Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: drawdown

19 Effect of Change in Angle of Slope and Height of an Embankment on Safety Factor during Rapid Drawdown

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Azam Kouhpeyma


Reduction of water level at which a slope is submerged with it is called drawdown. Draw down can took place rapidly or slowly and in both situations, it can affect slope stability. Using coupled analysis (seepage and stability analysis) causes more accurate results. In this study, the stability of homogeneous embankment is investigated numerically. Slope safety factor changes due to changes in three factors of height, slope and drawdown rate have been investigated and compared. It was found that with increasing height and slope, the safety factor decreases, and with increasing the discharge rate, the safety factor increases.

Keywords: drawdown, slope stability, coupled seepage and stability analysis

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18 Numerical Analysis of Rapid Drawdown in Dams Based on Brazilian Standards

Authors: Renato Santos Paulinelli Raposo, Vinicius Resende Domingues, Manoel Porfirio Cordao Neto


Rapid drawdown is one of the cases referred to ground stability study in dam projects. Due to the complexity generated by the combination of loads and the difficulty in determining the parameters, analyses of rapid drawdown are usually performed considering the immediate reduction of water level upstream. The proposal of a simulation, considering the gradual reduction in water level upstream, requires knowledge of parameters about consolidation and those related to unsaturated soil. In this context, the purpose of this study is to understand the methodology of collection and analysis of parameters to simulate a rapid drawdown in dams. Using a numerical tool, the study is complemented with a hypothetical case study that can assist the practical use of data compiled. The referenced dam presents homogeneous section composed of clay soil, a height of 70 meters, a width of 12 meters, and upstream slope with inclination 1V:3H.

Keywords: dam, GeoStudio, rapid drawdown, stability analysis

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17 Failure Analysis of Khaliqabad Landslide along Mangla Reservoir Rim

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq


After the Mangla dam raising in 2010, the maximum reservoir impoundment level of 378.5 m SPD (Survey of Pakistan Datum) was achieved in September 2014. The reservoir drawdown was started on September 29, 2014 and a landslide occurred on Mirpur-Kotli Road near Khaliqabad on November 27, 2014. This landslide took place due to the failure of a slope along the reservoir rim. This study was undertaken to investigate the causative factors of Khaliqabad landslide. Site visits were carried out for recording the field observations and collection of the soil samples. The soil was subjected to different laboratory tests for the determination of index and engineering properties. The shear strength tests were performed at various levels of density and degrees of saturation. These soil parameters were used in an integrated SEEP-SLOPE/W analysis to obtain the drop in factor of safety with time and reservoir drawdown. The results showed the factor of safety dropped from 1.28 to 0.85 over a period of 60 days. The ultimate reduction in the shear strength of soil due to saturation with the simultaneous removal of the stabilizing effect of reservoir caused the disturbing forces to increase, and thus failure happened. The findings of this study can serve as a guideline for the modeling of the slopes experiencing rapid drawdown scenario with the consideration of more realistic distribution of soil moisture/ properties across the slope

Keywords: geotechnical investigation, landslide, reservoir drawdown, shear strength, slope stability

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16 Strain Softening of Soil under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Kobid Panthi, Suttisak Soralump, Suriyon Prempramote


In June 27, 2014 slope movement was observed in upstream side of Khlong Pa Bon Dam, Thailand. The slide did not have any major catastrophic impact on the dam structure but raised a very important question; why did the slide occur after 10 years of operation? Various site investigations (Bore Hole Test, SASW, Echo Sounding, and Geophysical Survey), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling using SIGMA/W and SLOPE/W were conducted to determine the cause of slope movement. It was observed that the dam had undergone the greatest differential drawdown in its operational history in the year 2014 and was termed as the major cause of movement. From the laboratory tests, it was found that the shear strength of clay had decreased with a period of time and was near its residual value. The cyclic movement of water, i.e., reservoir filling and emptying was coined out to be the major cause for the reduction of shear strength. The numerical analysis was carried out using a modified cam clay (MCC) model to determine the strain softening behavior of the clay. The strain accumulation was observed in the slope with each reservoir cycle triggering the slope failure in 2014. It can be inferred that if there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed but eventually would have failed after a long period of time. If there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed. However, even if there hadn’t been a drawdown, it would have failed eventually in the long run.

