorithm is competitive in view of robustness to outliers.

Keywords: least absolute deviation, quadratic programming, robustness, support vector machine, weight

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406 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee


This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, antenna array, linearly constrained minimum variance, robustness, steering vector

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405 H-Infinity Controller Design for the Switched Reluctance Machine

Authors: Siwar Fadhel, Imen Bahri, Man Zhang


The switched reluctance machine (SRM) has undeniable qualities in terms of low cost and mechanical robustness. However, its highly nonlinear character and its uncertain parameters justify the development of complicated controls. In this paper, authors present the design of a robust H-infinity current controller for an 8/6 SRM with taking into account the nonlinearity of the SRM and with rejection of disturbances. The electromagnetic torque is indirectly regulated through the current controller. To show the performances of this control, a robustness analysis is performed by comparing the H-infinity and PI controller simulation results. This comparison demonstrates better performances for the presented controller. The effectiveness and robustness of the presented controller are also demonstrated by experimental tests.

Keywords: current regulation, experimentation, robust H-infinity control, switched reluctance machine

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404 Robustness Analysis of the Carbon and Nitrogen Co-Metabolism Model of Mucor mucedo

Authors: Nahid Banihashemi


An emerging important area of the life sciences is systems biology, which involves understanding the integrated behavior of large numbers of components interacting via non-linear reaction terms. A centrally important problem in this area is an understanding of the co-metabolism of protein and carbohydrate, as it has been clearly demonstrated that the ratio of these metabolites in diet is a major determinant of obesity and related chronic disease. In this regard, we have considered a systems biology model for the co-metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in colonies of the fungus Mucor mucedo. Oscillations are an important diagnostic of underlying dynamical processes of this model. The maintenance of specific patterns of oscillation and its relation to the robustness of this system are the important issues which have been targeted in this paper. In this regard, parametric sensitivity approach as a theoretical approach has been considered for the analysis of the robustness of this model. As a result, the parameters of the model which produce the largest sensitivities have been identified. Furthermore, the largest changes that can be made in each parameter of the model without losing the oscillations in biomass production have been computed. The results are obtained from the implementation of parametric sensitivity analysis in Matlab.

Keywords: system biology, parametric sensitivity analysis, robustness, carbon and nitrogen co-metabolism, Mucor mucedo

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403 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song


We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural Robustness, Structural Reliability, Redundancy Component, Redundancy Matrix

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402 H-Infinity and RST Position Controllers of Rotary Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

Authors: M. Brahim, I. Bahri, Y. Bernard


Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor (TWUM) is a compact, precise, and silent actuator generating high torque at low speed without gears. Moreover, the TWUM has a high holding torque without supply, which makes this motor as an attractive solution for holding position of robotic arms. However, their nonlinear dynamics, and the presence of load-dependent dead zones often limit their use. Those issues can be overcome in closed loop with effective and precise controllers. In this paper, robust H-infinity (H∞) and discrete time RST position controllers are presented. The H∞ controller is designed in continuous time with additional weighting filters to ensure the robustness in the case of uncertain motor model and external disturbances. Robust RST controller based on the pole placement method is also designed and compared to the H∞. Simulink model of TWUM is used to validate the stability and the robustness of the two proposed controllers.

Keywords: piezoelectric motors, position control, H∞, RST, stability criteria, robustness

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401 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith


This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: exoskeleton- upper limb system, model free terminal sliding mode, gravity compensation, robustness analysis

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400 Comparative Study between Direct Torque Control and Sliding Mode Control of Sensorless Induction Machine

Authors: Fouad Berrabah, Saad Salah, Zaamouche Fares


In this paper, the Direct Torque Control (DTC) Control and the Sliding Mode Control for induction motor are presented and compared. The performance of the two control schemes is evaluated in terms of torque and current ripple, and transient response to variations of the torque , speed and robustness, trajectory tracking. In order to identify the more suitable solution for any application, both techniques are analyzed mathematically and simulation results are compared which advantages and drawbacks are discussed.

Keywords: induction motor, DTC- MRAS control, sliding mode control, robustness, trajectory tracking

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399 Robust Data Image Watermarking for Data Security

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, Ankur Rai, Anand Mohan


In this paper, we propose secure and robust data hiding algorithm based on DCT by Arnold transform and chaotic sequence. The watermark image is scrambled by Arnold cat map to increases its security and then the chaotic map is used for watermark signal spread in middle band of DCT coefficients of the cover image The chaotic map can be used as pseudo-random generator for digital data hiding, to increase security and robustness .Performance evaluation for robustness and imperceptibility of proposed algorithm has been made using bit error rate (BER), normalized correlation (NC), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) value for different watermark and cover images such as Lena, Girl, Tank images and gain factor .We use a binary logo image and text image as watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher security and robustness against JPEG compression as well as other attacks such as addition of noise, low pass filtering and cropping attacks compared to other existing algorithm using DCT coefficients. Moreover, to recover watermarks in proposed algorithm, there is no need to original cover image.