Keywords: slope movement, strain softening, residual strength, modified cam clay

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15 Effect of Moisture Content Compaction in the Geometry Definition of Earth Dams

Authors: Julian B. García, Virginie Q. R. Pinto, André P. Assis


This paper presents numerical flow and slope stability simulations in three typical sections of earth dams built in tropical regions, two homogeneous with different slope inclinations, and the other one heterogeneous with impermeable core. The geotechnical material parameters used in this work were obtained from a lab testing of physical characterization, compaction, consolidation, variable load permeability and saturated triaxial type CD for compacted soil samples with standard proctor energy at optimum moisture content (23%), optimum moisture content + 2% and optimum moisture content +5%. The objective is to analyze the general behavior of earth dams built in rainy regions where optimum moisture is exceeded. The factor of safety is satisfactory for the three sections compacted in all moisture content during the stages of operation and end of construction. On The other hand, the rapid drawdown condition is the critical phase for homogeneus dams configuration, the factor of safety obtained were unsatisfactory. In general, the heterogeneous dam behavior is more efficient due to the fact that the slopes are made up of gravel, which favors the dissipation of pore pressures during the rapid drawdown. For the critical phase, the slopes should have lower inclinations of the upstream and downstream slopes to guarantee stability, although it increases the costs.

Keywords: earth dams, flow, moisture content, slope stability

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14 Stability of a Natural Weak Rock Slope under Rapid Water Drawdowns: Interaction between Guadalfeo Viaduct and Rules Reservoir, Granada, Spain

Authors: Sonia Bautista Carrascosa, Carlos Renedo Sanchez


The effect of a rapid drawdown is a classical scenario to be considered in slope stability under submerged conditions. This situation arises when totally or partially submerged slopes experience a descent of the external water level and is a typical verification to be done in a dam engineering discipline, as reservoir water levels commonly fluctuate noticeably during seasons and due to operational reasons. Although the scenario is well known and predictable in general, site conditions can increase the complexity of its assessment and external factors are not always expected, can cause a reduction in the stability or even a failure in a slope under a rapid drawdown situation. The present paper describes and discusses the interaction between two different infrastructures, a dam and a highway, and the impact on the stability of a natural rock slope overlaid by the north abutment of a viaduct of the A-44 Highway due to the rapid drawdown of the Rules Dam, in the province of Granada (south of Spain). In the year 2011, with both infrastructures, the A-44 Highway and the Rules Dam already constructed, delivered and under operation, some movements start to be recorded in the approximation embankment and north abutment of the Guadalfeo Viaduct, included in the highway and developed to solve the crossing above the tail of the reservoir. The embankment and abutment were founded in a low-angle natural rock slope formed by grey graphic phyllites, distinctly weathered and intensely fractured, with pre-existing fault and weak planes. After the first filling of the reservoir, to a relative level of 243m, three consecutive drawdowns were recorded in the autumns 2010, 2011 and 2012, to relative levels of 234m, 232m and 225m. To understand the effect of these drawdowns in the weak rock mass strength and in its stability, a new geological model was developed, after reviewing all the available ground investigations, updating the geological mapping of the area and supplemented with an additional geotechnical and geophysical investigations survey. Together with all this information, rainfall and reservoir level evolution data have been reviewed in detail to incorporate into the monitoring interpretation. The analysis of the monitoring data and the new geological and geotechnical interpretation, supported by the use of limit equilibrium software Slide2, concludes that the movement follows the same direction as the schistosity of the phyllitic rock mass, coincident as well with the direction of the natural slope, indicating a deep-seated movement of the whole slope towards the reservoir. As part of these conclusions, the solutions considered to reinstate the highway infrastructure to the required FoS will be described, and the geomechanical characterization of these weak rocks discussed, together with the influence of water level variations, not only in the water pressure regime but in its geotechnical behavior, by the modification of the strength parameters and deformability.

Keywords: monitoring, rock slope stability, water drawdown, weak rock

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13 Groundwater Numerical Modeling, an Application of Remote Sensing, and GIS Techniques in South Darb El Arbaieen, Western Desert, Egypt

Authors: Abdallah M. Fayed


The study area is located in south Darb El Arbaieen, western desert of Egypt. It occupies the area between latitudes 22° 00/ and 22° 30/ North and Longitudes 29° 30/ and 30° 00/ East, from southern border of Egypt to the area north Bir Kuraiym and from the area East of East Owienat to the area west Tushka district, its area about 2750 Km2. The famous features; southern part of Darb El Arbaieen road, G Baraqat El Scab El Qarra, Bir Dibis, Bir El Shab and Bir Kuraiym, Interpretation of soil stratification shows layers that are related to Quaternary and Upper-Lower Cretaceous eras. It is dissected by a series of NE-SW striking faults. The regional groundwater flow direction is in SW-NE direction with a hydraulic gradient is 1m / 2km. Mathematical model program has been applied for evaluation of groundwater potentials in the main Aquifer –Nubian Sandstone- in the area of study and Remote sensing technique is considered powerful, accurate and saving time in this respect. These techniques are widely used for illustrating and analysis different phenomenon such as the new development in the desert (land reclamation), residential development (new communities), urbanization, etc. The major issues concerning water development objective of this work is to determine the new development areas in western desert of Egypt during the period from 2003 to 2015 using remote sensing technique, the impacts of the present and future development have been evaluated by using the two-dimensional numerical groundwater flow Simulation Package (visual modflow 4.2). The package was used to construct and calibrate a numerical model that can be used to simulate the response of the aquifer in the study area under implementing different management alternatives in the form of changes in piezometric levels and salinity. Total period of simulation is 100 years. After steady state calibration, two different scenarios are simulated for groundwater development. 21 production wells are installed at the study area and used in the model, with the total discharge for the two scenarios were 105000 m3/d, 210000 m3/d. The drawdown was 11.8 m and 23.7 m for the two scenarios in the end of 100 year. Contour maps for water heads and drawdown and hydrographs for piezometric head are represented. The drawdown was less than the half of the saturated thickness (the safe yield case).

Keywords: remote sensing, management of aquifer systems, simulation modeling, western desert, South Darb El Arbaieen

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12 Optimum Dewatering Network Design Using Firefly Optimization Algorithm

Authors: S. M. Javad Davoodi, Mojtaba Shourian


Groundwater table close to the ground surface causes major problems in construction and mining operation. One of the methods to control groundwater in such cases is using pumping wells. These pumping wells remove excess water from the site project and lower the water table to a desirable value. Although the efficiency of this method is acceptable, it needs high expenses to apply. It means even small improvement in a design of pumping wells can lead to substantial cost savings. In order to minimize the total cost in the method of pumping wells, a simulation-optimization approach is applied. The proposed model integrates MODFLOW as the simulation model with Firefly as the optimization algorithm. In fact, MODFLOW computes the drawdown due to pumping in an aquifer and the Firefly algorithm defines the optimum value of design parameters which are numbers, pumping rates and layout of the designing wells. The developed Firefly-MODFLOW model is applied to minimize the cost of the dewatering project for the ancient mosque of Kerman city in Iran. Repetitive runs of the Firefly-MODFLOW model indicates that drilling two wells with the total rate of pumping 5503 m3/day is the result of the minimization problem. Results show that implementing the proposed solution leads to at least 1.5 m drawdown in the aquifer beneath mosque region. Also, the subsidence due to groundwater depletion is less than 80 mm. Sensitivity analyses indicate that desirable groundwater depletion has an enormous impact on total cost of the project. Besides, in a hypothetical aquifer decreasing the hydraulic conductivity contributes to decrease in total water extraction for dewatering.