Keywords: data hiding, watermarking, DCT, chaotic sequence, arnold transforms

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398 Implementation of Invisible Digital Watermarking

Authors: V. Monisha, D. Sindhuja, M. Sowmiya


Over the decade, the applications about multimedia have been developed rapidly. The advancement in the communication field at the faster pace, it is necessary to protect the data during transmission. Thus, security of multimedia contents becomes a vital issue, and it is a need for protecting the digital content against malfunctions. Digital watermarking becomes the solution for the copyright protection and authentication of data in the network. In multimedia applications, embedded watermarks should be robust, and imperceptible. For improving robustness, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Both encoding and extraction algorithm can be done using MATLAB R2012a. In this Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain of digital image, watermarking algorithm is used, and hardware implementation can be done on Xilinx based FPGA.

Keywords: digital watermarking, DWT, robustness, FPGA

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397 Long-Term Resilience Performance Assessment of Dual and Singular Water Distribution Infrastructures Using a Complex Systems Approach

Authors: Kambiz Rasoulkhani, Jeanne Cole, Sybil Sharvelle, Ali Mostafavi


Dual water distribution systems have been proposed as solutions to enhance the sustainability and resilience of urban water systems by improving performance and decreasing energy consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term resilience and robustness of dual water distribution systems versus singular water distribution systems under various stressors such as demand fluctuation, aging infrastructure, and funding constraints. To this end, the long-term dynamics of these infrastructure systems was captured using a simulation model that integrates institutional agency decision-making processes with physical infrastructure degradation to evaluate the long-term transformation of water infrastructure. A set of model parameters that varies for dual and singular distribution infrastructure based on the system attributes, such as pipes length and material, energy intensity, water demand, water price, average pressure and flow rate, as well as operational expenditures, were considered and input in the simulation model. Accordingly, the model was used to simulate various scenarios of demand changes, funding levels, water price growth, and renewal strategies. The long-term resilience and robustness of each distribution infrastructure were evaluated based on various performance measures including network average condition, break frequency, network leakage, and energy use. An ecologically-based resilience approach was used to examine regime shifts and tipping points in the long-term performance of the systems under different stressors. Also, Classification and Regression Tree analysis was adopted to assess the robustness of each system under various scenarios. Using data from the City of Fort Collins, the long-term resilience and robustness of the dual and singular water distribution systems were evaluated over a 100-year analysis horizon for various scenarios. The results of the analysis enabled: (i) comparison between dual and singular water distribution systems in terms of long-term performance, resilience, and robustness; (ii) identification of renewal strategies and decision factors that enhance the long-term resiliency and robustness of dual and singular water distribution systems under different stressors.

Keywords: complex systems, dual water distribution systems, long-term resilience performance, multi-agent modeling, sustainable and resilient water systems

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396 Evaluating Robustness of Conceptual Rainfall-runoff Models under Climate Variability in Northern Tunisia

Authors: H. Dakhlaoui, D. Ruelland, Y. Tramblay, Z. Bargaoui


To evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources at the catchment scale, not only future projections of climate are necessary but also robust rainfall-runoff models that are able to be fairly reliable under changing climate conditions. This study aims at assessing the robustness of three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (GR4j, HBV and IHACRES) on five basins in Northern Tunisia under long-term climate variability. Their robustness was evaluated according to a differential split sample test based on a climate classification of the observation period regarding simultaneously precipitation and temperature conditions. The studied catchments are situated in a region where climate change is likely to have significant impacts on runoff and they already suffer from scarcity of water resources. They cover the main hydrographical basins of Northern Tunisia (High Medjerda, Zouaraâ, Ichkeul and Cap bon), which produce the majority of surface water resources in Tunisia. The streamflow regime of the basins can be considered as natural since these basins are located upstream from storage-dams and in areas where withdrawals are negligible. A 30-year common period (1970‒2000) was considered to capture a large spread of hydro-climatic conditions. The calibration was based on the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) criterion, while the evaluation of model transferability is performed according to the Nash-Suttfliff efficiency criterion and volume error. The three hydrological models were shown to have similar behaviour under climate variability. Models prove a better ability to simulate the runoff pattern when transferred toward wetter periods compared to the case when transferred to drier periods. The limits of transferability are beyond -20% of precipitation and +1.5 °C of temperature in comparison with the calibration period. The deterioration of model robustness could in part be explained by the climate dependency of some parameters.