Keywords: groundwater dewatering, pumping wells, simulation-optimization, MODFLOW, firefly algorithm

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11 Development of Three-Dimensional Groundwater Model for Al-Corridor Well Field, Amman–Zarqa Basin

Authors: Moayyad Shawaqfah, Ibtehal Alqdah, Amjad Adaileh


Coridoor area (400 km2) lies to the north – east of Amman (60 km). It lies between 285-305 E longitude and 165-185 N latitude (according to Palestine Grid). It been subjected to exploitation of groundwater from new eleven wells since the 1999 with a total discharge of 11 MCM in addition to the previous discharge rate from the well field 14.7 MCM. Consequently, the aquifer balance is disturbed and a major decline in water level. Therefore, suitable groundwater resources management is required to overcome the problems of over pumping and its effect on groundwater quality. Three–dimensional groundwater flow model Processing Modeflow for Windows Pro (PMWIN PRO, 2003) has been used in order to calculate the groundwater budget, aquifer characteristics, and to predict the aquifer response under different stresses for the next 20 years (2035). The model was calibrated for steady state conditions by trial and error calibration. The calibration was performed by matching observed and calculated initial heads for year 2001. Drawdown data for period 2001-2010 were used to calibrate transient model by matching calculated with observed one, after that, the transient model was validated by using the drawdown data for the period 2011-2014. The hydraulic conductivities of the Basalt- A7/B2 aquifer System are ranging between 1.0 and 8.0 m/day. The low conductivity value was found at the north-west and south-western parts of the study area, the high conductivity value was found at north-western corner of the study area and the average storage coefficient is about 0.025. The water balance for the Basalt and B2/A7 formation at steady state condition with a discrepancy of 0.003%. The major inflows come from Jebal Al Arab through the basalt and through the limestone aquifer (B2/A7 12.28 MCMY aquifer and from excess rainfall is about 0.68 MCM/a. While the major outflows from the Basalt-B2/A7 aquifer system are toward Azraq basin with about 5.03 MCMY and leakage to A1/6 aquitard with 7.89 MCMY. Four scenarios have been performed to predict aquifer system responses under different conditions. Scenario no.2 was found to be the best one which indicates that the reduction the abstraction rates by 50% of current withdrawal rate (25.08 MCMY) to 12.54 MCMY. The maximum drawdowns were decreased to reach about, 7.67 and 8.38m in the years 2025 and 2035 respectively.

Keywords: Amman/Zarqa Basin, Jordan, groundwater management, groundwater modeling, modflow

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10 Designing a Socio-Technical System for Groundwater Resources Management, Applying Smart Energy and Water Meter

Authors: S. Mahdi Sadatmansouri, Maryam Khalili


World, nowadays, encounters serious water scarcity problem. During the past few years, by advent of Smart Energy and Water Meter (SEWM) and its installation at the electro-pumps of the water wells, one had believed that it could be the golden key to address the groundwater resources over-pumping issue. In fact, implementation of these Smart Meters managed to control the water table drawdown for short; but it was not a sustainable approach. SEWM has been considered as law enforcement facility at first; however, for solving a complex socioeconomic problem like shared groundwater resources management, more than just enforcement is required: participation to conserve common resources. The well owners or farmers, as water consumers, are the main and direct stakeholders of this system and other stakeholders could be government sectors, investors, technology providers, privet sectors or ordinary people. Designing a socio-technical system not only defines the role of each stakeholder but also can lubricate the communication to reach the system goals while benefits of each are considered and provided. Farmers, as the key participators for solving groundwater problem, do not trust governments but they would trust a fair system in which responsibilities, privileges and benefits are clear. Technology could help this system remained impartial and productive. Social aspects provide rules, regulations, social objects and etc. for the system and help it to be more human-centered. As the design methodology, Design Thinking provides probable solutions for the challenging problems and ongoing conflicts; it could enlighten the way in which the final system could be designed. Using Human Centered Design approach of IDEO helps to keep farmers in the center of the solution and provides a vision by which stakeholders’ requirements and needs are addressed effectively. Farmers would be considered to trust the system and participate in their groundwater resources management if they find the rules and tools of the system fair and effective. Besides, implementation of the socio-technical system could change farmers’ behavior in order that they concern more about their valuable shared water resources as well as their farm profit. This socio-technical system contains nine main subsystems: 1) Measurement and Monitoring system, 2) Legislation and Governmental system, 3) Information Sharing system, 4) Knowledge based NGOs, 5) Integrated Farm Management system (using IoT), 6) Water Market and Water Banking system, 7) Gamification, 8) Agribusiness ecosystem, 9) Investment system.

Keywords: human centered design, participatory management, smart energy and water meter (SEWM), social object, socio-technical system, water table drawdown

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9 Hydraulic Design of Proposed Ranney Well for Water Supply Scheme in Kurukshetra

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Baldev Setia


Water is essential for sustenance of life and the ecosystem. Among the various uses of water, the water required for drinking and domestics has the priority over other needs. Water that is required for human consumption must be available in sufficient quantity and should be of good quality. Keeping in view the futuristic needs of water of Kurukshetra town, a durable and cost-effective water supply system with the help of Ranney well has been proposed. This has been proposed on the premise that Brahmsarovar, the largest static water body in the state of Haryana provides sufficient recharge to the groundwater aquifer. In the study, a 30 year design period has been adopted and the water demand up to the year 2050 has been computed. The proposed Ranney well to be constructed in the vicinity of the Brahmsarovar will have a caisson of diameter of 12 m and will be laid at a depth of 30 m below MSL. The laterals, 20 in number, 300 mm in diameter and 15 m in length will be located in two layer separated by 1.5 m. the impact on environment because of the construction and working of the Ranney well is also studied and it has been found that there are no adverse impacts of the proposed scheme. However, the present study is limited to the hydraulics design of the scheme and does not address the structural design of components of Ranney well and the cost involved.

Keywords: drawdown, Ranney well, LPCD, MSL, transmissibility, storativity

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8 A Plan of Smart Management for Groundwater Resources

Authors: Jennifer Chen, Pei Y. Hsu, Yu W. Chen


Groundwater resources play a vital role in regional water supply because over 1/3 of total demand is satisfied by groundwater resources. Because over-pumpage might cause environmental impact such as land subsidence, a sustainable management of groundwater resource is required. In this study, a blueprint of smart management for groundwater resource is proposed and planned. The framework of the smart management can be divided into two major parts, hardware and software parts. First, an internet of groundwater (IoG) which is inspired by the internet of thing (IoT) is proposed to observe the migration of groundwater usage and the associated response, groundwater levels. Second, algorithms based on data mining and signal analysis are proposed to achieve the goal of providing highly efficient management of groundwater. The entire blueprint is a 4-year plan and this year is the first year. We have finished the installation of 50 flow meters and 17 observation wells. An underground hydrological model is proposed to determine the associated drawdown caused by the measured pumpages. Besides, an alternative to the flow meter is also proposed to decrease the installation cost of IoG. An accelerometer and 3G remote transmission are proposed to detect the on and off of groundwater pumpage.