Keywords: rainfall-runoff modelling, hydro-climate variability, model robustness, uncertainty, Tunisia

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395 Neighborhood Graph-Optimized Preserving Discriminant Analysis for Image Feature Extraction

Authors: Xiaoheng Tan, Xianfang Li, Tan Guo, Yuchuan Liu, Zhijun Yang, Hongye Li, Kai Fu, Yufang Wu, Heling Gong


The image data collected in reality often have high dimensions, and it contains noise and redundant information. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the compact feature expression of the original perceived image. In this process, effective use of prior knowledge such as data structure distribution and sample label is the key to enhance image feature discrimination and robustness. Based on the above considerations, this paper proposes a local preserving discriminant feature learning model based on graph optimization. The model has the following characteristics: (1) Locality preserving constraint can effectively excavate and preserve the local structural relationship between data. (2) The flexibility of graph learning can be improved by constructing a new local geometric structure graph using label information and the nearest neighbor threshold. (3) The L₂,₁ norm is used to redefine LDA, and the diagonal matrix is introduced as the scale factor of LDA, and the samples are selected, which improves the robustness of feature learning. The validity and robustness of the proposed algorithm are verified by experiments in two public image datasets.

Keywords: feature extraction, graph optimization local preserving projection, linear discriminant analysis, L₂, ₁ norm

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394 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: fire, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering

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393 Actuator Fault Detection and Fault Tolerant Control of a Nonlinear System Using Sliding Mode Observer

Authors: R. Loukil, M. Chtourou, T. Damak


In this work, we use the Fault detection and isolation and the Fault tolerant control based on sliding mode observer in order to introduce the well diagnosis of a nonlinear system. The robustness of the proposed observer for the two techniques is tested through a physical example. The results in this paper show the interaction between the Fault tolerant control and the Diagnosis procedure.

Keywords: fault detection and isolation FDI, fault tolerant control FTC, sliding mode observer, nonlinear system, robustness, stability

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392 A Bi-Objective Model to Address Simultaneous Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi


Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering has been increasingly addressed within last decades as an approach to improve the project execution costs. Therefore, we have taken the problem into consideration in this paper, aiming to maximize schedules quality robustness, in addition to minimize the relevant costs. In this regard, a bi-objective mathematical model is developed to formulate the problem. Moreover, it is possible to utilize the all-unit discount for materials purchasing. The problem is then solved by the constraint method, and the Pareto front is obtained for a variety of robustness values. The applicability and efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different numerical instances, finally.

Keywords: e-constraint method, material ordering, project management, project scheduling

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391 Robustness Conditions for the Establishment of Stationary Patterns of Drosophila Segmentation Gene Expression

Authors: Ekaterina M. Myasnikova, Andrey A. Makashov, Alexander V. Spirov


First manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains (along with the main embryo axis) of genes belonging to the trunk gene class. Highly variable expression of genes from gap family in early Drosophila embryo is strongly reduced by the start of gastrulation due to the gene cross-regulation. The dynamics of gene expression is described by a gene circuit model for a system of four gap genes. It is shown that for the formation of a steep and stationary border by the model it is necessary that there existed a nucleus (modeling point) in which the gene expression level is constant in time and hence is described by a stationary equation. All the rest genes expressed in this nucleus are in a dynamic equilibrium. The mechanism of border formation associated with the existence of a stationary nucleus is also confirmed by the experiment. An important advantage of this approach is that properties of the system in a stationary nucleus are described by algebraic equations and can be easily handled analytically. Thus we explicitly characterize the cross-regulation properties necessary for the robustness and formulate the conditions providing this effect through the properties of the initial input data. It is shown that our formally derived conditions are satisfied for the previously published model solutions.

Keywords: drosophila, gap genes, reaction-diffusion model, robustness

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390 Detection of Intentional Attacks in Images Based on Watermarking

Authors: Hazem Munawer Al-Otum


In this work, an efficient watermarking technique is proposed and can be used for detecting intentional attacks in RGB color images. The proposed technique can be implemented for image authentication and exhibits high robustness against unintentional common image processing attacks. It deploys two measures to discern between intentional and unintentional attacks based on using a quantization-based technique in a modified 2D multi-pyramidal DWT transform. Simulations have shown high accuracy in detecting intentionally attacked regions while exhibiting high robustness under moderate to severe common image processing attacks.