Keywords: groundwater management, internet of groundwater, underground hydrological model, alternative of flow meter

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7 Design of Raw Water Reservoir on Sandy Soil

Authors: Venkata Ramana Pamu


This paper is a case study of a 5310 ML capacity Raw Water Reservoir (RWR), situated in Indian state Rajasthan, which is a part of Rajasthan Rural Water Supply & Fluorosis Mitigation Project. This RWR embankment was constructed by locally available material on natural ground profile. Height of the embankment was varying from 2m to 10m.This is due to existing ground level was varying. Reservoir depth 9m including 1.5m free board and 1V:3H slopes were provided both upstream and downstream side. Proper soil investigation, tests were done and it was confirmed that the existing soil is sandy silt. The existing excavated earth was used as filling material for embankment construction, due to this controlling seepage from upstream to downstream be a challenging task. Slope stability and Seismic analysis of the embankment done by Conventional method for both full reservoir condition and rapid drawdown. Horizontal filter at toe level was provided along with upstream side PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) block and HDPE (High Density poly ethylene) lining as a remedy to control seepage. HDPE lining was also provided at storage area of the reservoir bed level. Mulching was done for downstream side slope protection.

Keywords: raw water reservoir, seepage, seismic analysis, slope stability

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6 Distribution of Maximum Loss of Fractional Brownian Motion with Drift

Authors: Ceren Vardar Acar, Mine Caglar


In finance, the price of a volatile asset can be modeled using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with Hurst parameter H>1/2. The Black-Scholes model for the values of returns of an asset using fBm is given as, 〖Y_t=Y_0 e^((r+μ)t+σB)〗_t^H, 0≤t≤T where Y_0 is the initial value, r is constant interest rate, μ is constant drift and σ is constant diffusion coefficient of fBm, which is denoted by B_t^H where t≥0. Black-Scholes model can be constructed with some Markov processes such as Brownian motion. The advantage of modeling with fBm to Markov processes is its capability of exposing the dependence between returns. The real life data for a volatile asset display long-range dependence property. For this reason, using fBm is a more realistic model compared to Markov processes. Investors would be interested in any kind of information on the risk in order to manage it or hedge it. The maximum possible loss is one way to measure highest possible risk. Therefore, it is an important variable for investors. In our study, we give some theoretical bounds on the distribution of maximum possible loss of fBm. We provide both asymptotical and strong estimates for the tail probability of maximum loss of standard fBm and fBm with drift and diffusion coefficients. In the investment point of view, these results explain, how large values of possible loss behave and its bounds.

Keywords: maximum drawdown, maximum loss, fractional brownian motion, large deviation, Gaussian process

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5 Groundwater Flow Assessment Based on Numerical Simulation at Omdurman Area, Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Adil Balla Elkrail


Visual MODFLOW computer codes were selected to simulate head distribution, calculate the groundwater budgets of the area, and evaluate the effect of external stresses on the groundwater head and to demonstrate how the groundwater model can be used as a comparative technique in order to optimize utilization of the groundwater resource. A conceptual model of the study area, aquifer parameters, boundary, and initial conditions were used to simulate the flow model. The trial-and-error technique was used to calibrate the model. The most important criteria used to check the calibrated model were Root Mean Square error (RMS), Mean Absolute error (AM), Normalized Root Mean Square error (NRMS) and mass balance. The maps of the simulated heads elaborated acceptable model calibration compared to observed heads map. A time length of eight years and the observed heads of the year 2004 were used for model prediction. The predictive simulation showed that the continuation of pumping will cause relatively high changes in head distribution and components of groundwater budget whereas, the low deficit computed (7122 m3/d) between inflows and outflows cannot create a significant drawdown of the potentiometric level. Hence, the area under consideration may represent a high permeability and productive zone and strongly recommended for further groundwater development.