Keywords: image authentication, copyright protection, semi-fragile watermarking, tamper detection

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389 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo


In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

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388 Effect of Coaching Related Incompetency to Stand Trial on Symptom Validity Test: Robustness, Sensitivity, and Specificity

Authors: Natthawut Arin


In forensic contexts, competency to stand trial assessments are the most common referrals. The defendants may attempt to endorse psychopathology symptoms and feign incompetent. Coaching, which can be teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of psychopathological symptoms feigning. Recently, the Symptom Validity Testings (SVTs) were created to detect feigning. Moreover, the works of the literature showed that the effects of coaching on SVTs may be more robust to the effects of coaching. Thai Symptom Validity Test (SVT-Th) was designed as SVTs which demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and ability to classify between feigners and honest responders. Thus, the current study to examine the utility as the robustness of SVT-Th in the detection of feigned psychopathology. Participants consisted of 120 were recruited from undergraduate courses in psychology, randomly assigned to one of three groups. The SVT-Th was administered to those three scenario-experimental groups: (a) Uncoached group were asked to respond honestly (n=40), (b) Symptom-coached without warning group were asked to feign psychiatric symptoms to gain incompetency to stand trial (n=40), while (c) Test-coached with warning group were asked to feign psychiatric symptoms to avoid test detection but being incompetency to stand trial (n=40). Group differences were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. The result revealed an uncoached group (M = 4.23, SD.= 5.20) had significantly lower SVT-Th mean scores than those both coached groups (M =185.00, SD.= 72.88 and M = 132.10, SD.= 54.06, respectively). Classification rates were calculated to determine the classification accuracy. Result indicated that SVT-Th had overall classification accuracy rates of 96.67% with acceptable of 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity rates. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that the SVT-Th yielded high adequate indices of accuracy and these findings suggest that the SVT-Th is robustness against coaching.

Keywords: incompetency to stand trial, coaching, robustness, classification accuracy

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387 Audio Information Retrieval in Mobile Environment with Fast Audio Classifier

Authors: Bruno T. Gomes, José A. Menezes, Giordano Cabral


With the popularity of smartphones, mobile apps emerge to meet the diverse needs, however the resources at the disposal are limited, either by the hardware, due to the low computing power, or the software, that does not have the same robustness of desktop environment. For example, in automatic audio classification (AC) tasks, musical information retrieval (MIR) subarea, is required a fast processing and a good success rate. However the mobile platform has limited computing power and the best AC tools are only available for desktop. To solve these problems the fast classifier suits, to mobile environments, the most widespread MIR technologies, seeking a balance in terms of speed and robustness. At the end we found that it is possible to enjoy the best of MIR for mobile environments. This paper presents the results obtained and the difficulties encountered.

Keywords: audio classification, audio extraction, environment mobile, musical information retrieval

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386 Mathematical Model That Using Scrambling and Message Integrity Methods in Audio Steganography

Authors: Mohammed Salem Atoum


The success of audio steganography is to ensure imperceptibility of the embedded message in stego file and withstand any form of intentional or un-intentional degradation of message (robustness). Audio steganographic that utilized LSB of audio stream to embed message gain a lot of popularity over the years in meeting the perceptual transparency, robustness and capacity. This research proposes an XLSB technique in order to circumvent the weakness observed in LSB technique. Scrambling technique is introduce in two steps; partitioning the message into blocks followed by permutation each blocks in order to confuse the contents of the message. The message is embedded in the MP3 audio sample. After extracting the message, the permutation codebook is used to re-order it into its original form. Md5sum and SHA-256 are used to verify whether the message is altered or not during transmission. Experimental result shows that the XLSB performs better than LSB.

Keywords: XLSB, scrambling, audio steganography, security

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385 Fuzzy Logic Based Sliding Mode Controller for a New Soft Switching Boost Converter

Authors: Azam Salimi, Majid Delshad


This paper presents a modified design of a sliding mode controller based on fuzzy logic for a New ZVThigh step up DC-DC Converter . Here a proportional - integral (PI)-type current mode control is employed and a sliding mode controller is designed utilizing fuzzy algorithm. Sliding mode controller guarantees robustness against all variations and fuzzy logic helps to reduce chattering phenomenon due to sliding controller, in that way efficiency increases and error, voltage and current ripples decreases. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB / SIMULINK. This model is tested under variations of input and reference voltages and it was found that in comparison with conventional sliding mode controllers they perform better.