Keywords: aquifers, model simulation, groundwater, calibrations, trail-and- error, prediction

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4 Using Groundwater Modeling System to Create a 3-D Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model for a Semiarid Region: A Case Study of the Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem Aquifer, Central Tunisia

Authors: Emna Bahri Hammami, Zammouri Mounira, Tarhouni Jamila


The Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem (NSSA) system comprises some of the most intensively exploited aquifers in central Tunisia. Since the 1970s, the growth in economic productivity linked to intensive agriculture in this semiarid region has been sustained by increasing pumping rates of the system’s groundwater. Exploitation of these aquifers has increased rapidly, ultimately causing their depletion. With the aim to better understand the behavior of the aquifer system and to predict its evolution, the paper presents a finite difference model of the groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is based on the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) and was calibrated using data from 1970 to 2010. Groundwater levels observed in 1970 were used for the steady-state calibration. Groundwater levels observed from 1971 to 2010 served to calibrate the transient state. The impact of pumping discharge on the evolution of groundwater levels was studied through three hypothetical pumping scenarios. The first two scenarios replicated the approximate drawdown in the aquifer heads (about 17 m in scenario 1 and 23 m in scenario 2 in the center of NSSA) following an increase in pumping rates by 30% and 50% from their current values, respectively. In addition, pumping was stopped in the third scenario, which could increase groundwater reserves by about 7 Mm3/year. NSSA groundwater reserves could be improved considerably if the pumping rules were taken seriously.

Keywords: pumping, depletion, groundwater modeling system GMS, Nadhour Saouaf

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3 Affect of Reservoir Fluctuations on an Active Landslide in the Xiangjiaba Reservoir Area, Southwest China

Authors: Javed Iqbal


Filling of Xiangjiaba Reservoir Lake in Southwest China triggered and re-activated numerous landslides due to water fluctuation. In order to understand the relationship between reservoirs and slope instability, a typical reservoir landslide (Dasha landslide) at right bank of Jinsha River was selected as a case study for in-depth investigations. The detailed field investigations were carried out in order to identify the landslide with respect to its surroundings and to find out the slip-surface. Boreholes were drilled in order to find out the subsurface lithology and the depth of failure of Dasha landslide. The in-situ geotechnical tests were performed, and the soil samples from exposed slip surface were retrieved for geotechnical laboratory analysis. Finally, stability analysis was done using 3D strength reduction method under different conditions of reservoir water level fluctuations and rainfall conditions. The in-depth investigations show that the Dasha landslide is a bedding rockslide which was once activated in 1986. The topography of Dasha landslide is relatively flat, while the back scarp and local terrain are relatively steep. The landslide area is about 29 × 104 m², and the maximum thickness of the landslide deposits revealed by drilling is about 40 m with the average thickness being about 20 m, and the volume is thus estimated being about 580 × 10⁴ m³. Bedrock in the landslide area is composed of Suining Formation of Jurassic age. The main rock type is silty mudstone with sandstone, and bedding orientation is 300~310° ∠ 7~22°. The factor of safety (FOS) of Dasha landslide obtained by 3D strength reduction cannot meet the minimum safety requirement under the working condition of reservoir level fluctuation as designed, with effect of rainfall and rapid drawdown.

Keywords: Dasha landslide, Xiangjiaba reservoir, strength reduction method, bedding rockslide

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2 Exceptional Cost and Time Optimization with Successful Leak Repair and Restoration of Oil Production: West Kuwait Case Study

Authors: Nasser Al-Azmi, Al-Sabea Salem, Abu-Eida Abdullah, Milan Patra, Mohamed Elyas, Daniel Freile, Larisa Tagarieva


Well intervention was done along with Production Logging Tools (PLT) to detect sources of water, and to check well integrity for two West Kuwait oil wells started to produce 100 % water. For the first well, to detect the source of water, PLT was performed to check the perforations, no production observed from the bottom two perforation intervals, and an intake of water was observed from the top most perforation. Then a decision was taken to extend the PLT survey from tag depth to the Y-tool. For the second well, the aim was to detect the source of water and if there was a leak in the 7’’liner in front of the upper zones. Data could not be recorded in flowing conditions due to the casing deformation at almost 8300 ft. For the first well from the interpretation of PLT and well integrity data, there was a hole in the 9 5/8'' casing from 8468 ft to 8494 ft producing almost the majority of water, which is 2478 bbl/d. The upper perforation from 10812 ft to 10854 ft was taking 534 stb/d. For the second well, there was a hole in the 7’’liner from 8303 ft MD to 8324 ft MD producing 8334.0 stb/d of water with an intake zone from10322.9-10380.8 ft MD taking the whole fluid. To restore the oil production, W/O rig was mobilized to prevent dump flooding, and during the W/O, the leaking interval was confirmed for both wells. The leakage was cement squeezed and tested at 900-psi positive pressure and 500-psi drawdown pressure. The cement squeeze job was successful. After W/O, the wells kept producing for cleaning, and eventually, the WC reduced to 0%. Regular PLT and well integrity logs are required to study well performance, and well integrity issues, proper cement behind casing is essential to well longevity and well integrity, and the presence of the Y-tool is essential as monitoring of well parameters and ESP to facilitate well intervention tasks. Cost and time optimization in oil and gas and especially during rig operations is crucial. PLT data quality and the accuracy of the interpretations contributed a lot to identify the leakage interval accurately and, in turn, saved a lot of time and reduced the repair cost with almost 35 to 45 %. The added value here was more related to the cost reduction and effective and quick proper decision making based on the economic environment.

Keywords: leak, water shut-off, cement, water leak

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1 Geotechnical Evaluation and Sizing of the Reinforcement Layer on Soft Soil in the Construction of the North Triage Road Clover, in Brasilia Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Rideci Farias, Haroldo Paranhos, Joyce Silva, Elson Almeida, Hellen Silva, Lucas Silva


The constant growth of the fleet of vehicles in the big cities, makes that the Engineering is dynamic, with respect to the new solutions for traffic flow in general. In the Federal District (DF), Brazil, it is no different. The city of Brasilia, Capital of Brazil, and Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, is projected to 500 thousand inhabitants, and today circulates more than 3 million people in the city, and with a fleet of more than one vehicle for every two inhabitants. The growth of the city to the North region, made that the urban planning presented solutions for the fleet in constant growth. In this context, a complex of viaducts, road accesses, creation of new rolling roads and duplication of the Bragueto bridge over Paranoa lake in the northern part of the city was designed, giving access to the BR-020 highway, denominated Clover of North Triage (TTN). In the geopedological context, the region is composed of hydromorphic soils, with the presence of the water level at some times of the year. From the geotechnical point of view, are soils with SPT < 4 and Resistance not drained, Su < 50 kPa. According to urban planning in Brasília, special art works can not rise in the urban landscape, contrasting with the urban characteristics of the architects Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer. Architects hired to design the new Capital of Brazil. The urban criterion then created the technical impasse, resulting in the technical need to ‘bury’ the works of art and in turn the access greenhouses at different levels, in regions of low support soil and water level Outcrossing, generally inducing the need for this study and design. For the adoption of the appropriate solution, Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Vane Test, Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) and auger boring campaigns were carried out. With the comparison of the results of these tests, the profiles of resistance of the soils and water levels were created in the studied sections. Geometric factors such as existing sidewalks and lack of elevation for the discharge of deep drainage water have inhibited traditional techniques for total removal of soft soils, thus avoiding the use of temporary drawdown and shoring of excavations. Thus, a structural layer was designed to reinforce the subgrade by means of the ‘needling’ of the soft soil, without the need for longitudinal drains. In this context, the article presents the geological and geotechnical studies carried out, but also the dimensioning of the reinforcement layer on the soft soil with a view to the main objective of this solution that is to allow the execution of the civil works without the interference in the roads in use, Execution of services in rainy periods, presentation of solution compatible with drainage characteristics and soft soil reinforcement.

Keywords: layer, reinforcement, soft soil, clover of north triage

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