Keywords: switching mode power supplies, DC-DC converters, sliding mode control, robustness, fuzzy control, current mode control, non-linear behavior

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384 Analysis of the Impact of Suez Canal on the Robustness of Global Shipping Networks

Authors: Zimu Li, Zheng Wan


The Suez Canal plays an important role in global shipping networks and is one of the most frequently used waterways in the world. The 2021 canal obstruction by ship Ever Given in March 2021, however, completed blocked the Suez Canal for a week and caused significant disruption to world trade. Therefore, it is very important to quantitatively analyze the impact of the accident on the robustness of the global shipping network. However, the current research on maritime transportation networks is usually limited to local or small-scale networks in a certain region. Based on the complex network theory, this study establishes a global shipping complex network covering 2713 nodes and 137830 edges by using the real trajectory data of the global marine transport ship automatic identification system in 2018. At the same time, two attack modes, deliberate (Suez Canal Blocking) and random, are defined to calculate the changes in network node degree, eccentricity, clustering coefficient, network density, network isolated nodes, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality under the two attack modes, and quantitatively analyze the actual impact of Suez Canal Blocking on the robustness of global shipping network. The results of the network robustness analysis show that Suez Canal blocking was more destructive to the shipping network than random attacks of the same scale. The network connectivity and accessibility decreased significantly, and the decline decreased with the distance between the port and the canal, showing the phenomenon of distance attenuation. This study further analyzes the impact of the blocking of the Suez Canal on Chinese ports and finds that the blocking of the Suez Canal significantly interferes withChina's shipping network and seriously affects China's normal trade activities. Finally, the impact of the global supply chain is analyzed, and it is found that blocking the canal will seriously damage the normal operation of the global supply chain.

Keywords: global shipping networks, ship AIS trajectory data, main channel, complex network, eigenvalue change

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383 Reinforcement Learning for Robust Missile Autopilot Design: TRPO Enhanced by Schedule Experience Replay

Authors: Bernardo Cortez, Florian Peter, Thomas Lausenhammer, Paulo Oliveira


Designing missiles’ autopilot controllers have been a complex task, given the extensive flight envelope and the nonlinear flight dynamics. A solution that can excel both in nominal performance and in robustness to uncertainties is still to be found. While Control Theory often debouches into parameters’ scheduling procedures, Reinforcement Learning has presented interesting results in ever more complex tasks, going from videogames to robotic tasks with continuous action domains. However, it still lacks clearer insights on how to find adequate reward functions and exploration strategies. To the best of our knowledge, this work is a pioneer in proposing Reinforcement Learning as a framework for flight control. In fact, it aims at training a model-free agent that can control the longitudinal non-linear flight dynamics of a missile, achieving the target performance and robustness to uncertainties. To that end, under TRPO’s methodology, the collected experience is augmented according to HER, stored in a replay buffer and sampled according to its significance. Not only does this work enhance the concept of prioritized experience replay into BPER, but it also reformulates HER, activating them both only when the training progress converges to suboptimal policies, in what is proposed as the SER methodology. The results show that it is possible both to achieve the target performance and to improve the agent’s robustness to uncertainties (with low damage on nominal performance) by further training it in non-nominal environments, therefore validating the proposed approach and encouraging future research in this field.

Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, flight control, HER, missile autopilot, TRPO

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382 Computational Chemical-Composition of Carbohydrates in the Context of Healthcare Informatics

Authors: S. Chandrasekaran, S. Nandita, M. Shivathmika, Srikrishnan Shivakumar


The objective of the research work is to analyze the computational chemical-composition of carbohydrates in the context of healthcare informatics. The computation involves the representation of complex chemical molecular structure of carbohydrate using graph theory and in a deployable Chemical Markup Language (CML). The parallel molecular structure of the chemical molecules with or without other adulterants for the sake of business profit can be analyzed in terms of robustness and derivatization measures. The rural healthcare program should create awareness in malnutrition to reduce ill-effect of decomposition and help the consumers to know the level of such energy storage mixtures in a quantitative way. The earlier works were based on the empirical and wet data which can vary from time to time but cannot be made to reuse the results of mining. The work is carried out on the quantitative computational chemistry on carbohydrates to provide a safe and secure right to food act and its regulations.

Keywords: carbohydrates, chemical-composition, chemical markup, robustness, food safety

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381 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

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380 Optimized and Secured Digital Watermarking Using Fuzzy Entropy, Bezier Curve and Visual Cryptography

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh


Recent development in the usage of internet for different purposes creates a great threat for the copyright protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking can be used to address the problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field of secured, robust and imperceptible watermarking. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (2, 2) share visual cryptography and Bezier curve based algorithm to improve the security of the watermark. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method. The algorithm is optimized using fuzzy entropy for better results.

Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, visual cryptography, Bezier curve, fuzzy entropy

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